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Full text of "The Connecticut magazine"

GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



.ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01738 9088 



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1904 



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Edited by Francis Trevelyan Miller 



NUMBER 111 



VOLUME VIII 



An Illustrated Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of 
History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. Published 
in four books to the annual volume. Following is a list of contents in this 
edition, lavishly illustrated and ably written. Issued from press March 15, 1904. 



Aft Cover— By Niagara Paper Mills, Lockport, N. Y. .... Indian Memorial 

Foreword — The Indian Chieftain's Farewell 410 

The Passing of the Redman Herbert randall 411 

Last Live Chapter in American History 426 

Two Miniatures by Trumbull. 

The First American : The Indian sara thoxMson kinney 427 

Six Illustrations President Connecticut Indian Association 

The Happy Hunting Ground . - • 434 

The Redman's Laughing Water 
The Running Brook was an Indian God 
Civilization made Thrifty the Fields 
The Hand of the White Man Despoils 
Heron Fished on the Banks of the River 
Paths Led thro' the Forest 

Six Illustrations by W. Massey and K. T. Sheldon 

The Aborigine— A Quatrain 441 

The Dwellers: A Story of a Great Race joel n. eno, a.m. 441 

From Barbarism to Christianity ellen d. larned 444 

Aboriginal Media for Expressing Artistic Impulses . • . neltjedk g. doubleday 446 

Interpretation of Life into Song Florence may abbe 448 

Quality of Loyalty in Character Alice m. pinney 450 

The Last of the Niantics mrs. charles h. smith 455 

Fostering the Habit of Industry t. s. gold 452 

The Broadening Influences in American Education . . c. h. smith, ll.d. 457 

Nineteen Illustrations Larned Professor American History, Yale University 

In the Courts of the Kings ellen bessie atwater 475 

Fellow in History University of Chicago 
The Song of the Ship louis ransom 483 

Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mall matter of the second class. 



Corporation Under Presidency of Georg^e V. Smith 
NUMBER III VOLUME Vlil 

Publication dates for 1904 are herewith accurately announced: — Book IV, 
Volume VIII, Old Dutch number, issued June 15 — Book I, Volume IX, Puri- 
tan number, issued Sept. 15— Book II, Volume IX, Contemporary American- 
ism, issued December 15. This edition compiled and produced by The Con- 
necticut Magazine Company in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford, 
Connecticut, on 15th day of March, 1904. 



The Birthplace of American Democracy mrs. john Marshall Hoi.coMhK 469 

Fourteen Illustrations Board Lady Managers St. Louis Exposition 

The Evangelization of the World h. clay trumbull L.T.I). 505 

Trailing Arbutus— Poem Reprint from rosk terry cooke 511 

The Ballad of the Tide j. h. gubrnsrv 51a 

Government Founded on the Will of the People arlon taylor adams 5 1 3 

Indian Names— Poem Reprint from lydia sigournky s^o 

The Governors of Connecticut Frederick calvin Norton 521 

Portraits Reproduced by Ranuai-l 

Springtime— A Sonnet klizabkth curtis brknto.n 526 

Artificial Illumination as a Factor in Civilization ... c. a. quincy norton 52^ 

Eleven Illustrations Correspondent Mulional Museum at Washmgtou 

Studies in Ancestry-Genealogical Department . Edited by charlks l. n. camp 543 

Monument to the American Indian ^^^ 

^*rm Going* O my People '^ . • • • Reprint from henry nv. longkrulou 55a 

Marvelwood— An Estate of Primitive Forests .... okorgi >. . smith 553 

Illustrations from Photographs 

Winsted-The Development of an Ideal Town .... roi.ert s. uuLBERr 506 

Illustrations by T. M. V. Doughty. F. H. DeMAus. K. T. Sheldon and others 

Winsted-Industrial and Financial kdnvard hailey .AroN 59: 

Illustrations from Drawings and Photographs 

The Reconstruction of "Waterbury 

Illustrations from Photographs 

^/ o . f Kir « T» «1J' KONVIN F. RING t^l 

The Science of Modern Buildmg 

Illustrations from Photographs 



SUBSCRIPTION $2.00 A VOLUME. SINBLE NUMBERS 50 CENTS. 

Addrew all communicatlous and mamucript to the Couuectlcut Mafiaiino Company, n.rtfonl. com. 
Copyright 1904-By The Conneotlcnt Mftja/lne t onipauy 



Incorporated under the Laws of the State of Connecticut forthe purpose of collecting in per- 
manent form the various phases of History, Literature, Art Science, Genius, Industry and all 
that pertains to the maintenance of the honorable record which this State has attained-for 
this commendable purpose the undersigned are associated as members of the reorganized 
Connecticut Magazine Company, inviting the co-operation of the home patriotic. 

GEORGE V. SMITH, President HERBERT RANDALL, Treasurer 

FRANCIS T. MILLER, Secretary 

EDWARD B. EATON, Member Board of Directors and Field Manager 

EDWIN E. RING, Advertising Representative 



George P. McLean, ex-Governor of Connecticut ; Prof. Henry W. Farnam, Yale Univer- 
sity; George S. Godard, State Librarian; William B. Clark, president ^tna Insurance Co.; 
Jacob L. Greene, president Conn. Mutual Life Insurance Co. ; Edwin S. Greeley, vice-presi- 
dent Yale National Bank ; Chas. A. Jewell, treasurer Jewell Belting Co. ; Hon. Chas. M. 
Jarvis, vice-president P. & F. Corbin Co. ; Judge Lynde Harrison, formerly president New 
Haven Colony Historical Society; Rev. Samuel Hart, president Connecticut Historical 
Society ; Albert C. Bates, Librarian, Connecticut Historical Society ; James Nichols, president 
National Fire Insurance Co. ; Atwood Collins, president Security Co. ; John M. Holcomb, vice- 
president, Phoenix Mutual Life Ins. Co. ; William H. Watrous, manager S. L. & G. H. Rogers 
Co.; Hon. Frederick A. Betts, former Insurance Commissioner ; Dr. Gurdon W, Russell, Park 
Commissioner ; Henry T. Blake, president Park Commissioners, New Haven; John G. Root, 
ex-Mayor of Hartford; Daniel R. Howe, sec'y andtreas. Hartford Street Railway Co. ; Frank 
C. Summer, sec'y and treas. Hartford Trust Co. ; Francis H. Richards, Patent Attorney; Car- 
not O. Spencer, School Fund Commissioner; Hon. Henry Roberts, Lieut. -Governor of Conn. ; 
Joseph G. Woodward, historian Conn. Soc. Sons of Am. Rev. ; Judge Dwight Loomis, ex- 
Associate Judge Supreme Court of Errors ; Rev. Francis Goodwin, Park Commissioner, Hart- 
ford Commissioner of Sculpture; Mary Elizabeth Wright Smith, vice president at large, 
Connecticut Woman's Suffrage Association; Mrs. Samuel Colt, president Connecticut Branch 
Woman's Auxiliary Board of Missions; James J. Goodwin, vice-president Conn. Historical 
Society; Lewis E. Stanton, president, Hartford Bar Library Association; Estate Henry C. 
Robinson, John T. Robinson and Henry S. Robinson; Joseph H. King, president American 
National Bank ; Dwight C. Kilbourn, clerk of courts, Litchfield Couniy; Eli Whitney, presi 
dent New Haven Water Co. ; P. Henry Woodward, former secretary Hartford Board of 
Trade; Francis R. Cooley, banker; Appleton R. Hillyer, vice-president JEtna. National Bank; 
Samuel E. Elmore, president Connecticut River Banking Co. ; Thomas J. Boardman, presi- 
dent Wm. Boardman & Sons Co. ; William Newnham Carlton, librarian Trinity College ; Judge 
Edwin B. Gager, Judge of the Superior Court; Theodore Lyman, Attorney at Law; Kate E. 
Griswold, publisher Profitable Advertising; Richard O. Cheney, vice-president State Board 
of Trade; Henry S. Goslee, Attorney at Law; Ernest B. Ellsworth, Attorney at Law; William 
H. Richmond, B. M. Des Jardins, H. Phelps Arms, Charles W. Frey, Mrs. Josephine E. S. 
Porter, Herbert Randall, Mrs. C. R. Forrest, Hon. Stephen Walkley, Mrs. Henry F. Dimock, 
Edwin Stanley Welles, Charles E. Thompson, Franklin Clark, Mary B. Brainard, Mrs. Frank- 
lin Parrel, Francis Trevelyan Miller, Edward B. Eaton, Hon. Stiles Judson, Jr., Mrs. 
Antoinette Eno Wood, Dr. Henry Putnam Stearns, Rev. Lewis W. Hicks, Edwin Cone Hunt, 
A. H. Randell, Dr. Charles C. Beach, William F. J. Boardman, Howard C. Buck, Daniel D. 
Bidwell, The Smith-Linsley Co. 



VOLUME vra rp i number 3 

CONNECTICUT 
MAGAZINE 

EDITED BY FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER 




®tj[f f f quot OIt|tfftatn 31^ar?mtU 



HE Great Spirit who has left 
the print of His foot upon the 
rocks of the Narrhaganset has 
frowned upon our race. There 
did I find the White Man many 
moons ago, faint and ready 
to die. I gave him food and took him to my 
wigwam ; he gave me firewater in return. I drank 
aad became a fool. Hunting ground after hunting 
ground passes from me. I said my white brothers 
are few ; they want land ; there is more than my 
people need — let them have it. But, lo! they 
increased like a swarm of bees. The mountain, 
valley and river's brink teemed with them; the 
graves of the great Sagamores felt their plough- 
iroaus. The Great Spirit turned from His children. 
To-day they are mighty; my people are few and 
weak. Our white brothers cannot spare them a 
comer of their possessions. Our homes hereafter 
must be in the land of strangers. Let us quick 
be gone. 1 have spoken. 

From a. Book of Old Tai<bs 




Tlh© Psismi ©f tfin© E,©d! Ms^ia 



IH[©irIb®jr4 Es^iniddlE 

j CROSS the globe, from east to west he goes — 
The white-man, armed with his relentless will ; 
The ocean's wrath, the desert's heat he knows 
But as incentives, bidding him fulfil 
The destiny of conquest, which for him 
Was meted out ere yet the world began, 

The consciousness of which knows not defeat, 

And only names as king, ^' the man who can. " 

From ashes of his camp-fire ever rise 

The bulwarks of a state, whose laws, once laid, 

Ensure to each the liberty of all. 

Their happiness pursuing unafraid. 

But what of them — the aborigines — 

Who claim as theirs the soil for which he strives? 

The weaker, dark-skinned foes who fall. 

As on the pale-faced column drives? 

Down, down they go! and might doth seem the right; 

But fi'om the field of carnage upward springs 

That brother-love of man for fellow-man. 

Which everywhere an age of progress brings. 



THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



ESCENDANTS of that little Pilgrim band 
Who cleared this home-land soil beneath 

our feet — 
Ye sons and daughters proud to be the heirs 
Of lives heroic, with great deeds replete, 
I bring to you the song we owe to him 
Who fell, the conquered, in uneven fight — 
The Red-man, who once loved as we this land 
And called it his by undisputed right. 





THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



'LUMBROUS autumn dreamed and shimmered 
On the shores of Umpame Ba\ ; 
And the fields were all a-murmur, 
As our autimin fields to-day. 
Massasoyet called his warriors 
To the Dance and Harvest- feast ; 

All the night with light was golden 

When the moon came up the east. 

Twas a night of praise to Kiehtan; 

All the trouble-gods were still ; 

Though the bloody trophies flourished, 

AH betokened peace, good will. 

Round the fires where wreathed the incense 

Of the sacred uppowock, 

Silently, in solemn conclave. 

Sat the grim expectant flock. 

Then he 'rose— the chief of battles ! 

Moulded like a Titan he ; 

Grave, determined, unrelenting. 

Built to fight with destiny. 

He was robed in wondrous garments, 

Ponderous, with shining things, 

Gk)ld nor purple, yet his glory 

Vied with that of orient kings. 



THE PASSING OF THE KED MAN 



ARMS upraised, he broke the stillness, 
Moved as by an inward fire ; 
Deeds triumphal he recounted, 
Deeds of vengeance, dark and dire. 
With his nostrils wide extended. 
Deaths of comrades he portrayed ; 
As a great storm wracks the forest, 
So his warriors bent and swayed. 
Then, with piercing eyes uplifted 
To the harvest-moon, he said — 
Father of the Wampanoags, 
Of the living and the dead. 
Of the wilderness and waters. 
And the moon of falling leaves, 
Keesuckquand and Kautantowwit, 
Of the honck and harvest-sheaves — 
Hear the sachim, Massasoyet — 
Him who wears the eagle- wing ; 
Thou didst clothe the naked branches 
With the leaves in early spring ; 
Thou didst quell the god of thunder 
When the bloom was on the bough ; 
Stayed the anger of the whirlwind 
By Thy mighty arm, and now 
Earth is teeming with Thy bounty. 



THE PASSING OF THE RFA) MAN 



THOU hast whispered to the sea, 

Bidding it yield up its treasures ; 

Thou hast set the rivers free 

From the vales of Winnetuxet 

To the hills 'neath Shawmut skies; 

From the shores of Coonemosset, 

Far as where wunnaquit lies. 

From the glades of Pokanoket 

To the borders of the snow, 

Thou hast, by the dews of morning, 

Nursed the corn and uppowoe. 

Thou hast spoken to Yotaanit — 

He, the Red-man's god of flame. 

He the stone and flint hath quickened, 

Atauskawa Thy name! 

'Tis Thy finger guides the lightning; 

'Twas Thy wisdom forged its birth; 
When from Norland flies Sunnadin, 
On his raven wings to earth, 
When he whips the waves to whiteness, 
And the dolphins plunge in glee, 

' *Ne-top-ki-ki-ta I ' • Thou say est — 

'Hearken, hearken, unto me!'' 
Thou didst plant the cowaw-esuck. 
When for us the world was born ; 
Thou didst make the ounce and ausup, 
Bade the kou-kont bring us corn. 



THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



'TWAS Thy hand that fringed the waters 
With these wampum gems we wear ; 
Poised the sea-gull and the gos-hawk 
On the bosom of the air. 
Thou didst free the ko-ko-ko-ho, 
And the whip-poor-will to sing 
Ifi the dusk-fields spread above us; 
Thou didst charm the eagle's wing. 
Father of the wequinneauquat, 
Sokenun and sochepo ; 
Of the god-land — Sowininin, 
AVhere the souls of good-men go — 
Thou hast hung the star Mishannock, 
And Paukunnawwaw in space, 

' Mong the flying clouds, and lit them 
With the brightness of Thy face — 
This, the home-land of the Red-man, 
He has pitched his bivouac here, 

'Mong the shack-nuts and the wood-gail, 
AVith the rattlesnake and deer. 
Hear the voice of Massasoyet — 
Him who wears the eagle wing, 
(xive his gallant waskeeneesuck 
Strength the arrow's bow to spring- 
He has forced the Pawkunnawkutts 
From Nemasket and Nauset; 



THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



MET the Tarrantine, 'Hanada; 
Wept for Nanepashemet ! 
He has driven Wittawamet 
From the ponds of Wininquag ; 
Marked him with the battle-talon 
Of the wompsacuckquauog ! 
Father, Spirit of Nacommo, 
We are hid from Thee in shame 
Be not angry, for we love Thee, 
Atauskawa Thy name ! 
Atauskawa, the Mighty! 
Leave us not alone, we pray ; 
Speak Thou to the Manitto-wock — 
Them Thy Sachim-mauog-and say, 

*'Massasoyet seeks their favor. 
With the pipe-of-peace, to-night, 
In the name of golden- waters, 
And the calm Munnannock's light. 
Atauskawa, Great Spirit 
Of the moon of falling leaves, 
When the growing dark above us. 
With the grieving night- wind weaves 

'Round our sleep the robe to hide us. 
And to hush these earthly sounds. 



THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



LEAD us safely, as Thy children, 

To the Happy Hunting Grounds. 

Now the chieftain, Massasoyet, 

Sternly utters his commands ; 

Wearied then, as after battle. 

Hides his face in both his hands ; 

While the weirdly painted figures, 

Swinging to the tom-tom dins, 

Seem Uke banished ghosts of Hades, 

As the Harvest-Dance begins. 

Faster! faster! wilder! wilder! 

Staggering, they blindly wheel 

To the crazy incantations 

Of their naked midnight reel. 

Dust, and blood-stained, dumb with frenay. 

Dropping, dropping, one and one, 

So the lurid phantoms vanish. 

And the Harvest-Dance is done. 




THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



OW, along the wide Atlantic, 
Winter blows his frigid breath ; 
Oak and pine-tree chant a requiem 
Of oblivion and death. 
Morning kindles m the grayness ; 
Gilds the breakers, edge to edge ; 

Burnishes the Saquish Headlands, 

Pulpit Rock and Minot's Ledge. 

When, behold! a fateful object! 

On the mist a phantom lies, 

Melancholy and disabled, 

Shuddering against the skies. 

'Tis the Pilgrim-ship — the Mayflower, 

Rocking in the ocean brash. 

Seeking refuge in a haven 

Safe from stormy Neptune's lash. 

Massasoyet, in his wigwam 

Knowing neither want nor care, 

(Less, perchance, he may have grumbled 

At the fashion of his hair,) 

Busy with his beads and arrows, 

Hums a low-keyed battle-song, 

Which the kettle on the embers, 

Like a gittem wafts along. 



THE PASSING OP^ THE RED MAN 



NOW lie dons his traps and gorgets 
Puts the mystic wing in place, 
Slings his bow across his shoulders, 
Oils the crimson on his face. 
Brave and eager as Achilles; 
Swift as Mercury to run ; 
Powerful as Agamemnon, 
Forth he goes to meet the sun. 
Hark ! the cracking of a musket ! 
On the frosty air it dies ; 
Like a thunder- bolt engendered 
From the overburdened skies. 
On the ear of Massasoyet 
Fell the doom-foreboding sound ; 
When he saw the flash behind it, 
Saw the smoke rise from the ground. 
Saw the pale face glaring at him, 
Through the branches of a bole. 
Glaring like a hungry vulture. 
Sent to prey upon his soul, 
Gathered in his eyes the wonder, 
Something stirred him yet unknown, 
Stood he like the ghost of Phineus, 
'Fore the Gorgon, turned to stone. 



THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



**Mehtukmechakick ! " he whispered, 

Underneath his bated breath, 
*'Mehtuk-meeh-a-kiek! who made you, 

With those cold blue hps of death? 

Mauehauhomwock hath sent you, 

They, the terrible, the pale. 

Wahonowin! wahonowin! 

Death is on the Red-man's trail!" 



|LL is changed; a deepening shadow 

Greys the wide horizon's rim ; 
*'The Great Spirit hath forgotten! " 

Vain the warrior's call to him ! 

As the psalm-book and the musket. 

Clutched within the White-man's hand, 
Slowly forge their trail of conquest 
Through the helpless Red-man's land. 
Night by night the tragic language 
Bums its message on the sky — 
'Terror, death and desolation!" 
As the signal- arrows fly. 
As in might of sword and sandal 
Theseus wrestled but to slay, 
So the chariot of triumph 
Onward, onward, makes its way. 





THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



I ANQUISHED ! hushed the sounds of wirfare I 
In their stead the plaintive strain 
Of the pine-tree through the forest. 
Sobbing for its lover, slain. 
Night by night we hear the music 
Of the sea along the shore, 

Like a sleepless mourner, sighing, 

'Never, never, nevermore." 

But, behold! what beauty riseth 

From the ashes of those years! 

O, the great transfiguration, 

Bom of sacrifice and tears! 

'Fore the ringing axe, the monarchs 

Of the solemn forests die; 

And the night-bird leaves his temple 

To the blue- wake of the sky; 

Through the clearing in the cedars, 

Hurrying commerce spreads her wings; 

Back the great door of the future 

On its golden-hinges swings; 

Driven from his mountain eyry, 

Lo! the eagle now we see, 

Fate-ordained, to guard a nation's 

Shrine of sacred Liberty. 

Breaks the busy hum of progress, 

Lol the song of loom and wheel, 

Joyous as the shower and sunshine, 

Mingling with the clicking reel. 



THE PASSING OF THE RED MAX 



SWEETER than the lute of Orpheus 
"^VTien he waked the woods at dawn, 
Comes the tinkle of the school-bell. 
And the children's laugh at mom. 
Now we hear a milk-maid singing 
Down the meadow's blooming way; 
Hear the scythe and sickle ringing, 
Heralding the break of day. 
As the ploughshare turns the furrow, 
Deep it buries underneath. 
Knife and hatchet, lance and spear-point, 
Glistening like a serpent's teeth. 
Far away a tumbling mill-wheel. 
Wreathed in rainbows, wakes the streams, 
Saying, *'come ye forth to labor, 
From your leafy home of dreams!" 
Where the wilderness was thickest, 
And the wild-cat used to rove, 
Lo! we hear a church-bell calling, 
Calling, calling, '*God is Love!" 



THE PASSING OF THE RED MAN 



THIS the land of milk and honey, 

And its aisles with thyme are sweet; 

E'en its rocks are veined with silver; 

Garlands grow beneath our feet. 

But the foot-print of the Red-man 

Is about us everywhere, 

Though no sculptured marble tells us 

That he slumbers here or there. 

Dead! and not a flag to flutter! 

Wreath nor mourner, flower nor pall; 

Nothing but eternal silence; 

Dust to dust, and that is all! 

Let us then, in due remembrance. 

As a recompense for debt, 

Twine the arbutus above him. 

Lest a busy world forget. 

Freshly gathered from the hillsides 

Of his loved New England wood, 

May it be the bond, the token. 

Of immortal brotherhood! 

Let it be the gift of friendship, 

All his frailties we forgive, 

E'en as One forgives our frailties 

Who hath taught us how to live. 



GLOSSARY 

a»sup— racoon. Atauskawa — Lord, cowawesuck— white-pine, honck— 
goose, koukont — crow. Kiehtan— God. kokokoho— owl. Keesuckquand— 
sun. Kantantowwit— Great South-west god. Mishannock— morning-star. 
Manittowock — The gods. Munnannock — moon. Mehtukmechakick — 
Pabled man-eaters. Mauchauhomwock— the dead. Nocommo— Harvest- 
feast. Nemasket—Middleboro'. Netopkikita— Harken unto me. Paukun- 
•awwaw— The constellation of the Great Bear. Sunnadin— The North- 
wind, sachim-mauog— kings, sokenun— rain, sochepo— snow. Sowiniiiiii 
-The South-west, uppowock— tobacco. Umparae— Plymouth, uppowoe 
—tobacco. Wininquag— Carver. Wunnauquit— The Evening-star was- 
keeneesuck — youths, wequinneauquat — fair weather, wampsacucka- 
quauog— eagle. Wahonowin— a lamentation. Winnetuxet— Plympton. 
Yotaanit— The fire-god. 



Read by the author at the 
'Old Home Week" celebration 
at Carver (formerly a part of 
Plymouth), Mass., July 29, 1903. 




c 



be first JImerican 




GOOD^PETER A CHIEF OF THE SIX YOUNG SACHEM CHIEF OF THE SIX 

NATIONS, 1792 NATIONS, 1792 

From paintings by Trumbull in the Yale School of Fine Arts 



THE LAST LIVE CHAPTER IN EARLY 
AMERICAN HISTORY 



THE last live chapter of the 
red man in American history 
is to be read by millions of 
pale faces at the Universal 
Exposition. Eagle-plumed and war- 
painted chieftains, who have inch by 
inch disputed the pathway of the 
pioneer, will be assembled there for 
the solemn pageant of a dying race. 
From a precipitous bluff overlooking 
the World's Fair, one time part of 
the Land of the Manitou, remnants 
of the tribes will gaze over the 
peaceful triumphs of the Fair God 
and his chosen people. 

With the stern realization that he 
has been conquered, the savage is 
being fast fused by marriage and 
custom into a dominant race, so that 
this meeting of warriors becomes 
probably the last opportunity for the 



world to behold the primitive Indian. 
Justice and magnanimity have 
prompted the Indian Bureau of th^e 
government to spend S/SyOoo in 
depicting the real life of the first 
American. 

Still smouldering fires in the fierce 
eyes of Geronimo will flash upon his 
conquerors. Prisoner of war on pa- 
role, the most famous of Apaches, 
who defied for years the army of the 
United States, will acknowledge him- 
self to his visitors as a member of 
the Methodist church. The cold 
disdain of Joseph, septugenarian 
chief of the Nez Perces, still reveals 
the iron will, before which even the 
victor bows with respect. 

Not one in this roll-call of the red 
race will answer for the redoubted 
chiefs and nobler vanquished types. 



THE FIRST AMERICAN; THE INDIAN 

DRIVEN BACK BY CIVILIZATION - HIS HOMELAND .'OMMON 
LAND FOR PEOPLES OF THE EARTH -FRONT DOOR OF 
UNITED STATES WIDE OPEN. BUT FRANCHISE DENIED FIRST 
SETTLERS OF CONTINENT — INDIAN PROBLEM OF TODAV 



BY 



SARA THOMSON KINNEY 




w 



As president of the Connecticut Indian Association 
for more than twenty years, and as a practical investi- 
gator from time to time of reservation life in the far 
West, the author of this article has had unusual 
opportunities for a careful study of the Indian prob- 
lem. In an executive capacity she has done much 
towards securins: legislative action for their improvc- 
,•% ment, and has been given hearings on the subject in 
Washington. Mrs. Kinney has been a leader in the 
movement to better the conditions of the few remain- 
ing red men, and writes from practical experience acd 
personal observations. The illustiations in the article are by courtesy of CharUs 
S. Fee, from his booklet entitled " Wonderland," which treats entertainingly 
of Indian tribes along the route of the Northern Pacific Railway. — Editor 



THE request for a mag-azine ar- 
ticle briefly outlining the past, 
present, and (probable) future 
status of the Indian race in 
this country, and the attitude of the 
United States government towards 
this people, somewhat parallels that 
of the society woman who was seated 
at dinner next to the philosopher, 
and turning to him between two 
courses, said, with an arch smile: 
''They tell me that you have evolved 
a new theory of the universe. Please 
give it to me in two words." 

Although no new theory has been 
evolved, at least five or six words 
may be necessary in order to state in 
the briefest possible manner that by 



the thoughtful people of this coun- 
try the attitude of our government 
toward the North American Indian 
is held responsible for tlie century of 
dishonor which has been such a blot 
upon the good name of this fair land. 
Until within a few years the status 
of the red man was, and most natu- 
rally so, about as bad as it could be. 

The present attitude of our gov- 
ernment toward the Indian is more 
reasonable, and therefore far more 
satisfactory than it was in years gone 
by, and, of course, his condition has 
correspondingly improved and is 
more hopeful of good results. 

As for his future. — so largely does 
it depend upon politics that even 




THE FIRST AMERICAN ; THE INDIAN 



^, 



though endowed with the 
heavenly gift of proph- 
ecy, one might well hes- 
itate to exercise it in 
' connection with the fu- 
ture of the red race in 
this country. There 
seems, however, 
to be no good and 
valid reason for as- 
suming that this 
race is not wholly capable of 
intellectual and moral develop- 
ment, and quite able, with pro- 
per training, to take and to hold 
its rightful place in our body 
politic. To be sure, the lack of 
proper political training, or the 
absence of decent morals or a 
fair amount of intellect is not 
regarded as a bar to the admis- 

Ision into this same body politic 
of members of our own or of 
other races. The Goddess of 
Liberty sits up aloft on her Bedloe's 
Island pedestal, and beckons to all 
creation across the sea. The front 
door of the United States is wide 
open; the freedom of the country 
and the gift of suffrage is thrust upon 
all comers save the Chinese, — and 
the original land owners of the North 
American continent. At best, con- 
sistency is a rare jewel, and if it can 
anywhere be discovered in connec- 
tion with our past dealings with In- 
dians, it is certain to be found 
marred with almost unbelievable 
flaws. 

The Indian problem of today, even, 
is not one of absorbing interest to the 
average citizen of the United States. 
From different standpoints certain 
classes of people are interested in the 
question. To ethnologists the Indian 



is a *' type " to be studied. That he 
is, or is not, a soulless being is a 
mooted question, the belief in the 
affirmative depending largely on the 
religious training of the individual 
ethnologist. But the size and shape 
of the skull which is dug out of pre- 
historic mounds is of almost as great 
importance to the ethnologist as it 
was to the Indian who once owned it, 
and broadly speaking, the scientist's 
interest in the Indian is usually con- 
fined to his own, or similar collections 
of (very literal) "numb-skulls." 

The politician has no particular use 
for ' * Lo I the poor Indian ! " If there 
were ten million "Lo's" in the Uni- 
ted States, their votes would be worth 
something, and the question of their 
civilization and education would be- 
come paramount in certain quarters 
where it is now ignored. A total of 
(approximately) 265,000 Indians, — 
men, women, and children,— cannot, 
of course, make any material differ- 
ence in the complexion of the coun- 
try's politics, and this very apparent 
fact leads to the shoo-fly attitude 
toward them of the average politi- 
cian. The persons who are brought 
more closely in contact with Indians 
than perhaps is possible for any other 
class, — and who are therefore in a 
position to do much toward the mak- 
ing or marring of the race, — are the 
men who hold official relations with 
them, the men who deal with them 
business-wise, — who handle their 
funds, who play the leech and suck 
the life blood from their victims. 
But all officials are not of this perni- 
cious class, — very far from it in fact. 
Nevertheless, there are, or have been, 
enough of them to create a system, 
and it is a system which smothers the 



THE FIRST AMERICAN ; THE INDIAN 



429 



ambition, mars the morals, and kills 
the self-respect of all who come under 
its influence, — red and white alike. 
Until the Indian Bureau can be lifted 
bodily out of politics, or be dispensed 
with altogether, there can be little 
hope of a radical betterment in the 
condition of the Indian race. The 
Indian Bureau itvself is a victim of 
the corrupt system to which reference 
is made, for it is practically helpless 
to right wrongs so long as bad ap- 
pointments may be made in payment 
of political debts. Some years ago, 
during a conversation on this subject 
with the then President of the United 
States, an interesting comment on 
the situation was made by him to the 
writer of this paper. Without at- 
tempting to quote verbatim^ what he 
said was practically as follows: 
"When I first assumed this office I 
regarded the so-called Indian ques- 
tion as a mere bagatelle. I knew of 
no good reason for its existence, and 
it seemed to me quite possible to 
sweep it wholly out of sight within 
three months' time. I have been in 
office a year, and the more I study 
the problem the more complicated it 
seems. There are wheels within 
wheels, — and still more wheels. I 
do not know which is the first, best, 
and wisest step to take in order to 
meet the peculiar conditions 
now existing, and to put the 



whole business on a different and 
better footing." 

This inability to grasp the key to 
the situation and give it the right 
kind of a twist in its lock, is lament- 
ably true of many presidents and 
most laymen. So-called "practical 
politics " control the situation. There 
is but one remedy for that, and not 
many men are, as yet, willing to ap- 
ply it. 

Meanwhile, as for many years past, 
certain other classes than those to 
which reference has been made, will 
continue to quietly carry on the kind 
of work which they have good reason 
to believe is wisest and best for them 
to pursue. Missionaries will do 
this, — the men and women who be- 
lieve that the Indian has a soul which 
the Infinite Lover of Souls desires for 
His own; the teacher, who believes 
that the Indian should be taught to 
take his place, as a man among men ; 
the philanthropist, who believes that 
human nature is very much the same 
the world over, but that human op- 
portunity is not the same to all, and 
that the Indian should be given his 
chance. The political economist also 
puts in a plea for the Indian wlien he 
states his belief that there is plenty 
of good ma- 
terial 





430 




THE FIRST AMERICAN J THE INDIAN 



^o-to-all Wo-Ko-mas 




in the 
race, and 
that in 
the interest of political 
economy it should not be 
allowed to run to waste, 
but should be utilized for 
the good of his own com- 
munity in particular, and 
for that of the country in 
general. The virtues and vices 
of our own race are extremely 
well duplicated by similar 
characteristics in Indians. Indi- 
ans love and hate much as we do ; 
they are noble and they are ignoble ; 
so are we. Indians are selfish and they 
are generous ; so are we. They are 
clever and they are stupid; so are we. 
They have sterling virtues and loath- 
some vices; the same is true of the 
white race. Indians have their own 
code of morality, — their own religious 
beliefs, and their own distinctive social 
usages. They are very superstitious, 
and so are we. How many of us are 
without a pet superstition, associated 
say with Friday, or with thirteen at 
table, looking at the moon over the 
left shoulder, the breaking of a mir- 
ror, and so on ? How many men in 
Connecticut are carrying a horse 
chestnut in their pockets as a pre- 
ventive against rheumatism ? It is 
not so very many years ago that our 
neighbors in Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island were hanging men, 
women, and even little children, for 
witches. One of the most scholarly 
men known to the writer, a former 
well-known citizen and clergyman of 
Hartford, believed in the existence 
of ghosts. 

It is a matter of only eight or ten 
hundred years ago since our ances- 



tors in old England painted their 
bodies blue, wore the skins of ani- 
mals for clothing, lived upon roots, 
nuts, and berries, and worshipped 
idols. We have passed out of that 
initial period and have come to be a 
fairly civilized race, — though judging 
from the atrocities one finds recorded 
in the daily papers, it is safe to con- 
clude that savagery still exists in our 
midst, and that our race, civilized 
though it fancies itself, has not 
wholly purged itself of aboriginal 
brtitality. Considering what we 
think ourselves to be and what we 
really are, it might be well to add to 
our litany: ''From self-righteous- 
ness and all big-headedness. Good 
Lord deliver us! " 

It is said that Indians are lazy. 
One need not hesitate to admit that 
under existing circumstances, this 
charge is partially true. But it may 
well be believed that under the same 
circumstances that exist in most of 
the tribes, — the white race would be 
equally lazy. Do we know of many 
persons who would work if they were 
not obliged to do so ? If some one 
should offer to feed and clothe the 
people of the State of Connecticut, 
how long would it be before shops 
would close and business cease ? If 
a man's ambition cannot be so stim- 
ulated that he will strive valiantly to 
make the most and best of himself, 
he will not be a helpful citizen, — nor, 
a particularly good Christian. One 
of the greatest difficulties in connec- 
tion with the so called Indian prob- 
lem, is to be found in his lack of 
ambition. He has ambitions of his 
own, which make him a more or less 
valuable member of society in his 
own community, but it is not the 



THE FIRST AMERICAN : THE INDIAN 



43' 



white man's brand of ambition, and 
counts for but little among the civil- 
izing conditions which we must neces- 
sarily force upon the poor fellow. 
The government feeds and clothes 
him. He has no incentive to work. 
If he works he is not allowed to go 
off the reservation and seek a market 
for his hay, corn, or vegetables. If 
he wishes to sell he must go to the 
post trader and exchange his hay, 
etc., for such goods as the trader may 
choose to give him. Why then, 
should he work ? As a rule he finds 
it pleasanter to stay at home and 
gamble, race horses, and occasion- 
ally steal them, — and in time he be- 
comes the lazy, shiftless creature an 
Indian is generally credited with 
being. But when this is so, it is 
not always wholly his own fault, — it 
is largely due to a mistaken policy on 
the part of the government. If In- 
dians were to be thrown upon their 
own resources and told to work or 
starve, it would quickly be found 
that they could and would work. An 
Indian does not like the 
sensation of starvation 
a bit better than his white 
neighbor likes it. But in 
spite of the emasculating 
system which our govern- 
ment has forced upon 
these people, not all of 
them have been ruined 
by it. Go to Arizona and 
watch 'Mazy" Indian 
women as they toil 
in the hot sun day 
after day, cutting 
grass for hay r 
with ordinary 
case knives. 
Go to California and Alaska and 



see them making the most beautiful 
baskets in the world, — baskets that 
fetch from five to fifteen hundred 
dollars each. Goto New Mexico and 
study the art of blanket weaving as 
carried on by the Navajo Indians, — 
examine the silver work, the pottery, 
the exquisite lace made by Indians, 
and be convinced by these examples 
that what has been accomplished on 
a small scale and without the stim- 
ulus of competitive markets, may 
easily be so encouraged as to develop 
into large and lucrative businesses, 
giving employment and support to 
such Indians as are not disposed to 
agricultural pursuits. If in addition 
to the industrial training given in 
many of their schools, our govern- 
ment would promote and develop the 
native industries, it would be a far 
greater service to 
Indians than to 
feed and clothe 
them. These sim- 
ple hints in regard 




432 



THE FIRST AMERICAN ; THE INDIAN 



to the possible future welfare of the 
red race may well be supplemented by 
the suggestion that even if the ques- 
tion of self-support should be solved 
in a common sense way, there is still 
another and more important side of 
the Indian question to be considered. 
It concerns the moral status, the 
homes, and the family life of this 
people ; and it is a much more diffi- 
cult problem to work out than the 
one which concerns their ability to 
supply for themselves necessary food 
and clothing. 

The difficulties in this connection 
which have confronted workers in 
past years have been largely due to 
two causes: First, the fact that so 
many Indians live within a Mormon 
environment, and of course they can 
see no reason why they should not 
follow the example of white men and 
take to themselves as man}^ *' wives " 
as they please. And, in the second 
place : In the native order of society 
the home, as we understand it, can- 
not exist. The word Home conveys 
to us the picture of one roof shelter- 
ing father and mother and their chil- 
dren, secure in the sharing and in- 
heritance of the property resulting 
from the toil of the family. In the 
Indian tribe the band or village into 
which a person is born, and to which 
he consequently belongs, has the 
prior right or claim to control the 
individual, and to appropriate his 
property after death. By the law of 
tribal organization the father and 
mother must belong to different bands 
or villages (but few tribes within the 
territory of the United States are an 
exception to this law); the children, 
consequently, cannot inherit from 
both parents, but must share with 



the group of relatives on the father's 
or the mother's side, whichever one, 
according to the custom of the indi- 
vidual tribe, carries the right of in- 
heritance. This peculiar kinship 
organization constitutes the true ''tri- 
bal relation,'' and this can only be 
broken by giving to the members of 
the tribe individual ownership of land 
and homes and extending over these 
lands and homes our laws of property 
and legal descent. Wherever this 
has been done by allotting land in 
severalty, the grip of the " tribal re- 
lation " has been loosened and the 
way opened for the founding of the 
family and upbuilding of the home. 

After these first lines are laid down, 
much will still remain to be done to 
educate the people in the new order 
of living, and in the ideas of the soli- 
darity of the family and its property. 

While not forgetting that politics 
are at the bottom of nearly all the 
evils in the system which controls 
Indian affairs, it is only fair and right 
to admit that sincere efforts have 
often been made by certain Indian 
Commissioners and other officials to 
better the conditions among these 
wards of the nation. These condi- 
tions are vastly better in many tribes 
than they were a few years ago. 

A majority of our Indians are al- 
ready self-supporting, and doubtless 
practically all of them will be so with- 
in the next half century. But if they 
are to be not only self-supporting, but 
self-respecting and helpful citizens, 
special emphasis should at this time 
be placed upon the need of teaching 
them by precept and by practice, the 
real necessity and value of law, and 
the real meaning and beauty of pure 
homes and a wholesome family life. 



THE FIRST AMERICAN ; THE INDIAN 



433 




The day is not far away when tribal 
relations will be broken up for all 
time. It is not difficult to believe 
that this progressive step will be fol- 
lowed by at least a reasonable com- 
prehension of the principles of good 
citizenship. But even then, the In- 
dian must not be left wholly to him- 
self, for since it is true of our own 
race, and of every other race on this 
planet, so, in his behalf, religious 
and educational work must, like 
Tennyson's brook, "goon forever." 

Francis A.Walker, late U. S. Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs, has epito- 
mized the subject as follows : 



"The corner-stone of our Indian 
policy should be the recognition by 
the government, and by the people, 
that we owe the Indian, not endow- 
ments and lands only, but also for- 
bearance, patience, care, and instruc- 
tion. Savage as he is by no fault of 
his own, and stripped at once of sav- 
age independence and savage com- 
petencebyour act for our advantages, 
we have made ourselves responsible 
before God and the world for his 
rescue from destruction, and his ele- 
vation to social and intlustrial man- 
hood, at whatever expense and what- 
ever inconvenience." 



"AND OUR FOREFATHERS' SONGS ARE THE SONGS THAT 
WE SING; AND THE DEEDS BY OUR FATHERS AND GRAND- 
FATHERS DONE ARE DONE BY THE SON OF THE SON OF 
THE SON" 



The Happy Hunting Ground 




ONNECTICUT present- 
ed no such appearance as 
it exhibits now when it 
was inhabited by the Pequot, the 
Quinnipiac, the Tunxis, and the 
Hammonasset. A continuous for- 
est overspread nearly the whole 
landscape, adorning the hills with 
its verdure, darkening the valleys 
with its deep shadow, and bend- 
ing solemnly over the margins of 
the rivers. No thickets choked 
up the way through these endless 
woodlands, for the underbrush 
was swept away every year by 
fires kindled for this purpose by 
the inhabitants. Paths led 
through them here and there ; not 
paths of iron such as those over 
which the steam-horse now flies, 
but windingfootways along which 
the wild beast and the wild man 
alike traveled in single file. The 
roots of the smaller kinds of herb- 
age were destroyed by the an- 
nual conflagrations; and a coarse 
and long grass waved in the salt 
meadows, along the low banks of 
the rivers, and wherever the 
ground was not thickly over- 
shaded with trees. 

The forests were filled with 
animals; some of them beasts of 



prey, others suitable for food, 
others valuable on account of 
their furs. Flocks of wild tur- 
keys roamed through the woods; 
herons fished in the marshes or 
along the banks of the rivers; 
quails, partridges, and singing 
birds abounded, both in the for- 
ests and open country; and at 
certain times of the year, the 
pigeons collected in such num- 
bers that their flight seemed to 
obscure the light of the sun. The 
ponds, creeks, and rivers swarmed 
with waterfowl, and various kinds 
of shellfish were found in profu- 
sion along the shores of the sound. 
The waters seemed everywhere 
alive with fish ; and every springy 
great numbers of shad and lam- 
prey eels ascended the rivers, 
furnishing a seasonable supply to 
the natives when their provisions 
were exhausted by the long and 
severe winter. Such was the ap- 
pearance and condition of Con- 
necticut when it first became 
known to Europeans; and such 
were its capacities for supporting 
a people who depended almost 
wholly for subsistence upon fish- 
ing and the chase. 

— John W. DeForest 



The illustrations are from the booklet entitled " Summer Homes," by permission of the publishers, 
the Central New England Railroad. Starting from Hartford and continuing along its line are some of the 
most beautiful retreats in America, which during the summer months are visited by thousands of lovers of 
majestic nature. 



THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND 



435 




THIS, THE RED MA 



n's laughing water— laTTTEKMll.K KAl'.S, NORFOLK 



436 



THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND 




THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND 



437 




438 



THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND 




THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND 



439 




440 



THE HAPPY HUNTING GROUND 




He was born in the heart of the forest oak ; 

lyearned life with his face to the sod. 
He answered the wail of the wilderness trail ; 
Blazed the path, — and returned to his God. 



The 
Aborigine 



A SERIES OF ARTICLES BY DISTINGUISHED 
AUTHORITIES, PRESENTING THE CHARAC- 
TERISTICS OF THE FIRST AMERICANS 



THE DWELLERS; A STUDY OF A GREAT RACE 

THEY SPOKE A HUNDRED LANGUAGES AND WORSHIPPED 
A THOUSAND GODS— SEPARATED INTO TRIBES, AND CON- 
TINUALLY ENGAGED IN GUERRILLA WARFARE— DISCUSSION 

BY 
JOEI. N. ENO, A. M. 



THE origin of the American In- 
dians, being recorded only in 
their remains and their pres- 
ent conditions and characteristics, 
is a matter to be determined only by 
logical research. The most proba- 
ble and widely accepted theory -s an 
Asiatic origin. The geographical 
relations, the ethnological, the re- 
ligious and the linguistic character- 
istics, favor this conclusion, and 
seem to dispose definitely of the oc- 
casional assumption that the In- 
dians are the lost tribes of Israel; 
especially when we consider that 
those tribes were carried captive far 
inland into one of the most unlikely 
places for reaching a distant conti- 
nent beyond broad oceans, even had 
they been seafarers, which the Is- 
raelites were not ; and when we con- 
sider again how many centuries lat- 



er elapsed before even the most ad- 
venturous seamen of Europe 
touched these American shores. 

As to the religious phase of the 
question, the God of the Israelites 
was a judge and a king; in their 
broadest thought, the Creator and 
Ruler over all the earth and also 
the heavens ; their religion out- 
wardly was largely sacrifices and 
purifications. With little excep- 
tion, the Indian religion of North 
America was shamanism, animism 
or invocation of the ghosts or spir- 
its (which the Indians fancied bo- 
long not only to men but to ani- 
mals and things, such as rocks, and 
to the sun. and moon,) by dancing, 
chanting and sorcery. Says Park- 
man, "belief in the existence of one 
almighty, self-existent being, the 
Great Spirit, Lord of heaven and 



r 



442 



THE DWELLERS: A STUDY 



earth, was so vague and dubious as 
scarcely to deserve the name." The 
white man has in a great measure 
read into the expression "the 
Great Spirit," his own ideas. 

The permanent and characteristic 
physical features of the Indian, his 
breadth of face, size, muscular de- 
velopment and absence of beard, are 
markedly dissimilar from the He- 
brew type; and the structure of his 
language separates him as widely 
from the Hebrew as from European 
languages, with the inflectional sys- 
tem of both ; formal and regular 
changes or additions to express 
grammatical relations. In Indian 
languages several independent 
words are combined, temporarily or 
otherwise to express a combination 
of ideas in one compound; for ex- 
ample, Eskimo, in Algonquin 
means "eater of raw flesh" (or 
fish) ; Winnepeseogue, "lake-among- 
mountains;" and one of the Indian 
chiefs in our own times bore a long 
Indian name meaning in English 
"Young-Man-afraid-of-his-horses." 

The language of the northern 
Mongolians, Manchin, and Japanese 
have a similar synthetic structure; 
thus from Japanese Ko, a baby, and 
neko, a cat, we have the compound 
koneko, kitten; from toko, eastern, 
and kio, capital, comes Tokio, east- 
ern capital. It is believed that, as 
the Japanese islands are volcanic in 
origin, some of the chain northeast- 
ward have sunk, and even now from 
the beginning of the Aleutian chain, 
passage may be made by small craft 
from island to island till Alaska is 
reached. 



The division of the Indians into 
distinct tribes, together with the 
mode of language — structure, results 
in multitudes of new and often 
somewhat mutilated or disguised 
combinations or compounds, grow- 
ing into a great number of appar- 
ently almost distinct languages as 
to vocabulary; yet several great re- 
lated groups have been discovered 
by close research and comparison. 
First, the Algonquian, in an irreg- 
ular obtuse triangle, whose base 
stretches from Mason and Dixon's 
line to Buffins' bay, thence one side 
crosses Hudson's bay, southwest- 
ward to the Rocky mountains, north 
of the United States boundary; and 
from the Rocky mountains the third 
runs southeastward through north- 
ern Tennessee. Nearly all British 
America west and northwest from 
the second side of the Algonquian 
triangle is Athabascan. The Arctic 
coast is inhabited by Eskimos. 

Like an island in the east part of 
the Algonquian tract is the North Ir- 
oquoian group in the St. Lawrence 
valley and surrounding lakes Erie 
and Ontario, thence southeast in- 
cluding the State of New York, 
western Pennsylvania and eastern 
Ohio. In central Virginia, western 
North and South Carolina was the 
South Iroquian group. East of 
this is a Sivuan group. In Georgia, 
Alabama and Mississippi is the 
Muskhogean or Creek tract. In the 
Florida peninsula is the Timonanan 
group. Between the Rocky Moun- 
tains and the Mississippi, south to 
Arkansas, is another Sivuan group ; 
south of them the Caddoan. The 



OF A GREAT RACE 



443 



Shoshonean is the chief group in the 
United States west of the Rocky- 
Mountains. The Iroquois were 
first in cranial and general mental 
capacity. Most of the tribes east 
of the Mississippi had some agricul- 
ture though rude ; raising chiefly In- 
dian corn, beans and squashes. 

The Indians of Mexico were more 
advanced in the arts of civilization 
than the foregoing, especially in ar- 
chitecture. Some have supposed 
the moundbuilders an offshoot from 
the Mexican border, or Gulf-State 
Indians, who built mounds. 

The lack of steel and iron tools 
for cutting wood or for digging, and 
especially of ploughs or cattle or 
horses to draw loads, necessarily 
made both building and farming 
very difficult. That the Indians 
were largely dependent on hunting 
and even more on fishing, limited 
the population, and the size of the 
tribes. Parkman estimates the war 
strength of all New England at 
8,000, about the year 1600. The 
largest tribe in Connecticut was not 
on the rich farming lands of the 
Connecticut valley, but in the rocky 
New London county, abounding in 
shore and river fish. These In- 
dians, called Pequots were, it ap- 
pears, of the same Mohegan stock as 
those who under Uncas lived be- 
tween them and the Connecticut, 
and Trumbull says, all this stock 
were originally settled near Albany, 
New York, till driven out by the 
Mohawks; and that they probably 
have their name from Pequottoog, 
"destroyers," given by neighboring 
tribes. The Wongunk tribe held 



from Haddam to Windsor, some- 
times called Sequins from their sa- 
chem Squin or Sowheag, who sold 
to the English, Pyquang (Wethers- 
field) andMattabesic (Middletown). 
One of the river sagamores had 
gone to Massachusetts in 163 1 and 
offered land to Massachusetts and 
Plymouth for a defensive alliance 
against the dreaded Pequots. The 
Suckiang tribe (sucki-ankee, black 
earth) sold Hartford meadows to the 
English, 1635-36. The Tunxis or 
Farmington Indians were a branch 
of this tribe. The Nipmucks of 
Massachusetts held the northeast 
of Connecticut. The chief part of 
the tribe adopted Christianity 
brought by John Eliot, and were 
known as "the praying Indians." 
The separation of the Indian race 
into small tribes, led not only to 
great differences in language (esti- 
mated at over one hundred) but to 
strangership, fear, suspicion and 
quarrels between tribes, and guer- 
rilla warfare, which, aided by fam- 
ine and exposure to severe winters 
and by occasional epidemics, which 
proved the saying "A sick Indian 
is a dead Indian," thinned their 
numbers, perhaps quite equal to the 
natural increase, — before the white 
man came and left large strips of 
uninhabited and disputed land be- 
tween tribes. Their case was not 
enviable, though they had not the 
white man's burden of labor and the 
demands of society and fashion. 
They had no literature, though 
youth had its romance, and age its 
store of adventure, stories and 
legends. 



FROM BARBARISM TO CHRISTIANITY 



CARRYING THK TIDINGS TO THE SAVAGES— FOR- 
AGING PARTIES LOADED WITH PRIMERS, BIBLES 
AND IMPLEMENTS OF AGRICULTURE— THE 
ORGANIZATION OF PRAYING TOWNS DESCRIBED 

BY 
ElylvKN D. LARNKD 



AN old wigwam was the site of 
the beginning of a remarka- 
ble work of civilization and 
its outgrowth, "the praying town," 
is possibly one of the most unique 
forms of community known in the 
early days. There were years 
when people were gathered togeth- 
er, not as political bodies, but for 
spiritual welfare. When the mem- 
bers of the newly constructed North 
Society of Killingly, Connecticut, 
met in September, 1728, to arrange 
for building a meeting-house, the 
site selected was on what is now 
Thompson Common "near where 
was an old wigwam": That ruined 
wigwam on Thompson Hill was the 
memorial of early missionary move- 
ments; of Nipmuck Indians gather- 
ed into order by communities and 
carrying forward the forms of civil- 
ization and Christianity. And this 
remarkable work had been accomp- 
lished by Indians, trained by John 
Eliot at Nalick — "that seminary of 
Virtue and Piety." They took with 
them "Bibles, spectacles and prim- 
ers," together with tools and im- 
plements of agriculture, and by 



their efforts seven "new praying 
towns" were gathered in the wilder- 
ness. Three of these towns, Myan- 
exet, Quinnetisset, Wabbequasset, 
— were within Connecticut terri- 
tory, then held by Massachusetts. 
Wabbaquasset included present 
Woodstock and Pomfret. Quin- 
netisset covered all that is now 
Thompson. 

Samson, son of the Indian Sa- 
chem, Petavit, labored in this re- 
gion. The work accomplished by 
him, and the aspect of the country 
at that time are best seen through 
the eyes of Major Daniel Godkin, 
who in 1677, accompanied Mr. Eliot 
on an official tour through the "new 
praying towns." Other godly per- 
sons went with them on their jour- 
ney and Indians joined them at the 
several stations where they held ser- 
vices, preaching in the Indian 
tongue. 

Pursuing their way over the path 
"trod out" by the young missionar- 
ies they reached the settlement in 
Wabbasquasset in the southeast 
part of what is now Woodstock. 
Major Godkin reports it situated "in 



FROM BARBARISM TO CHRISTIANITY 



445 



a very rich soil as was manifested 
by the goodly crop of Indian corn 
then newly in-gathered, not less 
than forty bushels to an acre." A 
later visitor from Providence found 
there "a very good inland country, 
well watered with rivers and 
brooks, special good land, great 
quantities of special good corn and 
beans, and stately wigwams as I 
never saw the like." And all this 
had been accomplished through the 
tact and skill of the Indian Samson, 
worthy of the name. Here he 
dwelt among the flock he had gath- 
ered — thirty families, men, women 
and children. A wigwam sixty by 
twenty feet was the residence of the 
chief, who was inclined to religion, 
and had the Sunday services in his 
house. Here Mr. Eliot and his 
company were courteously received 
and entertained by the squaw in the 
absence of her husband. 

"Divers of the principal people" 
hastened to the great wigwam, and 
spent a great part of the night in 
prayers, singing psalms and exhor- 
tations. One grim Indian sat mute 
for a great space, and then arose and 
spake. A messenger from Uncas, 
who challenged right to and domin- 
ion over this people of Wabbaquas- 
set, he brought a warning word, 
"Uncas is not well pleased that the 
English should pass over Mohegan 
River to call his Indians to pray to 
God." 

The fearful Wabbaquassets quailed 
at this lofty message but Mr. Eliot 
answered calmly — "That it was his 
work to call upon men everywhere 
to repent and embrace the Gospel 



but that he did not meddle with 
civil rights or jurisdiction." 

Godkin followed and with the au- 
thority befitting his office of magis- 
trate, "declared to him and de- 
sired him to inform Uncas, that 
Wabbaquasset was within the jur- 
isdiction of Massachusetts, and 
they do look upon themselves con- 
cerned to promote the good of all 
people within their limits, yet it 
was not intended to abridge the In- 
dians Sachems of their just rights 
in respect of paying tribute or any 
other dues but to bring them to the 
good knowledge of God in Christ, 
and to suppress among them their 
sins of drunkenness, idolatry and 
powwowing. As for the English 
they had taken no tribute from them 
nor taxed them with anything of 
that kind." 

The day following, September i6, 
1674, was the most memorable in 
the annals of this section, the first 
of those "notable meetings" for 
which Woodstock, Connecticut, is 
famous. All the "Praying Indians" 
from far and wide, were present, 
and doubtless many who had 
never before attended a relig- 
ious service. Pubhc worship 
was held in the open air. Sam- 
son leading. He first read part of 
the 19th Psalm, which was sung by 
the assembly. Mr. Eliot preached 
in Indian from Matthew, vi, 23, 
praying before and after the ser- 
mon. Seventy families had been 
rescued from barbarism and en- 
dowed with ordinances of religion 
and civil government the next year. 



THE ABORIGINAL MEDIA FOR EXPRESSING 
ARTISTIC IMPULSES 

POETIC INTERPRETATIONS OF NATURE AND 
APPRECIATION OF SYMMETRICAL BEAUTY 
SHOWN IN BASKETRY— THE ARTISAN INSTINCT 

BY 



NBI.TJB DkG. DOUBIvEDAY 



WHILE the North Ameri- 
can Indians have not yet ex- 
pressed themselves through 
the higher media of the fine arts, ar- 
chitecture, sculpture or painting, as 
we understand them, it would be a 
blind critic who did not discern in the 
handiwork of certain tribes a sense 
of the beautiful in form and color so 
strong, so original, as to be full of 
promise of ultimate high develop- 
ment. 

As with all primitive peoples, the 
Indians' first aspirations after beauty 
found expression upon the simple 
household utensils and clothing made 
by the women of the family, while 
the men, of necessity, hunted and 
waged war. These women were ar- 
tisans rather than artists in the strict 
sense, perhaps, but one craft, at least, 
that they brought to a perfection un- 
equalled in the world — ^basketry — 
discloses beyond the mere beauty of 
form and design, so much deep re- 
ligious symbolism, the only record 
we have of the spiritual life of the 
tribe, so many intimate, poetic inter- 
pretations of nature, that the student 



is disposed to call this aboriginal work 
art of a high order. 

Such a basket might have been 
woven to hold nothing more precious 
than grain; nevertheless it was sym- 
metrical and beautiful as a Greek vase 
and elaborately decorated with mys- 
tic designs which could not but ele- 
vate the thoughts of the family who 
saw it daily. Or, it might have been 
a plaque for fruit, or a burden bas- 
ket carried on a woman's back when 
gathering sticks for her fire or pro- 
visions for the family larder; or a 
dainty little covered treasure basket 
to conceal her few trinkets, or a baby's 
exquisitely woven cradle, or a wed- 
ding ceremonial basket, or a basket 
for the priests to use in their relig- 
ious dances; or, perhaps it was only 
a cooking basket for these tightly 
woven utensils held water and hot 
stones tossed into it would soon make 
it boil ; for whatever purpose a basket 
was to be used, its workmanship had 
to be faultless ; its decoration sugges- 
tive and even poetic, and no design 
was used that was not charged with 
meaning. With what materials did 



ABORIGINAL MEDIA FOR EXPRESSION OF ART 



447 



the artist-weaver work? With wil- 
low and grasses of many kinds ; with 
root fibre, strips of bark, maidenhair 
fern stems, with feathers from the 
woodpecker, valley quail, bluebird 
and meadowlark, with wampun, or 
shell money, abalone and turquoise, 
with dyes whose primitive manufac- 
ture cost months of patient labor. A 
basket worthy to be a family heirloom 
might occupy a weaver's spare time 
for years in the making. Sometimes 
the strands she used would be so fine 
that to prevent them from snapping, 
she would work with her hands under 
water. There is one basket weaver 
still living whose veritable works of 
art, bring over a thousand dollars 
each, and the names of connoisseurs 
already on the waiting list, indicate 
that Dat-so-la-lee's deft fingers and 
soaring imagination will be kept busy 
until her death. Many of our mu- 
seums, and European ones as well, 
have fine collections of American 
basketry. 

When the primitive woman first 
smeared her cooking basket with clay, 
put it directly over the fire to hasten 
matters, and discovered on removing 
it that she had a basket plus an earth- 
en ware dish, pottery was naturally 
evolved. At first the basketry forms 
and decorations were applied to pot- 
tery directly, but soon it was found 
that a far greater freedom in its dec- 



oration was possible, for the exigen- 
cies of weaving demand that desi.:^ns 
follow straight lines whereas curves 
became easily possible when pigment 
might be applied to a smooth surface. 
On baskets from the Southwest and 
Pacific coast, the Swastika and its var- 
iants, the so-called Greek meander or 
keg pattern, are found to this day as 
they were in Egypt and on the oldest 
basketry known among the ancients. 
On the soft tinted pottery of New 
Mexico and Arizona Pueblos one finds 
flowing scrolls, volutes and geometric 
curves interspersed with much free- 
hand painting — all symbolic. Thus 
in our own country we may still trace 
the first steps that the art of all lands 
has probably traveled. 

Inasmuch as blanketry is a compar- 
atively new Indian industry, sheep 
having been introduced by the Span- 
iards ; and the exquisite bead work of 
the Plains Indians is a still more re- 
cent adaptation of European materials 
to primitive uses, we may count bas- 
ketry and pottery as the only aborig- 
inal media the Indian had for express- 
ing her artistic impulses. But now, 
with many new means of interpreting 
the art feeling that is a characteristic 
of so many Indian tribes, we inay con- 
fidently expect the educated Indians 
to make strong and original contribu- 
tions to American art. 



THE INTERPRETATION OF LIFE INTO SONG 

EMOTIONS DESCRIBED BY SOUND— INDIAN 
MUSIC AN EXPRESSION OF FEELING— NO 
ENUNCIATION TO DISCORD THE SPIRIT 



BY 



FLORENCE MAY ABBE 



THERE is not a phase of Indian 
life which does not find ex- 
pression in song. There are 
songs to nerve the warriors to 
deeds of heroism, to rob death of its 
terror, to speed the spirits to the 
land of the hereafter, and to give 
zest to their sports and games. The 
songs may, however, be divided in- 
to three classes ; the Class Songs, the 
Social Songs, and the Individual 
Songs. 

The Class Songs include those of 
the Sacred Pole, the tribal pipe 
songs, and any religious or cere- 
monial song. After the men return 
from the hunt a festival of thanks- 
giving is held, and the songs of the 
Sacred Pole are used. One is sung 
to call the people together, another 
at the anointing of the Pole, anoth- 
er while it is being painted, and still 
another during the dance. These 
songs are never used except at this 
ceremony and can only be begun 
then by some one holding the prop- 
er rank. 

The Social Songs include those of 
the secret societies, dance, game and 
funeral songs. This class of songs 
is usually sung by companies of peo- 



ple. Their societies correspond to 
our clubs ; some have members from 
only one family, others are histori- 
cal, and others, secret. In order to 
gain admission to the societies it is 
necessary to have a brave record, 
and to keep it. During the social 
gatherings the rules are very strict 
and their customs are closely ad- 
hered to. 

Among the Omahas there is only 
one funeral song. Upon the death 
of a prominent person the young 
men of the tribe make two incisions 
on the left arm, and under the loop 
of flesh formed, put a willow twig. 
With the blood dripping from their 
arms, they march to the place where 
the body lies, singing a song of hap- 
piness. They believe the spirit of 
the dead person, as it leaves the 
body can hear the song, and that it 
will cheer him as he goes from his 
friends. The bleeding arms show 
their sympathy and love. 

The Individual Songs include 
those of mystery, prayer, thanks, 
love and the war songs. 

The song of thanks is sung in 
connection with a curious custom. 
If a person who has received a gift 



INTERPRETATION OF LIFE INTO SONG 



449 



be below the giver in social stand- 
ing, he goes outside his lodge and in 
the presence of as many as possi- 
ble, sings a song of thanks, telling 
the name of the giver, of his gener- 
osity, and of the appreciation with 
which the gift was received. 

The war songs can be subdivided 
into four groups; those sung at the 
initiation of a war to arouse the 
spirit of the men, those sung when 
the warriors are in the field and dan- 
ger is near, those chanted by the 
women in behalf of the men on the 
war path, and the songs of triumph 
at the return of the victors. 

The instruments used by the In- 
dians consist of drums, rattles and 
whistles. They have two sizes of 
drums, a small drum, the size and 
shape ot a tamborine, which is beat- 
en with a small reed or the fingers, 
and which can be heard for long 
distances — and a large drum. The 
latter are made from sections of 
trees, hollowed out, with skin 
stretched over the open ends. 
Sometimes they are partly filled 
with water to give different tones. 

The rattles are made from gourds 
filled with fine or coarse gravel or 
pebbles, according to the tone de- 
sired. They also make them of 
wood, circular in shape, about one- 
half an inch thick, and covered with 
skin. They employ various other 
things to make them of; tortoise 
shells and hoofs of deer being com- 
monly used. The whistles are made 
of clay and molded to resemble birds 
and animals. They emit a shrill, 
clear sound, something like that of 
escaping steam. The chief instru- 
ment is the flageolet, which is made 



of wood, ornamented in different 
ways. It is very much like an open 
organ pipe. Over the opening is 
a narrow strip of metal over which 
the air is blown. The instrument 
is built by guess work and is only 
roughly accurate. 

The Indians have no uniform key 
for starting a song, it being started 
on any note suitable to the singer's 
voice, usually on the highest tone 
that can be reached, as their singing 
is an expression of great excite- 
ment. Singing in the open air and 
in company with the drums, strains 
the voice and it loses its sweetness 
so that there is little beauty of tone 
in their singing — loudness seems to 
be the chief thing desired. Little 
attempt is made to swell or dimin- 
ish a tone, although it is done in 
certain classes of songs. The In- 
dian enjoys the effect produced by 
the vibration of the voice, and upon 
a prolonged note, gives a throbbing 
effect by slowly moving his hand 
back and forth from the mouth to 
break the flow of the breath and 
produce pulsations. 

Few Indian songs have words, 
for the Indians think that words 
clearly sung and enunciated break 
the melody. Most of them, how- 
ever, have syllables which are not 
parts or fragments of words, but 
sounds which easily lend themselves 
to singing. Rhythm is by far the 
best developed element in their 
music. The Indians have produced 
no long elaborate musical composi- 
tions because they have not gained 
the power of sustained musical ef- 
fort. 



THE QUALITY OF LOYALTY IN CHARACTER 

TRKACHERY DEVELOPS ONLY WHEN 
CIVILIZATION CRUSHES— AMERICANS TO- 
DAY HESITATE AT PERSONAL SACRIFICE 
—THE STORY OF A TRUE INDIAN 



BY 



AI.ICK B. PINNBY 



THERE is a quality in the In- 
dian that receives insufficient 
recognition, and that is his 
loyalty to the white man when he 
comprehended the real meaning of 
civilization. He was a friend of 
progress as long as it did not ruth- 
lessly destroy that which he be- 
lieved to be his inherent right. 
Americans of to-day have this same 
characteristic; we give our assist- 
ance to a cause as long as it does not 
cause too great a personal sacrifice. 

There are many instances in 
which this loyalty may be illustrat- 
ed but I will recall a single story, 
which the weight of historical evi- 
dence upholds. 

In the spring of 1675 ^^^ white 
settlers of southern New England 
lived in constant fear of being at- 
tacked by the Indians. King Philip 
who had been peaceably inclined, 
was incited by some of the younger 
warriors of his tribe to make several 
attacks on the smaller settlements 
of the colonists and now that they 
had started on the war-path, there 
was no means of appeasing them. 

The larger towns or settlements of 



Hartford, Windsor and Springfield 
considered themselves tolerably well 
fortified against the Indians for 
during the Pequot War in 1637, the 
inhabitants had taken precautionary 
measures and built palisadoes of 
strong high stakes or posts set close 
together and strengthened inside, 
while on the outside a wide ditch 
was dug and dirt banked against it. 

Each fam.ily was alloted a small 
strip of land within the palisado for 
a garden, and the general council or- 
dered all to convey their cattle and 
remaining store of corn and hay in- 
to the garrisons and not to go abroad 
singly or unarmed; for strange In- 
dians had been seen lurking about. 

It was at the garrison in Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, twilight was shut- 
ting down over the hills, and night 
was covering the Great River with 
its misty shroud when Toto, the 
young grandson of Nassacowan, 
(the chief of the Poquonoc Indians), 
stood at the gate of the palisado and 
inquired for the white chief . 

This news he brought: Early in 
the morning as he stood on the low 
range of hills which gradually rises 



QUALITY OF LOYALTY IN CHARACTER 



451 



from the western bank of the Con- 
necticut, gazing off toward the sun- 
rise, above the cloud of mist hover- 
ing over the Weaxskashuck, (The 
Great Marsh), far up on the hills 
surrounding old Shenipsit (Lake 
Snipsic) he had seen the smoke of 
a camp-fire. He crossed over the 
river in his canoe, landing a few 
miles above on the farther shore, 
and then moved cautiously eastward 
until he came to a fresh trail, which 
the many braves with all their cau- 
tion had been unable eto obliterate. 
Indian instinct taught him that it 
was the trail of enemies, and follow- 
ing along the trail he at length drew 
near a mighty body of King Philip's 
warriors. Exercising much Indian 
strategem he had succeeded in get- 
ting near enough the camp to learn 
that their destination was Spring- 
field, which they were going to at- 
tack at sunrise the following morn- 
ing, and he recognized some of the 
Springfield Indians among them. 

"We must warn Springfield," ex- 
claimed Captain Newberry. "Which 
one of you will undertake the jour- 
ney?" 

"White man send me. Me pale 
face's friend," replied Toto, the red 
man. 

Captain Newberry plainly under- 
stood that it would be almost im- 
possible for an Englishman to reach 
the Springfield garrison alive; and a 
company must be started up the 
west side of the river to warn Major 
Treat of Westfield and urge him to 
go to the relief of Major Pynchon. 
If the Indians were successful in 
destroying Springfield, Westfield 



would doubtless share the same fate. 

A half hour later Toto was speed- 
ing along toward the doomed gar- 
rison as fast as his strong sinewy 
limbs could carry him. A small 
force of volunteers on horseback 
were also traveling toward West- 
field. Night was not far advanced 
when he drew near the Indian en- 
campment which was only a mile 
distant from Springfield. The long- 
est part of the journey was over, but 
the last two miles were the most 
difficult. Toto was weary with his 
long running and was obliged to 
move slowly. He must either pass 
between the camp and the river or 
made a wide detour around them. 
He took the shortest way and crept 
cautiously along in the shadow of 
the bushes which grew on the bank 
of the river, stepping so carefully 
that not a twig cracked beneath his 
feet. He was soon rapping at the 
gate of the Springfield palisado. It 
needed but one blow from his toma- 
hawk to bring the guard to the gate 
and Major Pynchon was instantly 
aroused. 

Toto having fulfilled his mission 
after partaking of some refreshment, 
started on his homeward journey. 
The Indian camp was already astir, 
and his only way of passing unno- 
ticed was to take to the river which 
he did, floating down with the cur- 
rent until past the camp, when he 
resumed his journey along the bank. 
Chilled by the water he hurried 
along, reaching Windsor before day- 
break, and at the time of the attack 
he lay stretched on a bear-skin 
sound asleep within the palisado. 



FOSTERING THE HABIT OF INDUSTRY 

THE ANGLICIZED INDIAN IS DILIGENT AT HIS 
LABOR— BECOMES BRAVE IN WAR AND TRUE 
TO DUTY— IN HIS NATURE IS AN ELEMENT 
OF PHILOSOPHICAL HUMOR— REMINISCENCES 



BY 



T. S. GOLD 



TRADITIONS are few and un- 
reliable of the early times. 
Abundance of arrowheads 
designate the favorite places for en- 
campment that have faded away be- 
fore civilization. 

The Indians were adept in mak- 
ing splint brooms and other articles 
of wood for household and farm, 
and were allowed by a sort of pre- 
emption title to good splint timber 
wherever they could find it, a prac- 
tice not relinquished by those who 
follow the same craft to-day. A 
story is preserved of a squaw secur- 
ing splints on the land of an old 
farmer who charged her with theft, 
and ordered her off. Raising her 
hatchet she replied: "My grand- 
pa's land — you go way, or I will 
makie daylight shine through you." 
Her argument was final and she 
was thereafter allowed her basket 
timber wherever she desired. 

Tom Warrups was a noted char- 
acter in French and Indian wars, 
but written history and tradition 
show that he was often a subject of 
discipline. Ensign Ebenezer Dibble 
of Cornwall, Connecticut, kept a 



diary in the French war, and there 
is this entry: "J^^^j the 2ist day, 
A. D., 1762, General Tom had 200 
strip for stealing ; he made no noise.'' 
Like many of his race he was ad- 
dicted to intoxication and in the 
army he was sentenced for that of- 
fense to a ride on the wooden horse 
in front of the regiment. While be- 
ing thus transported on the shoul- 
ders of his comrades, Lieut. Tan- 
ner asked him "if he did not feel 
ashamed to be presented to the 
regiment in that way?" "Yes, 
said Tom, "I am ashamed to think 
that our Lieutenant must go on foot 
while a poor old Indian can ride." 

Capt. Jeffers on meeting him one 
morning said, "Why, Tom, I was in 
hopes you were dead." "Why," re- 
plied the Indian, "you want the 
widow?" He was a gray-haired 
old Indian, highly respected as a 
brave soldier, a genial companion ; 
the type of man who fought and bled 
for his country. 

There were two families of In- 
dians in my home town of Cornwall 
in the early part of the last century, 
of mixed blood, civilized and edu- 



FOSTERING THE HABIT OF INDUSTRY 



453 



cated in the common schools, and 
church members in good standing. 
They were Scatacooks. 

Jerry Conell or Cogswell was a 
cooper. He had several children, 
Nathan, the only one who remained 
in town, was a member of North 
Cornwall church and sexton, for 
many years. He was a good farm 
hand, but especially in demand as 
a wall layer. I never saw any bet- 
ter stone walls in durability and fin- 
ish, than the work of Nathan. He 
married a white woman and had two 
sons, both soldiers, but the eldest, 
William H., is worthy of rec- 
ord. He was tall and stout built, a 
natural athlete, trained in farm 
work and country sports. As a 
growing boy, after a day's work 
from "sun to sun" he often took a 
run across the hills for training as 
a runner. Prizes were then offered 
for foot races at all our country 
fairs. He always won, so that 
when it was known he was entered 
there was no other competitors. He 
enlisted as private in Fifth Regi- 
ment, Connecticut Veterans, June 
22, 1861 ; promoted second lieuten- 
ant, Co. B, Second Regiment C. V. 
Heavy artillery, in battles of 
Peaked Mountain, Winchester, Ced- 
ar Mountain and Cold Harbor, and 
died in hospital from wounds re- 
ceived in battle. A suitable mon- 
ument of red sandstone erected by 
free offering from fellow-townsmen 
marks his grave in North Cornwall 
cemetery. On the march where 
men were falling from fatigue, he 
would seize an armful of guns and 
carry them for miles in relief of 



weaker men. In camp he was the 
life of the company. His stories 
around the camp fire relieved many 
a weary hour. He had all the qual- 
ities of a good soldier — courage, 
physical ability and endurance, tem- 
perance, reliability, skill in the care 
and use of arms, quick of thought 
and action, which only failed him 
when in an emergency he attempted 
to capture a squad who captured 
him. 

I said to Col. Wessells, who com- 
manded his regiment: "Bill was one 
of a thousand as a soldier." He re- 
plied, "You might well say, one of 
ten thousand." May the memory of 
such men be always held in honor, 
and future generations not be want- 
ing in such defenders of our flag, 
the emblem of national power and 
liberty. 

Rufus Bunker, with his wife, 
Rosey, lived on the Sharon and 
Goshen turnpike near the top of the 
hill named after him. He was a 
tall, well built Indian and had quite 
a family of children. They were 
all good workers. Bunker bought 
a rough farm of fifty acres, cleared 
it, fenced the fields with stone walls 
and built a comfortable frame 
house. He once said to my father, 
"Dr. Gold, when I get this all cleared 
up, I am going to the top of the hill, 
sit down and look at it," and ho ac- 
complished it as the nature of the 
land would allow. 

My father met him on the road 
near a large spring, in the early days 
of temperance reform. "Doctor." 
he said, "I am going to join the cold 
water society." So saying, he knelt 



454 



FOSTERING THE HABIT OF INDUSTRY 



down and quenched his thirst in a 
copious draught. Bunker had a 
son about my own age, and passing 
there one day I was caught in a 
cold North Cornwall rain storm 
without a ''great coat," the name in 
those days for the outer garment, 
and I stopped and borrowed one be- 
longing to my Indian friend, young 
Bunker. Rosey, his mother, never 
forgot this incident, that I was not 
too proud to wear an Indian's coat, 
and it laid the foundation for mu- 
tual esteem. I never lacked a sup- 
ply of baskets and she always went 
home carrying in returning pork, 
beef or other household necessities 
to her full satisfaction. 

In moral character and physical 
skill and ability these people were 
above the average of white men of 
similar station. The Scatacooks 
lived mostly in Kent, Connecticut, 
and on the borders of New York 
State. In 1740, the Moravian mission- 
aries arrived among them and estab- 
lished a successful mission, — first 
missionary, John Martin Mack, a 
German. The result was a large 
number became Christians, indus- 
trious and thrifty and though they 
had their troubles the mission was 
maintained for fifty years. Lands 
were set apart for them and laws 
made for their protection by the 
State of Connecticut. By emigra- 
tion and other causes their number 
is now much reduced. 

In an answer to a letter to Martin 
B. Lane, agent, I have received re- 
ply to questions about their present 
condition : 

"In reply to your letter at hand 



I would say they have about three 
hundred (300) acres of land, five 
dwelling houses, five thousand dol- 
lars in cash. Between thirty and 
forty persons now living on the res- 
ervation, one hundred and ten in all 
scattered over the state. I am al- 
lowed to use the income for the care 
of the oldest ones. I am appoint- 
ed yearly by the court, also called 
by the court to settle itemized ac- 
count at same time. One of the 
Cogswell descendants resides on the 
reservation. None of the Bunkers 
in existence as I know of. There is 
only one full blooded Scagtacook 
now living. The last full blooded 
squaw died one year ago, aged 94 
years." 

I have had farm laborers from 
this reservation and have found none 
more efficient and skillful, agree- 
able and instructive companions. My 
wife in her childhood visited friends 
on Fuller Mountain in Kent, and re- 
members as a pleasant incident call- 
ing on an Indian family, Ned and 
Patty, though his correct name was 
Abraham, where neatness and order 
reigned in doors and out, and testi- 
fied to comfortable living. 

Cornwall never suffered from an 
Indian evil, but one of her families, 
Nathaniel Carter's, who emigrated 
to the valley of Wyoming, shared 
in the Wyoming massacre. His 
daughter, Elizabeth, nine years old, 
was captured and taken to Canada. 
The story of the horrors and suf- 
ferings was related by her to my 
father on her deathbed at the age 
of 80. This story, more thrilling 
than fiction, has a place in history. 



THE LAST OF THE NIANTICS 

MERCY ANN NONESUCH BORN IN WIGWAM, TO- 
DAY A QUEEN WITHOUT A REALM-LAST REPRE- 
SENTATIVE OF A NOBLE TRIBE— INTERVIEWED 
IN HER COMFORTABLE CONNECTICUT HOME 



BY 



MRS. CHARIvBS H. SMITH 



THE last representative of the 
"Extinct'' tribe of Niantic 
Indians is an aged 
woman living in Mohegan, Connec- 
ticut, a queen v^ithout a realm, and 
not one single subject of her self- 
same blood, her half brother, her 
nieces and nephews, and even her 
own children and grandchildren 
named with other tribes and races. 
Mercy Ann Nonesuch was born 
in a wigwam on the Indian Reserva- 
tion at Niantic, Connecticut, Febru- 
ary 13, 1822, the daughter of Joshua 
and Mercy (Sobuck) Nonesuch. 
Her father, Joshua Nonesuch, 
having died December, 1821, her 
mother was left a widow with her 
three children ; so at the early age of 
seven years Mercy Ann was bound 
out to Mrs. Ethelinda (Caulkins) 
Griswold, (widow of Thomas Gris- 
wold), living at Giant's Neck, a 
woman of rare grace, culture and re- 
finement, and little Mercy Ann was 
taught all the arts and intricacies of 
housekeeping and the woman, who 
now has passed her three score and 
ten, speaks with pleasure of the use- 
ful lessons and pleasant home of 
those early years. 



In 1840, at the age of eighteen, af- 
ter her term of service had expired, 
she went to Lyme and worked out, 
first in the family of Mrs. C. C. Gris- 
wold, and afterwards in the family 
of Mrs. Christopher Champlin, 
where she remained until her mar- 
riage with Henry Mathews of the 
Mohegan tribe, March 30, 1846. 

Her husband was a most excel- 
lent man and very much respected 
by the entire community ; a fine 
workman at his trade, that of a 
stone mason, and the owner of his 
ample farm, and it was with com- 
mendable pride she showed her com- 
fortable home, an end-frame house 
of moderate size, comfortably fur- 
nished, scrupulously neat, New 
England thrift everywhere evident. 
She said, "here I have lived sirfce 
my marriage, my children were all 
born here, and while I have always 
worked hard, my life and home have 
been pleasant." A parlor organ 
burdened with singing books testi- 
fied that she had an inherent love 
of music. The windows filled with 
palms, coleas, cape jessamine, cac- 
tus and other plants were silent wit- 
nesses of her love for the beautiful 



456 



THE LAST OF THE NIANTICS 



in form and color. Two large Bi- 
bles and a likeness of their almost 
canonized Occum occupied conspic- 
uous places on the parlor table plain- 
ly indicating her love for her church 
and her pride in the history of one 
of the greatest of their own preach- 
ers. Her personal appearance is 
strikingly Indian, coupled with a 
peaceful expression and manner, the 
outcome of the softening influences 
of civilization. 

When nineteen years of age, in 
1841, she united with the Baptist 
church in East Lyme and was a 
faithful and consistent member. She 
is now a member of the Mohegan 
church, and for years, Mr. Mathews 
filled acceptably the office of deacon. 
Her four children, three married 
daughters, and one son, are filling 
well their positions in life, a credit 
and honor to the home training of 
their Indian mother, and are no long- 
er Niantics or Mohegans, but citi- 
zens of the commonwealth. 

She could have no share or part in 
the income from the bank stock or 
the lands known as the Indian 
Reservation at Niantic as she had 
married out of the tribe, but if left 
a widow she could return with her 
children and claim her portion. 
When questioned with regard to the 
declaring the tribe extinct in 1871^ 
she replied sadly and thoughtfully, 
"They may declare me extinct, that 
does not make me extinct." 

It was with diffidence she talked 
of the past, and only by careful 
questioning could she be induced 
to tell her recollections. Still 
clinging to the old Indian 



custom of rank, when asked from 
which parent she claimed her title 
of queen, a prompt and almost 
haughty reply, "from my Mother." 
As the half civilized and unciv- 
ilized races trace their pedigree 
through the mother instead of the 
father, consequently when the Nian- 
tic tribe was converted to Christian- 
ity the family pedigrees became con- 
fusing and perplexing. 

A request for her photograph was 
at first denied, but when it was rep- 
resented to her that, humble though 
she was, she would soon be consid- 
ered a very important person, and 
that all the romance of hundreds of 
years would gather around her 
name, as the last of the once friend- 
ly tribe of Niantics, she reluctantly 
consented, and when told that it 
would be deposited in the Connecti- 
cut Historical Society at Hartford, 
that her tribe and name might never 
be forgotten, a flush colored her 
cheeks, tears started to her eyes, a 
peculiar faraway expression sud- 
denly suffered her whole face, and 
with a pathetic tone she exclaimed 
"Oh, I am so glad if some one wants 
to remember us." 

As wigwam and hut with their 
dusky occupants have vanished 
from our sight, and though only one 
of the tribe is remaining, whose re- 
markable trait was its unswerving 
friendship and fidelity to the pale 
faces, let the town and the river 
which bears their name be a perpet- 
ual memorial to their race, more en- 
during than mounded grave or 
crumbling stone. 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCP:S IN AMERICAN 

EDUCATION 



CONNECTICUT HAS FIRST SCHOOL FOR SCIENTIFIC 
vSTUDY FOUNDED IN AMERICA— INTRODUCES STUDY 
OF SANSCRIT— ORGANIZES FIRST SCHOOL OF 
FINE ARTS IN CONNECTION WITH UNIVERSITY 
EDUCATION IN THE WORLD-TRACES EVOL- 
UTION OF HORSE THROUGH FOSSILS AND 
IS COMMENDED BY HUXLEY AND DARWIN 

BY 

CHARLEvS H. vSMlTH, T.E.D. 
Lamed Professor of American History at Yale Uiiiversitv 

Professor Smith, who has recently gained nmch commendation by liis logical conclusions in rela- 
tion to the Panama controversy, has built upon the foundation laid in his article in the last issue «>(' this 
magazine entitled " The Early Struggles in American Education." and now presents a phase in educatioiiiil 
history which proves the important part Connecticut has taken in the development and encoura(;einent of 
learning in this countr}-. In statements of historical fact this recognized authority pays tribute t.. Connec- 
ticut's achievements in the world of education. In connection with this line of thought it shoul«l be renieiii- 
bei-ed that it was a Connecticut man, Henry Barnard, who Avas the first commissioner of educati«.n apiH.inled 
by the government of the United States. In Volume IV, No. 2 of The Connecticut Maga/in*-. Fretleriek 
Calvin Norton writes ably of this distinguished pioneer in the difl'usion of education. Some years ajjo 
Bernard C. Steiner, A.M. (Yale), contributed to the Bureau of Education a treatise entitled •■ Tin- Ilistorvof 
Education in Connecticut." It is through the courtesy of Hon. W. T. Harris. i)resent Coniiuissioner of 
I'Mucation, that the illustrations used in Dr. Steiner's book are reproduced in the following article, the 
plates being loaned for this purpose by the, Department of Interior at'Washington KniTOR 



THE building of a great educa- 
tional institution is much like 
the building of a prosperous 
business establishment ; it must be 
under the management of men of 
judgment and executive ability. In 
this Yale has been exceedingly for- 
tunate. 

The improvement of the college and 
the development of the university, 
which I outlined in my last article, 
continued under President Woolscy. 
]-fe introduced nev^ studies in senior 
}ear, making that one of the most 
interesting and valuable years of the 
course. He also tried to raise the 
scholarship of the whole college b>' 
establishing biennial examinations, and 
these continued for many years a con- 



spicuous feature of the Vale svsteni. 
It was ex])ectetl tliat they wonid in 
(luce more careful and persi-sicni stud\ 
throughout the ci^liege course, on the 
theory that only permanent ac(|nire- 
nients could stand the test of such 
exaniinalions. Tiiey were -i charac- 
teristic ex])ression of President \Vi"h>1- 
sev's thorcnighness. and Ills intense 
dislike of slip-slnvl work. 

I'resicK^nt \V(M^lsev*s term witnessed 
the conipletiiMi of the first stone hnild 
ing on the coHege S(|uare. the hhrar\ . 
This, now kn.nvn as the Old Mhrar\. 
remains, with its graceful ivy-cUui 
pinnacles, a beautiful building, and it 
is a source of regret that it must 
.some day be taken down to make room 
for the extension of the new Chitten- 



458 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCES 




OSBORNE HAI^Iv — YAI,K UNIVPCRSITY 



(k'li I.ibrarv. Other l)iiilding\s which 
went up during" his term were Ahmmi 
Hall, Street Art Building. Farnam 
Hall, and Durfee Hall. The last 
three buildings were much the largest 
gifts which the college had yet re- 
ceived from individual donors. 

A chief distinction of President 
Woolsey's administration was the 
])lace accorded in it to scientific, grad- 
uate, and art education. 

The initial impulse to modern 
scientific education was given by the 
elder Silliman, who admitted advanced 
students to his laboratorv, and, in con- 
nection with his son. started a i:)rivatc 
school for original research. In 1846 
this was taken under the care of the 
Yale corporation, who in 1852 con- 
ferred the dee^-rec of Bachelor of Phi- 
losophy on its successftil students, and 
also started a school of engineering. 



In 1854 these schools were united as 
the "Yale Scientific School." This 
in 1 861 was named the "Sheffield 
Scientific School," in honor of Joseph 
E. Sheffield, who gave its first building. 
While he furnished needed funds, 
other far-sighted and gifted men 
planned for the future and labored un- 
selfishly for the highest interests of 
the school. Among these were James 
D. Dana and William D. AVhitnev, 
''two of the men who during the past 
century have shed upon Yale its great- 
est lustre." 

The vSheffield School was the first 
one for special scientific study founded 
in America. On the occasion of 
IVesident Woolsey's death, its estab- 
lishment was referred to as probably 
"the most important educational move- 
ment of the century in America." It 
came in answer to a new popular 



IN AMERICAN IlDUCATIO.y 



4.59 




FAMOUS OI.D NORTH COI^I,p:GB; — YAI.K INlVIvRSITV 

demand for technical instruction, cspe- ■ of their mission to ^-ive. The porin«I 

cially Ml chemistry, which the classi- was one in wliich new methods of 

cal colleges did not consider it a part communication 1)\ ocean steam navi- 




AKT SCHOOj, AND KlCCTOK 1M1:kSON\S STATII: -VA1.I-: rMV'-;KSlTV 



460 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCES 




OI,T3 I^TBRARY — YAI.K UNIVKRSITY 



gation and electric telegraph were en- 
larging the field of business enter- 
prise, and awakening new ambitions. 
Chemistry applied to the arts was in 
its infancy, and its coming triumphs 
in revolutionizing existing industries, 
and establishing new ones, were be- 
ginning to be seen. There was con- 
sequently an eager demand for the 
''New Learning," and the Scientific 
School at Yale was a pioneer in the 
effort to meet this demand. 

The work of the Sheffield School in 
the interest of better farming is espe- 
cially worth)^ of note. One of the 
two chairs of instruction first estab- 
lished in it was of agricultural chem- 
istry, and ''this was the earliest es- 
tablishment in any college in the land 
of a professorship of agricultural 
chemistry, or of agriculture in any 
special sense." To this chair was ap- 



pointed John P. Norton, who became 
"the most em.inent authority in this 
country on matters pertaining to agri- 
cultural chemistry." President Gil- 
man, in an address at the semi-cen- 
tennial of the Sheffield School, traced 
to influence emanating from him the 
passage of the Morrill Act providing 
for Agricultural colleges in the sev- 
eral states. This act was passed in 
1862, and Connecticut received by its 
provisions $135,000. This sum was 
too small to start a new college with, 
and indeed there was no occasion for 
doing that. The Shef^eld Scientific 
School, already partly equipped for the 
work, was admirably fitted to carry 
out the purpose of Congress in the 
most effective and economical niaii- 
ner. Moreover, its selection as the 
recipient of the Congressional aid 
would be an appropriate recognition 



IN AMERICAN EDUCATION 



461 



of the pioneer work it had already 
done in the interest of better agri- 
cultural education. Accordingly the 
Legislature wisely granted the interest 
of the fund to the school on certain 
conditions which were faithfully com- 
plied with for thirty years. At the 
close of that period in 1893, owing to 
additional legislation by Congress, 
Connecticut was receiving a much 
larger income for agricultural educa- 
tion than had been originally con- 
templated. The amount had now be- 
come so large a "plum" that the 
temptation to make a raid upon it was 
irresistible. Accordingly the Legisla- 
ture broke the contract with the Shef- 
field School, and established a State 
Agricultural College. This was done, 
ostensibly, for the benefit of farmers. 
During the period above mentioned, 
in addition to the instruction furnished 



according to agreement, an import- 
ant service to agriculture was ren- 
dered by Professor Johnson of the 
Sheffield School. President Oilman 
speaks of this as follows: "Eariv in 
the seventies he began to advocatt- 
the establishment of experimental sta- 
tions, and in due time had the sati>- 
faction of seeing them establislicfl 
throughout the Union, while he be- 
came director of that in Connecticut. 
This achievement alone reflects great 
distinction on the Sheffield School. 
If it had done nothing but make and 
uphold this idea, its cost would havr 
l)een repaid." 

The buildings of ilu' Sheffield 
School, five in number, arc on l'ri»>- 
pect Street and Hillhouse Avenue. 
They are devoted entirely to the work 
of the school, for which thev are well 
equipped. The lack of dormitories is 




BaTTEI.1. CHAPEl,— VALK INlVUUSlTV 



462 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCES 









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" 





COURT-HOUSE AND CITY HAI^T^, YAI.E LAW SCHOOL 



supplied in part by chapter houses 
owned by secret societies. Some of 
these houses, and others owned by so- 
cieties in the academical department, 
are costly structures and are notable 
contributions to the architectural beau- 
ties of New Haven. 

1die Graduate School was one of 
slow growth, and its organization was 
effected l)y successive steps at some- 
what wide intervals. Ikginning with 
1826, the names of "resident grad- 
uates" ])ursuing non-professional stud- 
ies were entered in the college cata- 
logue e. In 1841 an important step 
was taken in the a].)]K)intment of Ed- 
ward I^. Salisbur)' as ])rofessor of 
Arabic and Sanscrit. 1liis was the 
first recognition in this country of the 
imi)ortance of Sanscrit in the study of 
language, and, so far as demand for 
instruction went, was in advance of 
the time. For eight years no students 
presented themselves, then two came. 



They were William D. Whitney and 
James Hadley. 

In 1847 ^ department of philosophy 
and the arts was organized which for 
a few years included without discrim- 
ination what were after w^ard sepa- 
rately the Sheffield School and the 
Graduate School. In 1861 the degTce 
of Doctor of Philosophy was con- 
ferred. Yale was the first institution 
in the United States to confer this 
degree on the basis of at least two 
Years resident graduate \vork, and a 
thesis giving evidence of high attain- 
ment. This gave a notable impulse to 
the cause of advanced scholarship in 
the Ignited vStates. 

In 1872 the Graduate School was 
given a definite organization by the 
appointment of an Executive Commit- 
tee to have charge of its interests, and 
in 1892 its organization was com- 
pleted by the appointment of Profes- 
sor Arthur T. Hadlev as Dean. At 



IN AMERICAN EDUCATION 



4^'^. 




CHlTTKNiJEN LIBRARY — VAI,!', rMVlCKSl'lN 




KRNT AND Sr.OANK I.AIU^R ATORll'S— V Al.l': IMVJ-KSnv 



464 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCES 




JNTKRIOR OF OUADRANGI.K — YAI,p; UNIVERSITY 



the same time a step of much signifi- 
cance was taken in the opening of the 
school to the graduates of women's 
colleges who were invited to come 
here and study for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. This practical 
recognition of the needs of women, 
and of their right to participate in 
the advantages of the more highly 
specialized courses to be found only at 
the larger universities, was accorded 
to them in New England first at Yale. 
For forty years, until his death in 
1894, Professor William D. Whitney 
w as identified with the work of grad- 
uate instruction at Yale. His ap- 
pointment and retention were both due 
U) Professor Salisbury, who gave up 
In biiii a part of his own work, and 
later endowed a chair for him. In 
1869 President Eliot invited him to 
I larvard, but he remained at Yale, and 
made it a center of philological study 



for the country. Of his work here. 
Dr. Ward of the Independent has said : 
"What Harvard did for the science 
of life in America through Agassiz, 
Yale did for Indo-European philology 
through Whitney." 

Yale's interest in art is inseparably 
connected with the name of John 
Trumbull, the historical painter of the 
Revolution. His paintings to the 
number of fifty, including the well- 
known ''Declaration of Independence," 
and ''Washington on the eve of the 
Battle of Princeton," became the prop- 
erty of the college in 183 1. A build- 
ing was at once put up for their recep- 
tion. This building, long known as 
the Treasury Building, is now torn 
down. 

"The founding of the Trumbull 
(Tallery at Yale College deserves to 
l)c commemorated as the earliest step 
taken in this country expressly for the 



IN AMERICAN EDUCATION 



465 




DURFEE COIvIvEGE AND AI.UM 

introduction of the study of the Fine 
Arts into our higher seats of learn- 
ing." As Yale was the first, so it 
was long ''the only institution of 
learning in the country to establish an 
art collection." Its cultivation of art 
for a number of years was confined 
to the exhibition of pictures, a work 
of no small value to the community. 
But in 1858 attention \vas turned to 
the importance and the possibility of 
introducing art instruction and train- 
ing as a part of the university work. 
A course of art lectures was given in 
Alumni Hall, and much interest was 
awakened by them, but no further im- 
portant step could be taken because 
of lack of funds, until 1864. In that 
vear, Mr. Augustus R. Street, a citi- 
zen of New Haven, generously offered 
to erect and present to the university 
a building devoted not only to the dis- 
play of art collections, but also to the 
giving of art instruction. 



NI HAI.T, — VAI.l': rXIVKRSlT\- 

With the building assured, the VaU- 
School of the Fine Arts was organ- 
ized. Its object was to prnniote tlu- 
appreciation and cultivatiiMi of art in 
the community, and more particularlv 
to bring the refinino- and elevatins" in- 
riuence of art culture to bear upon col- 
lege students during the formative 
period of their academic h'tV. It was 
the latter aim. intn^liicing as it did a 
new feature into our coliciiv ednoa- 
lion, which gave the nunement a spe- 
cial significance, and a peculiar inter- 
est to Yale men. Professor Weir has 
said of it. "This was a new t"eaturo in 
the general scheme oi education which 
^'ale College IkuI the credit of success- 
l'ull\- inaugurating- in this countrv": 
and TrofessiM- lloppin has added, 
"This was the tirst art .school con- 
nected with a utuversity in America, 
and we nught say. technically speak- 
ing, in the world." 

The new Art Building was coin- 



466 



THE BROADENING INELUENCES 



pleted in 1866. The Trumbull collec- 
tion was removed to it, and others 
have been added until its capacity has 
l)cen taxed to the utmost. Among' 
the most notable of these additions are 
the Tarves collection illustrating the 
rise of christian art in Western Eu- 
rope, and a series of oak carvings 
about three hundred years old, which 
belong- to the l)est period of P)elgian 
carving. In its relations to the com- 
nnuiity, the school has doue much for 
the spread of an intelligent appre- 
ciation of art matters, and ior the 
gratification of persons of cultivated 
tastes. Regular courses of lectures 
are delivered yearly l)y the art pro- 
fessors and others which are open to 
the pul:)lic and are well attended. 

The first important collection of 
minerals owned by the college was the 
Gil)bs collection, purchased in 1825 
for $20,000. In order to raise this 
sum, a public meeting was held in 
Xew Haven to which the people 
were invited by hand-bills distributed 
tlu-()ughout the city. Stirring speeches 
were uiade by proiuineut citizens, one 
of whom shrewdly iutimated that if 
Xew Haven let such an o])portunity 
slij). the collection might go to 1'rinity 
College at Hartford, whose ])eople 
"were always ])rom])t and liberal in 
cases where their own interest were 
coucerned." On this, as on so many 
otlier occasions. New Haven people 
stood by the college, and the needed 
fuuds were secured. The collection 
thus ol)taiued reuiained for many 
years the uiost important one iu the 
])ossession of the college. 

In 1866 Mr. George Peabody 
founded the Museum of Natural Idis- 
tor\-, l)ut his donation was allowed to 
accumulate at interest until 1874. A 



large building was then erected, but 
it is now much too small for the col- 
lections which fill its cases, and are 
stored in large quantities in its cel- 
lars. A large part of this material 
was collected by Professor Marsh, 
who in 1870 and following years or- 
gam-zed several "Yale Scientific Ex- 
peditions," and led theni in the ex- 
ploration of little known regions be- 
yond the Missouri River. The expe- 
dition of 1 87 1 alone collected 15,000 
specimens, representing an outlay of 
$40,000. In 1898, a short time before 
his death, he presented all his collec- 
tions to the university, thus by a sin- 
gle act of great generosity crowning 
his labors of thirty years for the ad- 
vancement of science at Yale. 

In the Peabody IMuseum may be 
seen the famous series of fossils by 
which Professor Marsh traced the 
evolution of the horse. These espec- 
ially interested Professor Huxley, who 
is reported to have said that he knew 
of nothing in extent and scientific im- 
portance at all comparable with Pro- 
fessor Marsh's collection of fossils. 
Darwin is also said to have expressed 
a strong desire to come to this coun- 
try for the sole purpose of seeing this 
collection. Here also may be seen one 
of the largest collections of meteorites 
in the country, containing specimens 
aggregating three thousand pounds in 
weight, and re])resenting more than 
two hundred disthict falls. One of 
the meteorites weighs a1)out three- 
fourths of a ton, and is one of the 
three or four largest masses ever 
])laced in a scientific museum. 

'idle Winchester ( )bservatory Foun- 
dation for Astronomical and Physical 
l\ese<irch was established in 1871, and 
a building for it went up in 1882. Its 



I! 



IN AMERICAN RDUCAllON 



467 




468 



THE BROADENING INELUENCES 




I^AWRENCK HAI.I. AND CAMPUS EI.MS — YALE UNIVERSITY 



'iv#-r 



""' IJ'I^ 



' r/,xw//^/w,y///<////wwMwmm'm, 




EAST DIVINITY, MAROIANI) CHAPEI., BACON J^IBKAKV, AND WEST DIVINlTY- 

YAEE UNIVERSITY 



IN AMERICAN EDUCATION 



469 




SOUTH SHKFFTRIJ) HAI,I,— VAI.K rNTYKKSlTN' 




NORTH SHKFKrKI.n HAI.l, YAM' IM V I! KSl I" V 



470 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCES 




TRK;aSURY BUII.D1NG, DLJRFKK COIXRCK — YAIJi UXIVI'RSITY 



car]\- work consisted ])art]y in verif}-- 
ini^- thermometers. In the course of 
six years twenty thousand thermome- 
ters were tested, a large part of which 
were such as are used l:>y physicians. 
At first great errors were found in 
many of tliese, and tlie correcting of 
them was an important service to the 
])u1)hc, for one result was a decided 
improvement in the clinical thermome- 
ters of American make. 

Another ])art of its work consisted 
in fnrnisln'ng time to subscribers in 
the cit}- and throughout the state. In 
[8<Si the Legislature of C\)nnecticut 
;'(l()])lc'd Xew \'ork City time as the 
.^■•landard in the state, "and authorized 
a contract with the college for fur- 
nishing the exact time, each day, the 
same to be transmitted to every rail- 
road station wn'thin the state." The 
action of Connecticrl in ihus adopting 
a standard of tiny fo" \hv state pre- 
ceded bv eight years the introduction 



of standard time by the railroads, 
and its establishment of a time ser- 
vice was "the first instance of the 
kind in this country." 

The Observatory possesses a nota- 
ble instrument in its heliometer, a cut 
and (lescri])tion of which are given 
under the title "Micrometer" in ihv 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Several 
series of important astronomical meas- 
urements have been carried on with it. 

The IVIuseum and Observator\- 
Iniildings went u]), and work in them 
commenced, during the term of Pres- 
ident Porter, who followed President 
Woolsey in 1871. ( )ther buildings 
which appeared in President i'orter's 
time were the beautiful I)attell Chapel, 
with its twin spires and chime of 
l3ells for sonnding the quarter hours, 
the Sloane Physical Laboratory, Law- 
rrnce Hall for occu])ation of student^-, 
and Lwight Mall for religious prr- 
poses. 



IN AMERICAN EDUCAT/ON 



47' 




DWiCxHT HATJ. — YAT.K UNIVKRSITY 



Important features of President 
Porter's administration were a mod- 
erate introduction of elective studies 
in the college course, and a marked 
increase in student organized activi- 
ties, particularly in the line of ath- 
letics. A daily paper was also started, 
and found substantial support among 
the students of the several schools 
and departments. It is safe to sa)' 
that before President Porter's time 
such a paper could not have existed, 
owing to a lack of common interest. 
Tlie students of different (le]:)artments 
knew little a1)out each other, and cared 
less. l)ut in the seventies they 1)egan 
to act together in various ways, and 
the university, which had long been 
an accomplished fact, began to be con- 
scious of its own existence. 

President Porter's term was the be- 
ginning of a new epoch in the history 
of Yale, in which it took on a new 
character, and put forth new^ energies. 



These were destined to a great devel- 
opment under the guiding ham! <>t 
President Dwight, whose term of of- 
fice, following President Porter's, coni- 
])rised thirteen years, in several w a\ >- 
the most remarkable o\ an\ in the 
history of ^'ale. 

President Owight was chosen in 
1886. All his jiredecessors had been 
primarih' heads ol the ci^llege. giving 
their time and strength t»^ its inleresl'^. 
and serving as chiet' instructors t<» the 
senior class. The relation was well 
expressed at President W'ooIscn's in- 
auguration when rresident |)a\ saitl. 
"The college is the appn>priale spherv 
ot" the ])resident"s activity, though a> 
a member ol" the board ot" truslev«- 
he nia\ ha\e a nomitial relation to 
the i)rot'essional departments." Thi- 
niMuinal relation President Pw igbt 
made a real one by giving his tiun 
and interest impart iallx to the several 
departments, attending their tacully 



47: 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCES 




PEABODY , MUSEUM — YAI,E.^ UNIVERvSlTY 




WINCHESTER OBSERVATORY — VAI.E UNIVERSITY 



IN AMERICAN EDUCATION 



473 



meetings, and acquainting himself 
thoroughly with their work and needs. 
To do this more effectively, he gave 
up entirely the work of teaching, thus 
making his office purely an executive 
one, equally related to all parts of the 
university. A gratifying result of his 
efforts to co-ordinate the departments 
has been a sentiment of common inter- 
est pervading the whole institution, 
which is shown in the better acquaint- 
ance of the faculties with each other, 
and a spirit of mutual helpfulness 
among the various bodies of students. 
This thorough carrying out of the 
university idea marks the accomplish- 
ment of the plans which the elder 
Dwight had formed a century earlier. 
It was a happy circumstance that the 
complete realization of his hopes came 
in the administration of his grandson. 
The growth in numbers and gain in 
equipment during President Dwight's 
term were very striking. The Aca- 
demical Department more than dou- 
bled, becoming larger than the whole 
university was at the beginning of his 
term; the Sheffield School doubled, 
becoming larger than the college was 
at any time during its first hundred 
and fifty years; the Divinity School 
substantially held its own ; the Medi- 
cal School multiplied five fold; the 
Law School nearly three fold; the 
Graduate School four fold; and the 
body of instructors more than dou- 
bled. One department was added, 
that of Music. The organization of 
this school i^ as noteworthy as was 
that of the Art School in President 
Woolsey's time. It marks with in- 
creased emphasis the wider apprecia- 
tion of culture at the university when 
beauty of form and color and sound 
are all considered worthy of study 



for their own sake, and given places 
of equal honor by the side of the more 
severely disciplinary and utilitarian 
studies. In connection with the 
school a symphony orchestra has been 
organized which gives each winter a 
series of concerts. This is a valuable 
adjunct to the school, and at the same 
time furnishes much pleasure to lovers 
of music in New Haven. 

Another expression of Yale's desire 
to extend her usefulness, especially 
to the people of the state with which 
she is so intimately connected, was the 
establishment of lecture courses for 
teachers of public and private schools 
in Connecticut. 

The liberalizing of the college 
course, commenced under President 
Porter, was continued under President 
Dwight, in whose term all the studies 
of junior and senior years save one 
were made elective, and some choice 
of courses was allowed to sophomores. 
Under President Hadley still further 
advance has been made, for the stud- 
ies of all the years after freshman are 
now elective, with certain restrictions 
which aim to hold the student to a 
definite plan in his choice of studies. 

To the general public, probably no 
feature of President Dwight's term 
was more striking than the erection 
of stately edifices which made Yale's 
equipment in this respect unsur- 
passed by that of any other univer- 
sity in the land. Among the notable 
buildings were Osborne Hall, Kent 
Chemical Laboratory, the Gymnasium, 
and Welch, Winchester. Vanderbilt. 
White, Pierson. and Phelps Halls. In 
all fifteen new buildings were erected, 
and two more were acquired. This 
number was just equal to the whole 
number of public buildings in the pos- 



I 



474 



THE BROADENING INFLUENCES 



session of the college from its founda- 
tion in 1 701 to the close of the Civil 
War in 1865. As new buildings went 
up, old ones came down, until only 
four of the twelve standing on the 
college square in 1840 remained, 
namely South Middle, Lyceum, North, 
and Treasury. These were permitted 
to stand a few years longer, but all 
are now being removed except South 
Middle. That will probably stand as 
a relic of the past until a majority 
of graduates are willing to have it 
taken down. For the present, senti- 
ment is strong for its preservation. 

President Hadley succeeded Presi- 
dent D wight in 1899, so that to him 
has fallen the honor of leading Yale 
out of the old century into the new. 
Already important steps in advance 
have been taken. The changes in the 
curriculum have been mentioned. A 
School of Forestry has been estab- 
lished which it is hoped will be of 



great public benefit. All indications 
are that the president keeps steadily 
in mind that public service is the true 
goal of the university, consistently 
with his frequent utterances since his 
inauguration. He thus fulfills the 
purpose of the founders, and perpet- 
uates the spirit of the faithful men 
who have preceded him. 

It should not be forgotten that in 
so far as Yale to-day is Christian in 
its principles, broad in its culture, 
mindful of its duty to both church 
and statCi it is so by virtue of the 
character which those devoted men 
sought to impress upon it. It is a fit- 
ting and a graceful act in the generous 
donors of Woodbridge Hall, one of 
the most beautiful of Yale's new 
buildings, to engrave around its frieze 
the names of Noyes, Chauncey, Buck- 
ingham, Pierson, Mather, Andrew, 
Woodbridge, Pierpont, Russell, Webb, 
the founders of Yale. 



WE ARE CITIZENS AS WELL AS WAGE EARNERS, 
SHARING IN THE MAKING OF OUR INSTITUTIONS, 
IN THE GOVERNMENT OF OURSELVES AND OUR 
FELLOWMEN— TO FIT OURSELVES TO BE CITIZENS 
OF A GROWING COMMONWEALTH WE MUST READ 
HISTORY— THE NEW PROBLEMS ONLY INCREASE 
THE NECESSITY OF KNOWING WHAT OTHERS 
HAVE DONE— THE LARGER THE WORLD IN WHICH 
WE LIVE, THE GREATER THE DEMANDS IT PLACES 
UPON US 

ARTHUR TWINING HADLEY, 
President of Yale University 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 

GRANTS OF IvAND TO THE INDIANS AND DECIvARATlONS 
OF FRAUD BEFORE THE THRONE- VITAL PRINCIPLES OF 
LAW INVOLVED IN CONNECTICUT CLAIMS— CONCLUSION 
OF EXTENSIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF .COLONIAL AGENTS 

BY 

ELLEN BESSIE ATWATER 

Kellow in History University of Chicago 



»T 



HE story of the boundary dis- 
putes, and the early days when 
America was a vast wilderness, 
is one of the most romantic recitals in 
history. The "sea to sea" grants led 
to a long conflict with Pennsylvania as 
to western claims. This matter, as far 
as it concerned the agency, came before 
the Assembly first in 1755,-^® when a 
petition was received from the Sus- 
quehanna Company, which in 1754 had 
bought lands of the Six Nations and 
now asked that the Assembly allow 
them a distinct colony, if the king 
would consent. The Assembly agreed 
to this, and in 1763 the Wyoming 
Settlement began. The company em- 
ployed Colonel Eliphalet Dyer as their 
agent in England^^® from 1761 to 1765, 
when John Gardiner of the Inner 
Temple, London, seems to have served 
for a short time. Later, in 1765 and 
in 1768, Dyer was again appointed,^'*^ 
although in the latter case they at- 
tempted to get William Samuel John- 



23^ Trumbull, Connecticut, II. 470. 

238 Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd Series, XVIII, 37, 
52. 54. 

340 The same, 54, 57. 

2*1 The same, 57. In October, 1776, he seems to 
have been appointed agent for Connecticut in the 
MoheRan Case, Conn. Col. Rec, XII, 301. 

'*» Commission authorized, Connecticut Colonial 
Records XIII, 437 (For date 1776 see Trumbull, Con- 
necticut, II, 472). 



son to serve with the consent of 
Connecticut.^*^ Finding that Pennsyl- 
vania was not disposed to admit their 
claims, the Assembly, in May, 1771,"- 
submitted their case to Thurlow, Wed- 
derburn, Jackson, and Dunning,-*^' 
''gentlemen as learned and famous in 
the law department as any at that day 
in England." Upon their giving a 
favorable opinion^** the colony decided 
to assert their claim.-*^ The whole 
matter was still in dispute-*^ when the 
Revolution relieved England from 
further responsibility and ended the 
work of the last agent, Thomas Life. 
On the whole, it would seem that 
the larger and more complicated parts 
of these transactions as to boundaries 
were carried on in America, either by 
the colonies independently of England. 
or by commissions under British con- 
trol, and that even when cases were 
carried to England the agents did not 
figure as prominently as in the charter 
controversy, probably because these 



•J<« Thurlow, Attomcy-Genernl. Waddeiburn 
(Alex.), King's solicitor-general. DunnioR (L.) later 
lyord Ashburton. Stuart. Life of TnimbuU. 155. 

«■»* Questions and Answers, Trumbull. Connectictit. 

II. 47i- 

246 The same, II, 473. . 

9^« (Tanuar\' 1774, March 177O Connecticut Colonial 
Records XIV' ai? and 219, and Stuart. Life of Trum 
bull, 135. But sec note 4 above, pasre 13. 



476 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 



were disputes between the colonies 
rather than between the EngHsh gov- 
ernment and a colony. 

One of the most famous cases with 
which the Connecticut agents were 
connected was that of the Mohegan 
lands. This originated in the grants 
of the Indians and their agents of 1640 
and 1660.2*^ It involved about eight 
hundred square miles of land in New 
London, Windham and Tolland Coun- 
ties, which Connecticut held on the 
grounds of purchase, conquest, agree- 
ments, and long occupation.^*^ The 
Indians were apparently mere tools in 
the hands of the John Mason party, 
which made much of the fancied 
wrongs of their proteges, asserting 
that these had been deprived of their 
valuable lands by fraud. Dudley's 
court of commissioners on an ex parte 
hearing in August, 1705, gave a deci- 
sion satisfactory to the Mason party.^*® 
Although this was just at the time of 
the great excitement over the charter, 
the Assembly gathered the evidence, 
and sent it to Sir Henry Ashurst,^''*' 
who appealed from the decision of this 
court to the queen in council. He was 
so far successful that a commission 
of review was appointed which de- 
cided for the colonv. The case came 
up again during Dummer's agency, 
and once more when Wilks was agent, 
when it was the subject of hundreds of 
letters that passed between the agents 
and Governor Talcott.^''^ Long series 
of documents were prepared with great 
care, supervised at London bv the 



agent and his counsel, while in the 
colony committees of the Assembly 
and lawyers made use of every scrap 
of evidence that could be procured. 
Still another commission was ap- 
pointed in the days of Palmer, and 
the appeal from their decision was 
brought before the Lords Commis- 
sioners for Plantations in 1766. Here 
the final battle was fought out by 
Richard Jackson, the regular agent, 
and William Samuel Johnson,^''^ the 
special agent whom the colony sent 
to England for the purpose, and the 
case ended triumphantly for the colony 
January 11, 1771,^^^ after nearly 
seventy years of litigation, and more 
than a century after the original 
grant. 

According to its charter, Connecti- 
cut was not required to transmit its 
laws to England for the king's ap- 
proval, although the usual clause was 
inserted requiring that its laws be not 
repugnant to the laws of England. 
Early in Queen Anne's reign, however, 
when every eflFort was being made 
against the colony, the Quakers in 
England petitioned her Majesty for the 
disallowance of the Connecticut law 
against their sect.^^* Sir Henry 
Ashurst, the agent, having but little 
evidence at hand, petitioned the Lords 
of Trade and Plantations in behalf of 
the colony, asking that time might be 
given for the colony to be heard, and 
setting forth the fact that the law was 
made fifty years before and was obso- 
lete.^'^ He also made much of the 



24T March 4, 1660. Original entry, Connecticut 
Colonial Records I. :^=5g. 

248 Stuart, Ivife of Trumbull, 137. 

2*9 Aucrust 23, 1705, Trumbull, Connecticut, I, 421. 
(Costs, 573 pounds. The same, 424). 

'»o The same, I, 425-426. 

'»! Connecticut Historial Society Collections, V. 
passim. 

'»» October 1766 appointed : 1771 returned ; Con- 
necticut Colonial Records XII, 501 (Note). At 'the 
same time Dver was appointed ajcent foj this same 
case, but there seems to.'Jbe^no^evidence asjto what 



he'did. Connecticut Col. Rec. XIT, 301. 

268 (October 1771), Thomas I^ife was paid 448 
pounds for his services as solicitor. Connecticut 
Colonial Records XIII, 516. For decision.'see Beards- 
lev's, William vSamuel jfohnson. 

'284 ^.ccount based on Trumbull, Connecticut,"!. 
420 and following. I^aw, October 1656, Connecticut 
Colonial Records, I. 283, amended October 1658, the 
same, I. 324. 

256 (February 2 1705) lyCtter of Ashurst, Hinman, 
lyctters^to the Governors, etc., 326. 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 



477 



number of charges that, for the last 
three or four years, had been brought 
by disaffected persons against a colony 
that had enjoyed uninterrupted peace 
for many years. Nevertheless, the 
queen in council declared the act null 
and void without giving the colony 
a hearing. At the time, apparently 
neither Ashurst nor the people of Con- 
necticut questioned the legality of the 
action, but in 1732 Sir Philip York 
and Mr. Talbot held it to have been 
illegal.=^«« 

A much more vital case of similar 
principle was that of the intestacy 
law.-^' This law, an outgrowth of 
customs resulting from the peculiar 
conditions of the new country, was 
passed in 1699.^^^ Although arousing 
some opposition when it was first dis- 
cussed and passed, it had been in force 
many years apparently without ques- 
tion when the case of Winthrop vs. 
Lechmere was appealed to England. 
John Winthrop (grandson of John 
Winthrop Junior, and nephew of Fitz 
John) dem.anded that his sister, Mrs. 
Lechmere, give up the share of their 
father's real estate that had been given 
her under the colonial law on the 
ground that by English law he would 
inherit all the real estate. The colony 
had no share in the case and the de- 
fence was lamely conducted.^^® The 
decision by Order in Council, Febru- 
ary 15, 1728, annulled the Connecticut 
intestate law on the ground that it was 
repugnant to the laws of England. 
This decision caused great excitement 
in Connecticut as a large amount of 



property held under this law was thus 
brought into dispute. It was at thi^ 
crisis in October, 1728, that Jonathan 
Belcher was appointed to assist Dum- 
mer, and one thousand pounds sterling 
was granted to carry on the case.-''' 
The situation was gloomy, with the 
charter in doubt, Massachusetts in 
disgrace, and now this important law 
called in question, which seemed to 
involve the whole legislative inde- 
pendence of the colony. The whole 
matter was presented by the agents 
before the king in council, then con- 
sidered by the crown lawyers, and the 
Board of Trade. The conclusions 
reached by these methods in the 
''representations" of 1730 and 1773 
favored the confirmation and continua- 
tion of the principle of this particular 
law, but further threatened the inde- 
pendence of the colony by recommen- 
dations of a supplementary charter or 
parliamentary action as to the powers 
and legislation of the colony. But no 
decisive step as to these matters was 
taken on the British side for several 
years, in spite of the great anxiety in 
Connecticut. Then in 1737 the similar 
case of Phillips vs. Savage of Massa- 
chusetts was decided in favor of the 
law. At once it was felt that although 
the laws of the two colonies were not 
on the same footing, there might be 
some chance to have Connecticut's law 
upheld.-" The agent, \\'ilks. was told 
to consult the best counsel and to learn 
what could be done.^*"* After nearly 
a vear's correspondence it was decideil 
that an entirely new case was neces- 



2S8 Chambers, History of the Revolt of the Ameri- 
can Colonies, I. 341. 

QS7 Accounts based on Conn. Inlestacy I^aw, Yale 
Review, 1894 ; Hazeltine, Appeals from Colonial 
Courts, Amer. Hist. Ass'n. Reports 1804, 301-316 ; 
Trumbull, Conn. II. 53 and following : Conn. Col. 
Rec. VII. 125, 191 and 192 ; and Mass. Hist. Soc. Col- 
lections, 5th Series, VIII. 571. 

268 Connecticut Colonial Records, IV. 307. 



26» Cf. Letter of Wilkes Noven\ber 27. 174'^. Con- 
necticut Historical Societv Collections, V. 327. 

Q«o July 1^28. 150 pounds Sterliujf, Connecticut 
Coloniar Records,' VII. 102. October i7*S. i<xw 
pounds Sterling, the same. VII. 31S. 

««i July ^o. 1737, Letter of Talcott to Wilks. Con- 
necticut mstorical Society Collections. V. IJS- 

aea july 1739, the same. V. 135. 



478 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 



g^j.y 203 'pj^g ^^^Q q£ Clark vs. Tonsey 
was accordingly appealed and the 
agent was urged to spare neither 
money nor pains in supporting the 
law.2«* Just after the death of Wilks, 
in the agency of Palmer (1742), the 
case was decided in favor of the 
colonial law. 

The issue of paper money in Con- 
necticut involved her in the efforts 
made by the English government 
against this popular colonial method of 
meeting financial difficulties. The 
first issue of paper money in the 
colony (8,000 pounds or less) resulted 
from the Canadian expedition of 
1709.^^^ By 1725266 it has already 
been shown that the depreciation was 
very serious, in spite of assertions to 
the contrary. Parliament attempted 
to deal with the evil by bills that 
should supplement the act of the sixth 
of Queen Anne as to foreign coin in 
the plantations.267 Connecticut made 
great efforts to explain all its financial 
operations'®^ and to show that all its 
omissions were not only well guarded 
but necessary.269 jj^e efforts of 
Wilks seem to have proved unavail- 
ing,^^® but in 1749 Palmer produced 
some effect in regard to a bill that 
really threatened the power of the As- 
sembly by the veto power it gave to 
the governor.^"^^ The strongest point 
in the defence of the issue of the bills 
was the extraordinary expenses con- 
nected with the French wars. In op- 



posing the bills the home government 
especially protested against their being- 
made legal tender.2'^2 It cannot be 
said that this part of the agents' efforts 
appears at present very brilliant or 
creditable as shown in the correspond- 
ence and the documents, but it only 
reflects the low standard of financial 
and business principles prevalent in 
the colonies at the time. 

The largest financial operations of 
the agency were those connected with 
the efforts to obtain from England the 
repayment of the money expended in 
carrying on the French wars. In 
May, 1746, the Assembly authorized 
Palmer to appeal to the king in coun- 
cil, to parliament, or to other officers, 
to obtain relief for the colony from 
the burdens caused by the expedition 
against Cape Breton and by the garri- 
soning of Louisburg.'"^ Even earlier 
than this, in August, 1745, Thomas 
Fitch had been appointed a special 
agent for the purpose, but refused to 
go, although the colony then was 
greatly in debt.^^* In 1756 Trumbull 
was appointed special joint agent to 
act with Partridge in soliciting the 
reimbursement of the expenses of the 
expedition against Crown Point.^^^ 
He declined to go, for personal rea- 
sons, but Partridge seems to have se- 
cured some money.^^6 Jn 1758 Trum- 
bull was again appointed and again 
declined.^'^^ Jared Ingersoll then 
undertook the task.^^^ In 1759 seven 



aea November 1740, the same, V. 327. 

a«« April 1740, the same, V. 243. 

'•0 Trumbull, Connecticut, I. 435. 

288 See page above. Of. Discourse Concerning 
the Currency of the British Plantations, (Boston, 
1540) p. 13. 

^oT 6 Anne, Cap. 30. 

^os Cf. Discourse Concerning the Currency of the 
British Plant., 13. A full report of the emissions is 
given in a letter of Gov. Talcott, January 12, 17^0-40. 
Conn. Hist. Soc. Col. V. 208. 

a«» (August 1740) Conn. Hist. Soc. Coll. V. 281. 

'•'o (May and November 1740) the same, V. 239 
and 312. 



271 (May 1749) Connecticut Colonial Records, IX. 
433. 

272 Trumbull, Connecticut, II. 50. 

278 May 1746, Connecticut Colonial Records, IX, 
217. 

274 (October 1745), the same, IX. 185. 

270 March 1756, the same, X, 484. 

278 1756 Parliament granted to colonies 150,000 
pounds, Trumbull. Connecticut, II. 372, Stuart, I^ife 
of Trumbull, 52. (October 1756), Connecticut Colo- 
nial Records, X. 566. 

277 (March 1758) the same, XI, 108 (Note). 

278 (May 1758) the same, XI, 128. 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 



479 



chests of money were sent over, 
amounting to more than seven thou- 
sand pounds.^^^ After the death of 
Partridge, Ingersoll carried on the. 
effort alone, the money spent for the 
reHef of Fort William Henry being at 
the first the subject of petition,^^^ and 
later that for the Canadian expedition 
of 1758.2^^ Richard Jackson was then 
appointed agent.^^^ He and Ingersoll 
were authorized to send home seven- 
teen thousand pounds of the money 
granted, and to keep the remainder in 
London.^^^ From 1763 Jackson con- 
tinued the work alone and did a large 
banking business for the colony.^^* 
Although these efforts covered so 
long a period, the agents would seem 
to have been unexpectedly successful 
in obtaining these funds, were it not 
for the assertion of Mr. TrumbulP^^ 
that Connecticut, from 1755 to 1762, 
spent 400,000 pounds more than Par- 
liament granted her. 

In this connection it is to be re- 
membered that most of the tardy 
assistance that England gave to her 
colonies against the persistent and 
often barbarous attacks on their fron- 
tiers made by the Indians backed by 
their French allies was due to the suc- 
cess of the agents in appeals to the 
king and to parliament. Largely to 
the agents also must be credited the 
arousing of England to such part as 
it actually took in the long series of 
French and Indian wars. Connecticut 
agents had their full share in these 
great achievements, but it is difficult 



to separate their work from that of 
their companions. 

In the last great joint effort of the 
agents, however, the Connecticut 
agents were too conspicuous to lose 
credit for their share. The limits of 
this paper do not permit an attempt 
to rehearse the story of the Stamp 
Act — nor even to give an account of 
the agents' part in the agitation 
against the bill, but a few points may 
be noted. 

The steadiest and most persistent 
opponent of the Stamp Act seems to 
have been Richard Jackson, member 
of parliament and secretary of Gren- 
ville,^^^ who served as agent not only 
for Connecticut, but also for Pennsyl- 
vania and Massachusetts for a time.-*' 
The act was certainly not opposed 
very vigorously at first by the other 
colonial agents — Knox of Georgia 
even defended it, and Jasper Mauduit 
promised "cheerful submission."-"^ 
The postponement for one year was 
gained by the efforts of Thomas Penn. 
William Allen (Chief Justice oi 
Pennsylvania), and Richard Jack- 
son.^^^ The famous remonstrance 
of February 2, 1765, before Grenville. 
was made by Franklin, Ingersoll. 
Jackson and Garth.''"" It was Jackson 
who, in this interview, pointed out the 
danger that, when the crown should 
have a civil list and support for a 
standing army from their money inde- 
pendent of their assemblies, the assem- 
blies would soon cease to be called to- 
together. In Jackson's speech against 



2T9 (March 1759) the same, XI. 237. 

380 (May 1759) the same, XI. 257, 258. Stuart, Ufe 
of Trura., 55. 

'■'SI (October 1759) the same, XI. 345. 

288 March 1760, the same, XI. 358. 

288 October 1760, the same, XI. 438, Of. 358. 

'•'84 October 1763, the same, XII. 135, 192, Cf. XI. 574. 

285 Trumbull, Connecticut, II. 455 (Reference to 
pamphlet by Gov. Fitch, ,' Reasons offered in behalf 
of Connecticut against the internal taxation of the 
Colonies," (New Haven, 1764). 



388 Cf. Bancroft, History of the Uuiteti States, III. 
39 and 70. 

887 Dismissed by Massachusetts 1766. Bancroft. 
III. 235. 

888 ingersoU's Letters Relating to the Stamp .\ct. 
(New Haven, 1766). 20. Cf" Bancroft, III, 105. Biirrj . 
Massachusetts, II. jSi. 

as» Bancroft, History of the United States. III. 70 
a»o Ingersoll. I^etters Relating to the SUmp .A.ct. 
17-18 (Ct. Bancroft. III. 96). 



48o 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 



the bill in the House of Commons he 
spoke boldly in favor of American 
representation in that house in case 
parliament was not willing to set 
bounds to the exercise of its power, 
as "the universal, unlimited legisla- 
ture of the British Dominions. "^^^ 
He seems to have been universally 
recognized as the best informed of 
Englishmen in political life on the 
American situation,-^" and to have 
used all his influence in their favor, 
keeping his interest even during the 
w^ar — ^being for this reason appointed 
one of the commissioners to negotiate 
peace.^^'^ At the time of the Stamp 
Act, however, his efforts proved un- 
availing. Those of his colleague and 
intimate friend, Jared Ingersoll, were 
more fruitful — at least if Ingersoll's 
own account of the case is reliable. 
When the first warning came in the 
agent's letter, May, 1764, that stamp 
duties were proposed, a committee was 
appointed in Connecticut to draw up 
a formal statement protesting against 
lis taxation.^®* Ingersoll was one of 
this committee. Afterwards, when he 
was in England on his ovv^n business 
and had been asked to serve as agent, 
he had the honor (as he asserts^^^) of 
being often with ''the Minister and 
Secretary of War," together with Mr. 
Franklin and other gentlemen, and 
was able to assist in getting the Stamp 
Act moderated, and the time of its 
taking effect put off. In regard to 
this, he says r^®" 

"There was no Article of Duty 
added or enhanced after I saw it ; but 
several were taken out, particularly 

'■^^i Bancroft, III. 99. cf. for Jackson's views Inger- 
soll. I^etters, etc., 41 (Note), 4^. 

'29-2 i^etter of " T. W." (one joint Secretaries of the 
Treasury), Ingersoll's lyCtters, etc., i. 

s!9a Bigelow, Franklin, III. 172. 

'■'»* Ingersoll, Inciters Relating to the Stamp Act, 2. 

2»6 The same, o. 



Notes of Hand, Marriage Licenses, 
Registration of Vessels which stood at 
Ten Shillings, and Judges Salaries." 

He had written Governor Fitch, 
February ii, 1765 r^^^ 

''The Point of the Authority of 
Parliament to impose such a Tax, I 
found on my arrival here, was so fully 
and universally yielded that there was 
not the least hopes of making any Im- 
pression in that Way." 

Perhaps no incident in colonial his- 
tory emphasizes so much the differ- 
ence in the usual point of view of the 
colonies and the home government as 
that of Ingersoll's acceptance of the 
posrition of stamp distributor and his 
treatment upon his return to the 
colony. His ability to see the British 
side of the question, his failure to 
realize how far the sentiment of the 
colonists had gone and his utter be- 
wilderment-®^ when his good deeds 
were all forgotten and he was received 
only as an enemy and a traitor, show 
something of the conditions and asso- 
ciates that affected the ideas of an 
American agent of this period. It is 
then no surprise to learn that William 
Samuel Johnson, although no Tory, 
stood aloof from the war. 

The same tendencies that brought 
the colonists nearer together in the 
years preceding the war made the 
work of their agents and friends 
abroad more united^ and it is accord- 
ingly very difficult to separate any par- 
ticular efforts, as those of the Con- 
necticut agents. As far as the great 
questions of those days were con- 
cerned, the efforts of Johnson and 

296 Ingersoll, I^etters Relating to the Stamp Act, 2. 

297 The same, 11. 

298 Cf. Ingersoll's lyCtters Relating to the Stamp 
Act, especially prefatory notes and 61 ; Bancroft, 
History of United States, III, 139-141 ; Beardsley, 
William Samuel Johnson, 31. 



I 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 



481 



Jackson (ending in 1770) and those of 
Thomas Life — if he really had any 
part in such questions — were appar- 
ently largely through private conver- 
sation and personal influence.^*^*^ 
Public efforts came to be useless and 
practically forbidden through the ac- 
tion of the British Government. Is 
it too much to say that the high- 
handed treatment of the agents and 
their consequent retirement and with- 
drawal^ ^^ was one of the great ele- 
ments in the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tionary War ? 

Aside from all these great interests, 
naturally a host of lesser matters de- 
manded the attention of the agents. 
Many of these may never have been 
reported, but among those mentioned 
in the records may be named the ques- 
tion of the ports^*^^ — at times vital but 
not as important as in less agricultural 
colonies, of the embargo,-''^^ the sugar 
duty,**^^^ the bounty on timber,^^* and 
the quartering of troops in private 
houses.^*'^ 

In addition to these strictly official 
tasks, two important undertakings 
were aided by the agents, of which one 
is now only a matter of history, while 
the other has proved so great that its 
humble beginnings are forgotten. 

It is difficult for us to realize how 
much attention the early colonists, and 
the English at home also, gave to the 
question of Indian education. The 
agency was connected with this under- 



299 (a) Yet Jackson spoke against Townshend Act, 
Bancroft, History of United States, III, 251. 

(b) "Hillsborough interview," Bancroft, III. 
268. 271. 

300 ingersoU, Letters Relating to the Stamp Aot, 
22 ; Bancroft, III. 103, 251, 252. Cf. vSpeech of Ed- 
mund Burke, Hansard, Vol. 17, 11S2. 

301 (March 9, 1715, Ashurst) Connecticut Colonial 
Records V. 199 (1712. 1713, 1716, Dnmmer) the same, 
V. 355, 415. 571- 

302 (1740 Wilks), Connecticut Historical Soc. Coll., 
v. 342. 



taking mainly through the organizefl 
efforts of the English Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts. With this society the agency 
came in contact in two ways. The 
elder Ashurst was a leading spirit in 
the Society,"''^^ and the agency of his 
son was evidently the result of the 
connection with America and the in- 
terest in it thus developed — an interest, 
by the way, which the family kept for 
several generations.-^" On the other 
hand, Jeremiah Dummer during his 
agency was very active in arousing 
interest in England in Indian educa- 
tion."0« 

It is with Dummer's name also that 
we must connect the other great edu- 
cational movement aided by the agent.^, 
for in a sense Dummer was the one 
who by his timely aid saved and firmly 
established the college now Imown as 
Yale College.^*'^ The details of his 
work seem insignificant, now, but far 
otherwise in those days. In 1714 
Dummer gathered together for the 
college, in England, eight hundred 
books."^^ Great men presented their 
writings: Newton his Principia. Sir 
Richard Steele "all the Tatlers and 
Spectators, being eleven volumes in 
royal paper, neatly bound and gilt."" 
and Reverend Matthew Henry his 
sermons, not to mention others of less 
note.^^^ It was Dummer who sought 
out Yale (who was bom in New 
Haven) and persuaded him to give a 



303 (1764, Jackson) Connecticut Colonial Record •*. 
XIT, 240. 

304 (1764-1765, Ingersoll( IngersoU's Letters, eta., i. 

305 The same. 

so« Massachusetts Hi.st. Soc. Coll.. 5th Sencs, \ I. 
267 (Note). , . 

307 Connecticut Historical StXMety Coliection< \ 
Index. 

soe The -same, V. 3S2. 399. 4>-"^. 4i2- 

909 Kingsley, Yale College. I. Cf. Trumbull. Cou- 
necticut, II. 23. 30. 

910 Kingsley. Yale College, 1 j^r. 
91 » The same. 



482 



IN THE COURTS OF THE KINGS 



small donation of books (forty in all) 
to this collection. In 171 7 Yale sent 
300 more, and in 171 8 goods to the 
value of 200 pounds, besides the king's 
picture and arms. This led to the 
giving to the little college, at Com- 
mencement, September, 1718, the name 
"Yale."3i2 It had been Yale's inten- 
tion to give a sum to Oxford, but after 
Dummer's solicitations he decided to 
help the younger school, and so he 
made a will leaving the college 500 
pounds.^^^ He then decided that it 
would be better to send goods to that 
amount, but died in 1721 before the 
goods were finally sent. Owing to the 
fact that the will could not be pro- 
bated, Yale College never profited by 
this legacy. Dummer himself gave 
the college yG volumes, of which 20 
were folios.^^* Later, when the chapel 
was built, at an original cost of about 
700 pounds, mention is made of 
Richard Jackson's gift of 100 pounds 
toward its completion.^^^ There is a 
reference in Ingersoll's correspond- 
ence to the gift to the college of a "Set 



of the Ruins of Spalatro,"^^** of which 
the donor says :^^^ 

"At present, perhaps, they may not 
be much attended to, but some Genius 
for Architecture will hereafter be 
happy to find such Specimens of his 
Art, and a Publick Library should be 
a Depository of such Books, as are 
not usual in private Collections." 

It may not be unfair to assume that 
these were not isolated examples of 
the interest taken by the agents in this 
college and that they improved their 
exceptional opportunities to bring 
home what they could of the culture 
of Europe to the college that was to 
be so vital an element in colonial life. 
In summing up the work of the 
agents, it is clear that the agency was 
one of the greatest factors in making 
Connecticut the sturdy, independent 
little state that was so large a factor in 
the Revolutionary War and in the 
formation of the Union. The colony 
owed its liberties, and its very exist- 
ence, to the cooperation of these ener- 
getic loyal friends at court. 



3i» The same, i. 45. 
3»» Kingsley, Yale College, I. 51. 
31* Kingsley, Yale College, I. 45. 
31 s Trumbull, Connecticut, II, 334. 



316 Spalatro. 

3i7"x.W.", "member of Parliament," " one o 
joint secretaries of the treasury," IngersoU, I^ettersf 
etc. I. 



THE SONG OF THE SHIP 

THK TAI^B 6f the ROVING I^IFK OF THE SEA 
TOIvD IN FOUR PARTS AND HERE CONCLUDED 

BY 
LOUIS RANSOM 

The peculiarities of Artist Ransom's verse are the peculiarities of the man. He is a scholar of the old 
school and believes in setting rather than following standards. It is this same daring originality that per- 
suaded him to present for magazine publication a serial poem. The two preceding parts have caused con- 
siderable discussion and the work is now concluded with the same vitality that dominates the aged painter. 
who, although 75 years of age, states that he has two more figures of the Christ that will require his 
entire time until his hundredth birthday. I recall at the time of my first meeting with the eccentric artist 
his remarkable painting of the Vision of Abou Ben Adhem. The moonlight played over the face of the 
dreaming Adhem, and the angel writing in a book of gold was criticised because of its ugly features. When 
informed of this criticism the aged painter dropped his bnish, his deep set eyes flashed in indignation, and 
he exclaimed, "Bah, they speak their own narrowness I The conception of the angel face differs in all 
races ; every man pictures an angel in imagery according to his type of the most beautiful woman of hi» 
own nationality. If this man had been an American dreaming of celestial beauty I might give him a 
Gibson face, but this, I wish you to understand, is the angel of Abou Ben Adhem, may his tribe increase !" 
This is Ransom, the painter ; and the poem we have been presenting is Ransom, the poet ; and twth arc 
Ransom, the man,— keen, observant, true.— Kditor 

PART III 

Strange were the men who trod her decks 

And pressed her girding beams, 
Their beards grew strong from their tawny cheeks 

And their brown eyes swam with dreams. 

And when the captain gave commands. 

They'd move with sudden start, 
And the creaking cordage haul with hands 

As hard as oak tree's heart. 

Silent they seemed as ghosts that roam 

The antries in the sea, 
And yet their strange forecastle home 

Oft' rang with sounds of glee. 

Then a cargo rich as autumnal suns, 

Was poured on the burdened pier, 
While she mused of wild triumphant runs 

On the tumbling outer mere. 

A moan came down the towering mast. 

The slap of a swaying cord. 
Told that she mused of the ocean blast 

And dreamed of her ocean lord. 



4^4 THE SONG OF THE SHIP 

Although a hundred stalwart men 
Her pondrous freights annul, 

A hundred, toiling, filled again 
The caverns of her hull. 

'Twas done at la.st, the stevedores 
In striving, jostling streams, 

Up from the kelson's humid floors 
Had chocked her to the beams. 

Then all the sailors laid aloft, 
They shook her canvas free. 

Her rigging trimmed, her lines cast off, 
And turned her prow to sea. 

A striding mountain, bright with snow, 
She combs the rippling bay, 

For the last time people watch her glow 
And .shrink o'er her length'ning way. 

The sun behind her lingering slow. 
Subdued his westering light. 

As she with shadow-sombered bow 
Sailed on to meet the night. 

The silent, dragging weeks went by, 
The months, the tongueless years, 

But ocean let no secret cry, 
Nor balmed the rising tears. 

But sometimes now a woman comes, 

Knfeebled, old and white, 
And sits upon the hill of tombs, 

A figure grave as night. 

Yet while she waits no moans arise. 
No sound but the ocean's roll. 

Though down her ever longing eyes 
Broods a hunger of the soul. 

She looks to sea in the waning light. 
While her dreaming thoughts deplore 

The ship that sailed from her baby sight 
And ne'er was heard of more. 

But sometimes, ere she turns away, 
A sound like a sobbing prayer 

.Steals like a soul from the dying day 
And swims on the dusky air. 



THE SONG OF THE SHIP 

Long, dim, pathetic years before, 

The ship had joined her bones 
With the^giant things that^sweep from shore 

Onto giant ocean thrones. 

For in seas her dauntless'prows explore 

She fell in the demon train, 
The crushing burst and the booming roar 

Of an ocean hurricane. 

The deep was ink beneath the pall 

Of the lightning-eyed typhoon. 
The frightened billows crouch and crawl, 

Thick night shut down at noon. 

Soft winds which kissed the tender dawn 
While breathing blooms and sweet, 

Now like a bull in craze and brawn 
Tore the sea with his thunder feet. 

With a bounding rush and roar, he laced 

The cloud bars into thread — 
The black waves, trampled, charged and chased 

O'er snow ridged seas of lead. 

His horns the combatant ocean tore 

And gored the atmosphere, 
While down the livid heavens cower 

And drag the appalling mere. 

I/ike suns exploding o'er leaden blue, 

Dense lightnings burst the night. 
Storm-shot, projectile thunders flew, 

Crazing the black affright. 

The strong ship reels in the tempest stroke 

And a desert island nears. 
Where the ocean surge has moaned and broke 

For more than a million years. 

Where never foot of man has trod 
Since the world has known his hand, 

Save as the wave hurled his soul to God 
And his corse upon the strand. 

Now lifted on a monstrous wave 

She lumbers toward the land, 
Hurled headlong, ship and breaker stave 

O'erwhelming on the strand. 



485 



486 THE SONG OF THE SHIP 

The stern frame snaps at every lunge, 
The stanchions bend, though tough grained oak, 

And quivering 'neath one furious plunge, 
They yielded, splintered, crashed and broke. 

Through all the ship the billows pour. 

They flood her antrum bay, 
From all her ports they spout and roar ; 

The cannon break away. 

Savage as combat boils the surge 

All o'er the stranded wreck, 
And tumbles from her breaking verge, 

A growling cataract. 

No soul may live within the wreck, 

No fainting heart may flee, 
And all who brave her maelstrom deck 

Must feed the hungry sea. 

The timbers bellowed as they broke 

And fell like a great despair, 
Long lines of writhing cordage shook 

Like banners in the air. 

A mist fiung high o'er hull and mast, 

Swift, roaring, rolled to lea, 
For sheets of drenching rack were torn 

From crests of the torrent sea. 



PART IV 

Long hours and days the surge rolled on 

Until 'neath zephyrs bland, 
They seemed like sighs of Acheron 

Groaned through an earthly strand. 

And heavy, heavy were the sobs 
That struggled from the main, 

And weary were the painful throbs 
Which ocean gave the slain. 

For of all the men who sailed on her, 

None e'er shall sail again, 
One lies asleep on the desert shore, 

The rest sleep in the main. 



THE SONG OF THE SHIP 487 

And one lies high on the shining sand, 

So close to the vessel's bow ; 
In the bobstay hangs a bony hand 

That swingeth to and fro. 

As to and fro they swung and swerved, — 

The hand and rusty chain — 
They touched the skull of the man they served 

When the live ship swam the main. 

But down the gloomy ocean caves, 

Amid the slime and dark, 
Beyond the sound of blast or waves, 

The men are cold and stark ; 

In that dim region where the dead 

Float upright — horrible ; 
By ocean's nether currents led 

Roam through his endless hall. 

On, on they drift, a charnel train, 

And drop their loosened bones, 
And seem to ghoul that grim domain 

With dying ghastly moans. 

While the men were drifting ever on 

Through caverns of the sea, 
The ship lies dead, her bones upon 

That barren, lonesome lea. 

The flood tide trails their loosened ends 

O'er the vessel's slimy plank, 
All o'er the hull it feeds and fends 

The sea weed green and lank. 

And when the ocean gale roams by 

The shrouds that still remain. 
Pour on its breast a mournful sigh 

Or requiem's lonely pain. 

The planks fall off and one by one 

Ivie down on the desert shore, 
And soon not a vestige will be of the ship 

Which hath journeyed the world all o'er ; 

Which hath ventured every ocean's wrath 

And the storms of every clime, 
While plowing her way o'er the a/.ure path, 

Untracked as the paths of time. 






4S8 THE SONG OF THE SHIP 

O the craft may waste on. the ocean's rim, 

A lone, majestic paean, 
Where the solemn dome of the fathomless sky 

Bends over the fathomless main. 

There she is given serene repose, 

A more than royal tomb, 
Where the sunwinds ponder the dirge that rose 

From the billows mourning boom. 

So it rests and wastes in sublime decay, 
'Tween the strand and the organ main, 

Wliere the ocean's pondrous roundelay 
Has despair in its old refrain. 

And by and by but a single pile 

Of hull and mast and stay 
Will stand on the shore of the desolate isle 

And live in the sinking day. 

All will have gone — the ribs and boom — 

The iron be eaten away, 
But the bowstem fixed in the sand will loom 

The figurehead into the day. 



While the day beams are glowing her beautiful hands, 

Press the pain from her desolate heart, 
But compassionate eve, o'er the shadowing sands 

Sweets her lips with her pitying dart. 

When the moon roams alone through the tenderer night 

She will seem like a soul that is fled. 
And stopped in the sweep of a passionate flight 

To ponder the tombs of her dead. 

And the waves wandering on from the ocean's expanse 

Toward this gleam in the lunar day. 
Will see a heart lying in desolate trance 

Then prone on the strand fall and pray. 




THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 

CONNECTICUT HOLDS FOUR IvEADING CLAIMS 
TO DISTINCTION — THE STATE'S REMARKABLE 
RECORD GIVES IT PRE-EMINENCE IN THE 
HISTORY OF THE MAKING OF THE NATION 

BY 

MRS. JOHN MARSHAIvI, HOIvCOMBE 

Member Board of I^ady Managers, lyouisiana Purchase Exposition 1904 
:ex-Regent Ruth Wyllys Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. 

At the solicitation of many persons this sketch has been rearranged from a farewell address given 
the Ruth Wyllys Chapter, D. A. R., by ths Regent upon her resignation after eleven years' serx-ice. It is 
thus put in permanent form, and will be printed in pamphlet for the Connecticut House at St. Louis, as a 
souvenir history of Connecticut, the Constitution State. — Editor. 



NO less an American historian 
than the late Dr. John Fiske 
remarks, "that a really intel- 
- ligent and fruitful study of 
American history is only an affair of 
yesterday." It is surprising to think 
how little notice was paid to it half a 
century ago, and he invites special at- 
tention '*to the State of Connecticut, 
in its relation to the very first begin- 
nings and the final establishment of 
federal government." 

The religious intolerance of Charles 
I, and his ministers, sent from Eng- 
land large numbers of the best qual- 
ity of Anglo-Saxon representatives. 
They were men of culture, and of 
such powerful influence that their 
strength could not long be "cribbed, 
cabined or confined" by king or 
minister. 

In the emigrants of 1630 there was 
no thought of a life or government 



free from the control of the British 
crown. The desire of the Massachu- 
setts men was to establish a theocratic 
commonwealth attuned to the existing 
home rule. In 1633 came, however, 
men of a different mold. Planted in 
tlieir natures seemed to have been that 
seed destined to develop the great sys- 
tem of democracy, for, from the very 
beginning, as we look back througii 
the long perspective of two and one- 
half centuries, and turn on the X-rays 
of modern analytical investigation, we 
can note the workings of that marvel- 
ous leaven — democracy — prompting 
and directing their course. 

The ship Griffin bore from English 
shores, in 1633, a notable company, 
bound for Newtown, Mass., and a- 
mong this company two men. Hooker 
and Haynes, certainly are of special 
interest to the student of historw 
Thomas Hooker had been pastor of a 



Z90 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 




GAUIvDEN MANOR IN TOI^IvAND, SOMERSKTSHIRIC, ENGIvAND 

Home of ^the Wolcotts, who sold their estate and came with the Puritans to America 

Ancient Church where the Wolcotts worshipped 



church in Chehiisford, and so great 
was his popularity, that not only his 
own people, but others from all parts 
of Essex flocked to hear him. The 
Earl of Warwick, though residing at 
a great distance, was a frequent at-^ 
tendant. John Haynes, the most con- 
spicuous layman of the Thomas Hook- 
er company, was a man "of large es- 
tate and heavenly niind." He was 
owner of Copford Hall, an elegant 
seat that offered an annual income 
of i,ooo pounds sterling. He was one 
of the best representatives of the re- 
publicans of that day, which Coleridge 
has so justly called ''the religious and 
moral aristocracy." His second wife 
was Mabel Harlakenden of prominent 
family and royal descent. Her broth- 
er, Roger Harlakenden, brought great 
wealth to the little colony at Boston, 
and his untimely death deprived the 
community of his valuable influence 
and large resources. John Haynes' 
two eldest sons remained in EnHand, 



and we read of a complaint from them 
after his death, that "their father had 
spent too much of his estate in settling 
the colony in New England." But 
even in Massachusetts, the Mecca of 
that hazardous voyage, the aspirations 
of the 'Tlooker company" were not 
realized. "A fundamental feature of 
the Massachusetts policy was the lim- 
itation of office holding, and the elec- 
tive franchise to church members 
only." Such restriction did not agree 
with their conception of personal lib- 
erty. 

The residents of the adjoining towns 
of Dorchester and Watertown were 
also opposed to the Massachusetts pol- 
icy, and among the supporters of 
Hooker were Rev. John Warham, 
John Maverick, Roger Ludlow and 
Henry Wolcott of Dorchester, and 
George Phillips, a Cambridge grad- 
uate, pastor of the church of Water- 
town. In these three towns was held 
that germ of pure democracy which 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 



491 



was destined to revolutionize the 
world. Through long generations 
civil liberty had been kept alive on 
English soil. Slowly developing from 
the little beginning in the wise rulings 
of Alfred the Great, down through the 
centuries, it fired the souls of these 
men — some of whom bore the blood 
of that royal ancestor in their veins — 
to resist theocratic limitations and ad- 
vance personal liberty. A spirit of un- 
rest seemed evident from the very be- 
ginning among the passengers of the 
Griffin. They were barely settled in 
Massachusetts before they agitated the 
matter of leaving, and they appealed 
to the court, after only a year's resi- 
dence, ''for liberty to remove." To 
4his request there w^ere strenuous ob- 
jections. John Haynes was made 
governor of the Massachusetts colony 
in May, 1635, but even this overture 
was not efficacious in restraining the 
restless spirits. There were leaders 



there, who could not brook the bonds 
restraining those vital forces that 
claimed expression. Men of destiny 
they seem, indeed, created for a great 
mission, pressed irresistibly on to work 
out the plans of an over-ruling Provi- 
dence, whom we are told "sifted three 
kingdoms to find the material where- 
with to settle New England," and a 
Connecticut writer tells us "that the 
Massachusetts colony was again sift- 
ed to find the righteous material for 
the creation of Connecticut — the 
birthplace of democracy." The Mas- 
sachusetts court granted an unwilling 
consent, and in 1636, Thomas Hooker 
and his company removed to the Con- 
necticut river, settling at a point mid- 
way between Windsor and Wethers- 
field (which was soon named Hart- 
ford) and called it XewtowMie. To 
the north of them was the Dorchester 
contingent with the Godly divine, John 
Warham, as pastor, and Roger Lud- 




AVKNUE I.EADING TO MAI.VKRN HAI,!,, KSTATE OF THE GKISWOLDS AT WAKWICKSHI K1-: 
ENGIvAND, FROM ABOUT FIFTEENTH CENTURY 

The Griswolds who came to America were descendants of a younger son of the family 
who owned Malvern HaU 




CONSTITUTION BOR> 

It is on the banks of the Connecticut, and under th 
mighty preaching of Thomas Hooker and in the constitutio 
of which he gave life, if not form, that we draw the fin 
breath of that atmosphere which is now so famiUar to u 

— Alexander Johnston 

On the 14th of January, 1639, all the freemen of th 
three towns (Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield) assen: 
bled at Hartford and adopted . . . .the first written const: 
tution known to history, and that created a governmen 
and it marked the beginnings of American democracy, c 
which Thomas Hooker deserves more than any other ma 
to be called the father. The government of the Unite 
States to-day is in lineal descent, more nearly related to the 
of Connecticut than to that of any of the thirteen colonic: 

— John Fiske 

The eleven fundamental orders of Connecticut wit 
their preamble present the first example in history of 
written constitution. 

— Green's History of English People 



Thomas Hooker, the man who first made possible ou 
American democracy. 

— Elliott, History of New England 



N CONNECTICUT 1639 




The constitution of 1639 is the foundation of the 
)ublican institutions of the colony. It may claim on 
rher considerations the attention of students of politics, 
ence and general history. — J. Hammond Trumbull 

The birthplace of American democracy is Hartford, 
ivernment of the people, by the people and for the 
ople first took shape in Connecticut. The American 
m of commonwealth originated in Connecticut and not 
Massachusetts, Virginia, or any other colony. 

— Alexander Johnston 

The first constitution written out was a complete form 
civil order in the new world, embodies all the essential 
tures of the constitutions of our states and of the 
mblic itself as they exist at the present day.^^ 

— Horace Bushnell 

Alone of the thirteen colonies, Connecticut entered 
o the War of the Revolution with her governor and council 
lier head under the constitution of her royal charter. 

— Leonard Woolsey Bacon 

The people of Connecticut have found no reason to 
/iate essentially from the government as established by 
;ir fathers. — Bancroft 



r 



494 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 




GEN -L HKZEKIAH HAYNES 

Son of Gov. John Haynes, who remained in England, 
owner of Copford Hall 



fei 


K^d 


W^^^:- kr 


hB ^.s^ 




l'^"i 


%^m ^ 


\ il 


ll^f -, ; 


uiil^l 


f 


jWMrajl^^aMBFjHBMM^ 


^^^r^l 



CHURCH ATTENDED HY GRISWOI.DS 

Interments and Memorial Tablets of the family are 

in the churchyard, Warwickshire, England, also a 

tablet to George Griswold, who was undoubtedly the 

father of Edward and Matthew Griswold, the emigrants 



low and Henry Wolcott among the 
laymen ; to the south was the com- 
pany from Watertown. 

Alexander Johnston says, ''These 
settlements had entered the new terri- 
tory, not only as complete organiza- 
tions, but as completely organized 
churches. It was to be the privilege 
of Connecticut to keep the notion of 
this federal relation alive until it could 
be made the fundamental law of all 
the commonwealths in 1789. In this 
respect, the life principles of the Amer- 
ican Union may be traced straight 
back to the primitive union of thr 
three little settlements on the banks of 
the Connecticut." On January 14, 
1639, ^ convention met at Hartford, 
which was a 'momentous occasion in 
iVmerican history. In the creation 
of a constitution there accepted, 
three men are conspicuous : Thomas 
Hooker, the minister and great intel- 
lectual leader, whose sermon of May, 
1638 (but recently deciphered by Dr. 
J. H. Trumbull) reveals him as the 
father of the democracy ; John Haynes, 
the recognized civil leader and first 
governor of the colony of Connecticut, 
and Roger Ludlow, the accomplished 
law3^er, whose hand surely penned the 
document which bears to the legal eye, 
the illegible hall-marks of his profes- 
sional handicraft. Though these three 
figures stand prominently forth on that 
dramatic stage, around them are 
grouped statesmen gathered from 
Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfield, 
who met in that memorable January, 
1639, ^^ frame a constitution, hitherto 
unknown to the nations of the earth. 
The compact prepared in the cabin of 
the Mayflower, though of a most in- 
teresting character, was in no sense a 
constitution, ''defining the powers of 
government to which its framers are 
willing to entrust themselves," and it 
began with a full recognition of royal 
authority and can no longer be inter- 
preted as any factor in democracy. Of 
it, Johnston writes : "It had not a parti- 
cle of political significance, nor was 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 495 




MARFIEI.D CHURCH IN I^EICKSTKRSHIRE:, ENGLAND, WHERE THOMAS HOOKER PRK ACHED 

BEFORE COMING TO AMERICA. 

In oral at rig-tit is the First Church at Hartford, Connecticut, founded by Thomas Hooker 



democracy an impelling force in it." 
It may be interesting to note the per- 
sons constituting that company of Pur- 
itans, which to such an extent has 
peopled this country and determined 
its characteristics. Most of that com- 
pany were well educated. They sacri- 
ficed the environments of wealth and 
such luxury as pertained to the sev- 
enteenth century, to cross the seas and 
encounter manifold privations, suffer- 
ings and dangers for conscience sake. 
They were in no sense wanderers or 
"pilgrims." All of the circumstances 
attending their emigration, unequiv- 
ocally demonstrate that the undertak- 
ing, from first to last, was inspired by 
religious principle. They were true 
"Puritans," living not for the . flesh, 
but the pure spirit from which their 
name is derived. In their interpreta- 
tion of this purity, they elevated the 
spirit, and not only subordinated the 
things of this world, but to a groat ex- 



tent abandoned them and banished 
from their lives such superfluities as 
forms and ceremonies. From the ab- 
sence of worldly considerations left by 
them, very erroneous conclusions have 
been drawn. Plollistcr states : *'Froni 
actual examinations, it appears that 
more than four-fifths of the early land- 
ed i:)roprietors of \ViiuN<^r. Wethers- 
field and Hartford, belong to families 
that had arms granted to them in Rng- 
land. But what had they to (\o with 
the gauntleted hand, the helmeted 
brow, the griftins, the lions, llie straw- 
l)errv and^the storks of the Herald's 
College?" 

Thomas Hooker, Sanuiel Stone. 
Roger Ludlow, John Warham.. John 
Maverick, George Phillips and many 
others, both clergymen and laymen, 
wore university men. Haynes, Wyllys, 
Hrako. A\'oloott, Griswold and Phelps. 
wo kiunv, reliiu|uished beautiful 
bomos, and willi their wivos. who were 



496 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 




JOHN DAVKNPORT, FOUNDER OF FIRST THEOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN NEW WORI.D 

Founded on the brotherhood of man and modeled from the Israelites after 
their escape from, bondage in Egypt 



women of equally good position with 
themselves, cast their lives in with 
those elements which were to create a 
'Vlynamic force" sufficient to revolu- 
tionize the world and elevate humanity. 
The home of Henry Wolcott was 
( iaulden Manor, in Tolland, Somerset- 
shire, England, and the manor house, 
long the residence of this ancient fam- 
ily, was richly ornamented with carved 



work. Henry Wolcott gave up those 
pastimes, "bold, athletic and hardy," 
which the country squires of merry 
England were wont to pursue, attach- 
ed himself to the Puritan movement, 
and set sail for America. Roger 
Ludlow, an Oxford man, was also of 
an ancient English family. 

In less than a year after the settle- 
ment of Hartford, the three river 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 



497 



towns were threatened with extinction, 
and only the most direct and heroic 
measures could save them. In May, 
1637, ''an offensive war was declared 
against the Pequot Indians," and a 
force of ninety men levied, forty-two 
from Hartford, thirty from Windsor, 
eighteen from Wethersfield. Gathered 
together on the bank of the river at 
Hartford, under the command of Capt, 
John Mason, the departing warriors 
received the blessing of Thomas 
Hooker. In a letter written by him 
to Governor Winthrop at Boston, im- 
mediately following, he explained the 
reasons for their course, and adds, "I 
hope you see the necessity to hasten 
execution and not to do this work of 
the Lord slackly." 

The colonists fell upon the Pequots, 
sleeping off a debauch of the previous 
evening, and almost annihilated the 
tribe. 'Tt was civilization against bar- 
barism. It was a mighty blow struck 
in self-defense by a handful of settlers 
againsf a horde of demons. Sachem 
and sagamore against soldier and 
legist; sannup and squaw against 
husbandman and housewife ; war drum 
against church bell ; war whoop a- 
gainst psalm ; savagery, squalor, devil- 
ish rites and incantations against pray- 
er, hymns and exhortations. Warfare, 
rapine and desolation against peace 
and plenty, enlightenment and culture 
and all the social forces that bear 



fruitage under the sunlight of civiliza- 
tion," says John M. Taylor in 'The 
Life of Roger Ludlow." 

The government, self-established., 
under which the three river towns 
had existed from 1639, had proved 
eminently satisfactory, but being with- 
out recognition from the home author- 
ities, there seemed great insecurity 
during the stormy period of the resto- 
ration, and the necessity of a charter 
very apparent. In 1662, John Win- 
throp, perhaps the most courtly and 
tactful man in the colony, was entrust- 
ed with the delicate commission of se- 
curing such from the new sovereign. 
He was the son of Governor Win- 
throp of Massachusetts and, like his 
honored father, "possessed a remark- 
able combination of audacity with vel- 
vet tact. He knew at once how to 
maintain the rights and claims of Con- 
necticut and how to make Charles II 
think him the best fellow in the 
world." So the astute statesman 
sought and obtained a royal charter, 
which "simply gave Connecticut what 
she had already, and which was so 
satisfactorily republican, that she did 
not need to revise it in 1789, but lived 
on with it well into the nineteenth cen- 
tury." This charter defined her ter- 
ritory in such a way as to include some 
of the other colonies which, by royal 
authority, were annexed. * 

Soon the whole of what is now 



L 




RESIDENCE OK THEOPOLIS EATON, AN EAKI.Y EMlORANT. KRKCTKD IN 
NEW HAVEN AS THE EIRST MANSION IN THE COUONV 



498 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 




WILI^IAM SAMUEL JOHNSON 

One of the framers of the Federal Constitution and President of the Committee of Five appointed to 
revise the style of the instrument and arrange its articles — He proposed the organization of the Senate 
as a separate body — Johnson was born and died at Stratford, Connecticut — Copied from original by Gilbert 
Stuart, now in possession of Dr. Charles Frederick Johnson 



known as Connecticut had grown to- 
gether as an extensive repubUc, com- 
posed of towns whose union presented, 
in many respects, a miniature model of 
our present great federal common- 
wealth, and all protected under that 
broad charter, around which cluster 
today cherished traditions. Who can 
imagine Hartford without the Charter 
Oak ? Who in C^onnecticut does not 



know of this same charter and the ten- 
acity with which it was preserved? 
Massachusetts had not only surrender- 
ed her charter, but suffered the humil- 
iation of learning that Connecticut had 
heroically mastered the situation and 
kept the priceless document. In Hart- 
ford, Andros was conquered and the 
crown set at naught. While the au- 
thorities were leathered in courteous 



I' 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 



499 




FIRST STATE HOUSE IN NEW HAVEN, 
ERECTED IN 1763 

conference with their distinguished 
guest. Major Andros, the subject of 
discussion — the charter — lay upon 
the tabic. Suddenly, all the lights 
went out and there was a moment of 
darkness. The candles were re-lit, but 
amazing- to relate, the charter had dis- 
appeared. No one knew whither. It 
was a singular accident, but the most 
polite and gracious governor in the 
world and amiable counsel could not 
surrender an article that was not to be 
found. So Andros, baffled, angry and 
indignant, left with his commission 
unfulfilled. A bold colonist, Captain 
Joseph Wadsworth, had seized the 
charter in that moment of darkness, 
and in company with Captain John 
Talcott escaped with it to W3dlys Hill. 
In the heart of a great oak it was safe- 
ly deposited, transmitting to the ven- 
erable tree that guarded it an immor- 
tal name. 

"Connecticut's line of public con- 
duct was precisely the same after as 
before 1662, and its success was re- 
markable. It is safe to say that the 
diplomatic skill, forethought and self- 
control shown by the men who guided 
the course of Connecticut during this 
period have seldom been equalled on 
the larger fields of the world's his- 
tory. As products of democracy, they 
were its best vindication." 

Following a small remnant of the 
Pequots, as they fled from their devas- 
tated stronghold, along the shores of 
C^onnecticut, the beautiful region w- 



bout Quinnipiac was first disclosed to 
English eyes, and reports of it reach- 
ed Boston in a short time, and so 
glowing were the descriptions, that a 
party of Englishmen, lately arrived, 
greatly longed to appropriate such a 
beautiful retreat. John Davenport, a 
distinguished divine from London. 
with Theopolis Eaton and a "goodh" 
company" had reached Boston a few 
months previous. They desired, how- 
ever, to found a community of their 
own, and though diligent efforts were 
again made to keep such desirable citi- 
zens in Massachusetts, — even to the 
generous offer of the whole town of 
Newberry, — they could not be per- 
suaded to remain, and thev set out for 
the tempting regions of the Connecti- 
cut shore. They settled at Quinnipiac, 
calling the place New Haven. Mr. 
Eaton built a house of large propor- 
tions, having twenty-seven rooms, and 
furnished it in truly luxurious fash- 
ion, for the records bear witness tha: 
he had "tapestries, Turkey carpets 
and tapestry carpets," and that he ac- 
commodated an immense household, 
many besides his immediate familv 
being sheltered in that spacious mar.- 
sion. 

John Davenport had evinced such 
Puritan tendencies l)cfore rcceivinir 




I Er pp l|i 



'^ j^-*' 



THE FIRST MKKTINO HOISK 
IN NKW HAVKN 



500 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 



his ordination, it seemed unlikely that 
he conld receive orders, but his broth- 
er-in-law, Sir Richard Conway, prin- 
cipal secretary to the King in 1624, 
had such influence with Charles I, 
that the young man was apparently 
pardoned his outspoken expressions 
and he was ordained and established 
over St. Stephen's church in London. 
Theopolis Eaton, a wealthy merchant 
of London, was the son of a clergy- 
man in Coventry, who had been the 
teacher of Davenport in his youth, 
Edward Hopkins married the step- 
daughter of Theopolis Eaton and 
came with him from Boston, but set- 
tled in Hartford, and was governor of 
the colony every alternate year with 
Haynes. Two stepsons of Theopolis 
Eaton were David and Thomas Yale, 
the former being great-grandfather of 
Elihu Yale. The New Haven settle- 
ment was a theocratic commonwealth 
like Boston. This remained with the 
outlying districts entirely distinct un- 
til 1662, when they were all incorpo- 
rated into the colony of Connecticut 
by the provisions of the famous char- 
ter. 

As Roger Ludlow still pushed on 
after that remnant of the fleeing Pe- 
quots, he saw beyond Quinnipiac 
(New Haven) another fair spot, nam- 
ed Uncoa, which so pleased him that, 
disappointed, we are told, in not hav- 
ing filled the office of governor in 
either Massachusetts or Connecticut, 
he determined upon founding a colony 
for himself, where he would be the 
unquestioned leader. This place he 
called Fairfield, and hither came his 
intimate friends and companions in 
the pilgrimage from England to Mas- 
sachusetts and Massachusetts to Con- 
necticut. There were many promi- 
nent and wealthy people in Fairfield, 
living in beautiful homes, and many a 
noble specimen of colonial architec- 
ture, and family silver bearing arms 
and crests, perished in that merciless 
destruction of General Tryon and his 



■ Hessian soldiers in the struggle of 
1776. 

Another commonwealth was in 1639 
established at the mouth of the Con- 
necticut river by Colonel George Fen- 
wick, who arrived with his wife, Lady 
Alice Fenwick, often called Lady 
Alice Botteler, accompanied by gentle- 
men of position and their attendants. 
Winthrop had established a fort there 
in 1635, and later, in expectation of 
the arrival of the distinguished com- 
pany, houses had been built under his 
superintendence for ''gentlemen of 
quality." Of this territory, immense 
in extent as described on paper in the 
grant of 163 1,. the Earl of Warwick 
had been made "governor in chief, 
and lord high admiral of all the plan- 
tations within the bounds and upon 
the coasts of America." Five lords, 
members of the House of Lords, and 
twelve gentlemen of the House of 
Commons were appointed to assist 
him ; among the former, Lord Say 
and Seal and Lord Brooke, who with 
many others afterward distinguished 
in the civil war, contemplated a re- 
moval to this place. Sir Henry Vane, 
Sir Richard Saltonstall, Lord Rich, 
John Pym, Oliver Cromwell were a- 
mong the number. The settlement 
received the title of Saybrook, in hon- 
or of Lord Say and Seal and Lord 
Brooke, and enjoyed an independent 
government, administered by Colonel 
George Fenwick. It owed no alle- 
giance to Connecticut until 1644, when 
it became incorporated with that col- 
ony. Pathetic is the sequel of Colonel 
Fenwick's sojourn in the wilderness. 
Conditions had become more favor- 
able in England, and the distinguished 
men and women who were expected 
to follow, remained at home, and upon 
that lonely shore Colonel Fenwick 
buried his high-born wife. Lady Alice, 
and returned alone to his native land, 
leaving all his possessions in New 
England to his sister, Elizabeth, wife 
of Captain John Cullick and later 
Richard Ely. There is in the original 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 



501 




OI.IVKR KIvI^SWORTH, A LEADER IN THE FEDERAL CONVENTION OF 1 787 WHICH 

FRAMED THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

Bllsworth mansion at Windsor, Connecticut — Ellsworth with his colleague, Johnson of Connecticut, 

drew a bill to organize the Judiciary 



town of Saybrook, now Lyme, a very 
old burying-ground, called the Ely 
Cemetery, where for nine generations, 
descendants only of this Richard Ely 
have been buried. No one, save those 
of Ely composition, can be mingled 
with the dust in that select enclosure. 
In Saybrook an ancient tablestone 
with curious scroll top, marks the 
resting place of Lady Fenwick. Hol- 
lister writes : "It speaks of the crown- 
ing excellence and glory of a woman's 
love, who could give up the attrac- 
tions of her proud English home, the 
peerless circles wherein she moved and 
constituted a chief fascination, to fol- 
low her husband to the desolate pe- 
ninsula, where the humble houses of 
wood within the enclosure of the fort 



opened their arms with but a grim and 
chilly welcome. She must have suf- 
fered bitter disappointment, as she 
looked off in vain for the l(^ng-oxpoct- 
ed sail that was to waft the noble 
coterie of lords and ladies, kniglits and 
gentlemen, to Saybrook, whither they 
had promised to flee from the civic 
strifes that beset them at homo." 

John Winthrop of Connecticut was 
the oldest son of Governor Winthrop 
of Boston, born at Groton. England. 
1605, the favorite of his father. He 
was educated at Trinity College. Dub- 
lin, and further equipped by an exten- 
sive European trip, which found him 
at twenty-five years of age one of the 
most highly accomplished and elegant 
men of his time. In i(Si ho came 



S02 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 




ROGER SHERMAN 

The only tnan who took part in drafting our 
four great documents of early national history — 
Declaration of Rights, Declaration of Independ- 
ence, Articles of Confederation, Constitution 

with bis father to America and was 
chosen magistrate for Massachusetts. 
Soon after he went back to England, 
but in 1635 returned with a commis- 
sion to l)uild a fort at the mouth of 
the Connecticut river and to hold the 
place of governor. 

At New London John Winthrop 
also established a colony, and with him 
was associated Rev. Mr. Blinman who 



after ten years was succeeded by Rev. 
Simon Bradstrpet, son of Governor 
Bradstreet and grandson of Governor 
Dudley of Massachusetts. In 1659 
Captain John Mason, with Rev. James 
Fitch and a company of thirty-five, 
followed along the banks of the 
Thames river to a picturesque spot 
betw^een the Yantic and Shetucket riv- 
ers, and created the town of Norwich, 
which Dr. Holmes justly described as 
"a town of supreme, audacious, alpine 
loveliness." 

Again I quote from John Fiske, who 
declares, "To Connecticut was given 
not only the labor and honor of fram- 
ing the first constitution, but at a later, 
most critical moment of, the United 
States, her sons , played a ; savhig part. 
The period jiist following the Revolu- 
tion was fraught with distemper and 
danger. * There w^as lurking dread of 
what might be done by a new and un- 
tried continental power. In 1786 civil 
war was threatened in many quarters, 
bitterness of jealousy between large 
and small states, north and south, was 
such that the assembling of statesmen 
in Philadelphia w^as a gloomy occa- 
sion. Controversy was heated, and 
personal accusations made the situa- 
tion exceedingly grave and dangerous. 
The convention was on the point of 
breaking up ; the members going home 
with their minds clouded and their 
hearts rent at the imminency of civil 
strife, when a compromise was sug- 
gested by Oliver Ellsworth, Roger 
Sherman and William Samuel John- 
son, three immortal names. These 
men represented Connecticut, the State 
which for 150 years had been familiar 
with the co-operation of the federal 
and national principles. In the elec- 
tion of her government, she was a 
little nation ; in the election of her as- 
semblv she was a little confederation* 
thus it w^as that at one of the most 
critical moments of our country's ex- 
istence, the sons of Connecticut play- 
ed a decisive part and made it possi- 
ble for the framew^ork of our national 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 



503 



government to be completed. When 
we consider this noble climax and the 
memorable beginnings which led up 
to it, when we also reflect the mighty 
part federalism is unquestionably to 
play in the future, we shall be con- 
vinced that there is no State in our 
Union whose history will better re- 
pay careful study than Connecticut. 
Surely few incidents are better worth 
turning over and over and surveying 
from all possible points of view, than 
the framing of a little confederation of 
river towns in Hartford in January, 

1639." 

By the searchlight of modern "in- 
telligent study," we may indeed see 
Connecticut illumined with an immor- 
tal radiance, and the figures of four 
dates blazing in unquenchable light, 
1639 — 1662 — 1687 — 1789. The 
hiding of the charter in the oak is 
identified with those series of events 
by which true liberty was inaugurated 
and the United States made possible. 
The first date, 1639, declares an eman- 
cipation of the human race in the cre- 
ation of constitutional libert}^ In 
Hartford was born that ''first written 
constitution known to the world, upon 
which were based the principles of 
constitutional liberty," and under its 
provisions a miniature republic found 
life. The second date, 1662, repre- 
sents the protection and continuance 
of the infant republic which, after the 
restoration, was in danger of destruc- 
tion unless officially recognized by the 
home government. A charter was 
prepared by the Connecticut states- 
men, so broad and comprehensive, that 
one marvels as much at their courage 
as statesmanship, but "fortune favored 
the brave," and the charter was secur- 
ed, and sheltered beneath its protective 
powers, the little republic lived and 
flourished. The year 1687 represents 
again the threatened extinction of this 
same little republic, and still again its 
protection and survival, the indomit- 
able will and ingenuity of the Comiec- 
tlcut colonists overcominsf obstacles. 



as in 1662 statesmanship and the 
charm of a personal magnetism pre- 
vailed to protect the germ of democ- 
racy. And 1789 re]jresents the grand 
fulfillment of ])reliminary measures. 
The constitution of Connecticut had 
produced a form of government so 
satisfactory after a trial of 150 years. 
that it proved the solution of serious 
problems before the constitutional 
convention at Philadelphia, as its ex- 
ample was the inspiration which re- 
sulted in the adoption of the United 
States constitution, constructed on the 
lines of Connecticut's model. 

With a record as unique, — a.-^ 
grand as this, — to have given to the 
world an emancipation second to none 
other in the secular history of man- 
kind, Connecticut stands first in his- 
torical significance. It is not befitting 
the inheritors of such an incomparable 
record, to accept a symbolic title which 
is both a reproach and a disgrace. Is 
there anything in Connecticut's his- 
tory to suggest that its men are cheap 
iinpostcrs, humbugs, of which a wood- 
en nutmeg, manufactured only to cheat 
the credulous, could be symbolic? Is 
it not' our duty, our privilege, to try 
and remove from a State of so noble 
a record, the stain which must result 
from the acceptance of such a title as 
"The Little Wooden Xutnieg State?" 
Why should the mean, dishonest, con- 
temptible act of some unworthy rep- 
resentative be given recognition and 
perpetuity, when histor}- is full of no- 
ble deeds to memorialize? 

One of the truest of men and best 
of Connecticut's governors said twen- 
ty years since, "\Miat the State of 
Connecticut most needs today is State 
pride, which will develoji with con- 
sciousness of its own history." 

Connecticut has been over-modest. 
Hollislor writes, "that Connecticut 
people were un-ambitious for display : 
content with the moral grandeur that 
alone attends the discharge of duty 
and in silent unconsciousness building 
up a j-iolitical structure more sublime 



504 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY 



in its beauty than the towered palaces 
of kings." 

In an estimate of comparative state 
merits, and the Exposition at St. Louis 
invites every state to exhibit its best 
in all departments, — I would urge a 
contemplation of the history of the 
early colonial settlements with a study 
of the character of the settlers, the 
motives impelling emigration and the 
immediate impress of those characters 
upon the history of the new world. 
We will find that the Connecticut set- 
tlers came to America neither for 
trade or adventure ; they were a com- 
pany of highly intelligent men, impel- 
led by religious and civil convictions 
to seek a freedom for the development 
of those convictions. Emigrating to 



Massachusetts, they failed to find there 
the freedom of their ideals, and again 
they emigrated, leaving friends and 
the protection of a "settlement", to 
strike out through the pathless wilder- 
ness seeking truly a "promised land". 
On the banks of the Connecticut the 
haven was found. Such were the set- 
tlers of Connecticut; statesmen of no- 
ble type and far-reaching vision, "who 
builded better than they knew" the 
structure of a free government, "of 
the people, by the people, for the 
people." 

In their memorv and in their name 
may we not honor the Commonwealth 
of their creation by giving it the ap- 
propriate title, — the ''Constitution 
State:' 




MEMORI\Iv GATEWAY TO OLD CENTER CHURCH BURYING GROUND AT HARTFORD, 

CONNECTICUT, WHEREIN LIES REMAINS OF THOMAS HOOKER AND 

MANY OF THE PIONEERS OF THE NATION — ERECTED 

AS MEMORIAL TO GOVERNOR JOHN HAYNES 

Inscription on one of the tablets: "John Haynes, one of the three iUustrious fratners of the 
first writien constitution creating a g-overnment upon which were based the principles of 
American Constitutional liberty" 



THE EVANGELIZATION OF THE WORLD 



FIRST SCHOOL FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS ORGANIZED 
IN THIS COUNTRY WAS IN LITCHFIEtD, CONNEC- 
TICUT—INCLUDED PUPILS FROM BARBARIC COUN- 
TRIES AND TRIBES OF AMERICAN INDIANS 



BY 



H. CLAY TRUMBULL 



Dr. Trumbull had jubL completed his revisiou of this material from his other writings -when his death 
occurred at his home in Philadelphia. The posthumous papers will be continued through .several issue** ol 
the Magazine. — Editok. 



s 



AMUEL J. MILLS was the 
earliest American student vol- 
unteer for the evangelization of 
the world. He was the leader in the 
little group under the haystack at 
William stown, when the storm came 
on as they prayed and as they pur- 
posed to go abroad. He was born 
in Litchfield County, where his father 
was a pastor; as also was the father 
of Adoniram Judson, who was one of 
the first five missionaries to go out 
under the American Board. 

The first school for foreign missions 
organized in this country, if not in 
the world, was in Litchfield County. 
It included pupils from the Sandwich 
Islands, natives of Africa, and persons 
from various tribes of American 
Indians. A number of these pupils 
went back to the peoples from whom 
they came ; and quite a number of 
those who saw them, on visiting the 
school at Cornwall, were aroused by 
this object lesson to go out as foreign 
missionaries. Among these was 
Hiram Bingham, the pioneer mission- 
ary to the Sandwich Islands. 



Of the pupils in that Foreign Mis- 
sionary School at Cornwall, ten went 
as missionaries to the Indians, seven- 
teen to the Sandwich Islands, and the 
others were widely scattered. 

Litchfield County was, in a sense, 
the beginning of the American for- 
eign missionary work. For years it 
continued to be in the lead. It is 
recorded of Dr. Worcester, the earl\ 
corresponding secretary of the Amer- 
ican Board, that when the liberal 
contributions came in from this field 
in a time of financial embarrassment, 
he cried out with a grateful heart, "1 
bless God for making Litchfield 
County." And so said many another 
man of God, as the years passed on. 

Among the earnest and influential 
friends and representative advocates 
of the foreign missionary cause was 
for years the Rev. Dr. Augustus C. 
Thompson, a native of Goshen, ot 
Litchfield County. He was one of 
the Prudential Committee of tlie 
American Board for more than forty 
years. He was n member of tlie 
deputation from the Board to visit 



5o6 



THE EVANGELIZATION OF THE WORLD 



the missions of India, in 1854 and 
1855. He was for a time the formal 
lecturer on foreign missions in Ando- 
ver Theological Seminary, in the 
Hartford Theological Seminary, and 
at Boston University. He wrote 
an important volume on Moravian 
missions, another on Protestant mis- 
sions, and yet another on foreign 
missions. Yet, while doing all this 
work at home and abroad, he was for 
nearly sixty years pastor of the Eliot 
Congregational Church at Roxbury, 
Massachusetts, and he was the author 
of very many sacred and devotional 
volumes that have made their impress 
on this generation. And this is but 
a single Litchfield County native. 

The Hon. Robbins Battell of Nor- 
folk was one of the friends of mis- 
sions who made Litchfield County a 
place for which to thank God. He 
was a relative of two of the pioneers 
whose names are on the famous hay- 
stack monument at Williamstown. 
For eighteen years he was a corporate 
member of the American Board, giv- 
ing ever wise and valued counsel in 
its management, and contributing of 
his means to aid it liberally in its 
ordinary outlays, and again, on 
special occasions, to lift its occasional 
debts. This continued to his life's 
close. 

A number of active missionaries to 
foreign fields were natives of Litch- 
field County, and all of them were 
worthy of their nativity. Isaac Bird 
of this county Vv^as a worker of note 
in Palestine, and both there and after 
his return he did good service to God 
and to man. A yet earlier missionary 
from this county, Benjamin C. Meigs, 
did good service in Ceylon, which has 
been for years one of the strategic 



points of the world's conquest for 
Christ. 

In the first fifty years of American 
missionary history it should be noted 
that, besides those already mentioned, 
and besides children of Litchfield 
County natives born elsewhere, the 
Rev. Abel K. Hinsdale went from 
Torrington to the Nestorian mission ; 
Mary Grant, wife of the Rev. Eben- 
ezer Burgess, went from Colebrook 
to Ahmednuggur in the Mahratta 
mission; Julia M. Terry, wife of the 
Rev. Charles Harding, went from 
Plymouth to Bombay ; Sarah M. Peet 
of Bethlehem, with her husband, 
Benjamin C. Meigs, went to Ceylon ; 
the Rev. John M. S. Perry went from 
Sharon to Ceylon; the Rev. Samuel 
G. Whittlesey went from New Pres- 
ton to Ceylon ; Sarah A. Chamberlain 
of Sharon^ wife of the Rev. Joseph 
Scudder, also went to Ceylon. Be- 
sides those missionaries already 
named as going from Litchfield 
County to the Sandwich Islands, 
there should be mentioned the Rev. 
David B. Lyman of New Hartford, 
who went to Honolulu ; the Rev. 
Mark Ives of Goshen, who went to 
Honolulu ; the Rev. Eliphalet Whittle- 
sey of Salisbury, who also went to 
Honolulu ; Mr. Abner Wilcox, from 
Harwinton, went to Hilo; Louise 
Everest of Cornwall, wife of the Rev. 
James Ely, went to Honolulu. 

Quite a number of the most active 
and influential missionaries among 
the Cherokees and Choctaws and 
Dakotas, and the Ojibwas and Osages, 
were from Litchfield County. In 
former days the American Indians 
were accounted a foreign nation, — as 
they are still, by man, treated as 
though they were. 



THE EVANGELIZATION OF THE WORLD 



507 



The first temperance society in 
Connecticut, and one of the first in the 
United States, and that at a time 
when it was sadly enough needed, was 
formed in Litchfield County. This 
was a result of the powerful preaching 
on the subject by Dr. Lyman Beecher, 
who was pastor of a church in Litch- 
field. The temperance society then 
formed was a beginning of wide- 
spread good in America. 

Another Litchfield County man, Dr. 
Ebenezer Porter of Cornwall, was the 
author of the first publication in this 
country on the subject of temperance; 
and such a beginning was more 
important than we can now compre- 
hend. 

That there was need of temperance 
reform in the community in those 

»days in New England, even more 
positively than to-day, there cannot 
be a doubt. The clergyman in my 
native place who was a predecessor 
of my pastor said, in a published ser- 
mon, that, of the fifty-five heads of 
families whom he had last buried, the 
deaths of fifty were occasioned by 
indulgence in alcoholic beverages. 
There was certainly a call for such a 
temperance reform as was started by 
Lyman Beecher in his day. 

In the early days of our country's 
history there was too much active 
practical work to do to allow time for 
close study on the part of men who 
were needed in action in order to live 
and to enable others to live. Yet the 
very men who have power to con- 
struct a state, when state building is 
a duty, are often the men to construct 
a poem or a romance when they have 
time for it. 

When the tim.e came for literature 
in New England, there was a coterie 
i of thinkers and doers, known as the 



''Hartford Wits," because of Hart- 
ford's being their center of publica- 
tion, who stimulated and shaped an 
improved style in thinking and 
writing. Foremost among these 
literary reformers was John Trumbull, 
a native of Watertown in Litchfield 
County, whose father was a pas- 
tor there. John Trumbull wrote 
"McFingal," a poem that had wide 
influence in this country and abroad. 
He afterwards removed to Detroit, 
where he was known as Judge Trum- 
bull. 

A pastor and native of Litchfield 
County, whose theological and devo- 
tional writings had exceptional 
prominence and influence here and in 
Great Britain, was the Rev. Dr. Joseph 
Bellamy of Bethlehem. A grandson 
of this pastor, Edward Bellamy, made 
his impress on the present generation 
by his widely circulated ''Looking 
Backward.'' 

Dr. Eli Hubbard Smith of Litch- 
field was another of the famous 
"Hartford Wits." He was of some 
prominence, and he compiled and 
published what is said to have been 
"the first general collection of poetry 
ever attempted in thir. country." 
Thus Litchfield County had its full 
share in the beginning of our Amer- 
ican literature. 

Another native clerg}'man of prom- 
inence was the Rev. Dr. Nathaniel 
W. Taylor. He was n recognized 
leader in theological thought in his 
denomination throughout the country. 
He bore the same relation to New 
School Congregationalism in this 
country as did Albert Barnes to Now 
School Presbyterianism. Dr. Taylor 
was for many years a professor in 
Yale Divinity School. 

Oberlin College in Ohio wa'? 



5o8 



THE EVANGELIZATION OF THE WORLD 



founded as a college, on the basis of 
a former institution, in order to enable 
Charles G. Finney of Litchfield 
County to impress his theological 
views on young divinity students, and 
for more than a generation he did 
that successfully. 

Dr. John Pierpont, a native of 
Litchfield, was a poet and a theologian 
who had marked influence in the 
sphere of Harvard University. And 
in another way his influence continues 
widely to the present day. Junius 
Morgan, the partner of George Pea- 
body, married a daughter of John 
Pierpont ; and her son, John Pierpont 
Morgan, is at present the foremost 
financier in the world, whose move- 
ments are heralded in the world's 
financial centers because of his ability 
and his power. 

Jeremiah Day, who succeeded the 
first Timothy Dvv^ight as president of 
Yale College, and held that position 
for nearly thirty years, was from 
New Preston in Litchfield County. 
Before he was president of Yale he 
had an international reputation as a 
mathematician and as a writer of 
text-books on mathematics and navi- 
gation. 

A member of the same family, born 
in the same town, Henry Noble Day, 
D.D., LL.D., was a Congregational 
]:)astor, and later was professor of 
rhetoric in Western Reserve College, 
and again president of Ohio Female 
College. He vras the author of text- 
books on elocution, and rhetoric, and 
logic, and English literature, and 
ethics, before going to New Plaven to 
live. 

Dr. Charles G. Finney of Litchfield 
County has been mentioned as the 
organizer and president of Oberlin 



College, one of the first and most 
important of co-educational colleges 
in America. Dr. J. M. Sturtevant of 
the same town as Dr. Finney, was 
president of Illinois College, whicli 
had done a great vv^ork in that state 
and beyond, before Chicago Univer- 
sity was a possibility. 

Dr. Azel Backus of this county was 
called to be president of Hamilton 
College. Dr. Horace Holley of Salis- 
bury, after being for some time a 
pastor in Kentucky. The Rev. J. A. 
P. Rogers was the real founder of 
Berea College in Kentucky, a border- 
line fortress of antislavery aggression 
for years before the Civil War. 

Rufus Babcock, born in North 
Colebrook, became a Baptist pastor of 
prominence. He was elected presi- 
dent of Waterville College, now Colby 
University. He was well known as 
an editor and author. He was at 
different times corresponding secre- 
tary of the American and Foreign 
Bible Society, of the American Coloni- 
zation Society, and of the American 
Sunday-School Union. He was for 
years a leader in his denomination. 

This is at least the seventh college 
president from that one rural county 
in Connecticut. It certainly has done 
its share toward education in this 
country. 

The Rev. Dr. Ebenezer Porter of 
Cornwall was professor of rhetoric, 
and afterwards president of Andover 
Theological Seminary. One of hi.'- 
books passed through three hundred 
editions. He organized the American 
Education Society, and through that 
did a great work for the country. 

Two generations ago two of the 
best known American writers of 
elementary text-books on algebra, 



THE EVANGELIZATION OF THE WORLD 



509 



geometry, trigonometry, and other 
branches of mathematics taught in 
academies or colleges, were Jeremiah 
Day and Charles Davies. Both of 
these scholars were natives of Litch- 
field County. President Jeremiah 
Day of Yale has before been men- 
tioned. Professor Charles E. Davies, 
another native of that county, was for 
some time professor of mathematics 
at West Point, and afterwards at 
Columbia College. Professor Benja- 
min W. Bacon, of Yale Theological 
Seminary, was born in Litchfield, 
where his father. Dr. Leonard Wool- 
sey Bacon, was pastor. 

One of the same family as Dr. 
Augustus C. Thompson of Goshen, 
who did so much for the foreign 
missionary cause, was Dr. William 
Thompson. Pie was for half a cen- 
tury professor of Hebrew in Hartford 
Theological Seminary, as the suc- 
cessor of East Windsor Theological 
Seminary. During much of this time 
he was dean of the faculty. His 
impress for good was on a generation 
of New England clergymen, and the 
churches to which they ministered. 

Professor Asaph Hall of the United 
States Navy, a native of Litchfield 
County, is popularly known as the 
discoverer of the satellites of Mars, 
although that is but a minor matter 
in his scientific attainments. He has 
had charge of astronomical expedi- 
tions to different parts of the world, 
notable solar eclipses in 1869, 1870, 
nnd 1878, and transits of Venus in 
1874 and 1882. A son of this naval 
scientist is professor of astronomy 
in the University of Michigan. 

The Hon. Henry Dutton of Ply- 
mouth, in this county, was governor 
of Connecticut, and afterwards dean 



of the Yale Law School. Another 
member of the same family, Matthew 
Rice Dutton was professor of mathe- 
matics, philosophy, and astronomy 
in Yale, while all three branches of 
science were held by one professor. 
The Rev. Aaron Dutton, born in the 
old homestead in Litchfield County, 
was for years pastor at Guilford, 
Connecticut; and his son, the Rev. 
Dr. S. W. S. Dutton, was pastor of 
the North Congregational Church on 
the New Haven Green. 

As over against the weapons of war 
and the leaders of armed hosts which 
went out from Litchfield County, 
there were the beginnings of foreign 
missionary service and the girdling ot 
the globe with praises of children. 
A native of Washington in this county 
was Thomas Hastings, a valued asso- 
ciate of William B. Bradbury in the 
songs and music that prepared the 
way for the Moody and Sankey 
hymns. For years Bradbury and 
Hastings worked lovingly together in 
this county and work. Among the 
m.any well-known and popular hymns 
written by Thomas Hastings are: — 
"Jesus, merciful and mild," "Hail to 
the brightness of Zion's glad morn- 
ing," "He that goeth fortli with 
weeping." 

Again, the well-known musical 
director and instructor and author. 
Professor Charles W. Landon, is a 
native of Lakeville in the town of 
Salisbury, where were the famous 
iron mines and ordnance foundries. 
His principal consers'atory is in 
Dallas, Texas, but his many musical- 
instruction publications are as well 
known in Philadelphia and New York 
as in the South. 

Robbins Battell of Norfolk was a 



5IO 



THE EVANGELIZATION OE THE WORLD 



capitalist, a philanthropist, and a lover 
of music, painting- and architecture. 
His musical qualities and attainments 
were of a very high order. While a 
student at Yale, he and his classmate, 
Richard Storrs Willis, led the service 
of sacred song in the college chapel 
during all their college course. 
Again, for half a century he made it 
his pleasure and duty to lead the choir 
in the Norfolk church. In this ser- 
vice he was a rare inspiration to many 
until he joined the heavenly choir. 

He took particular delight in church 
bells and chimes, the accuracy and 
refinement of his ear making him a 
judge of the fitness of each bell of a 
chime to an extent rarely attained by 
a musical artist. In any line of art 
in which he was interested he sought 
to bring up the standard of those 
in his own home community and in 
other communities which he sought to 
benefit. He presented to his home 
church in Norfolk, where he for many 
years led the church choir, a set of 
chimes of exceptional beauty and 
value, thought to be unequaled in this 
country. He presented a fine set to 
Williams College, another set to 
Beloit College, another set to Carleton 
College, and yet others to various 
institutions, where his memory is 
melodiously held dear. 

He, with other members of the 
Norfolk Battell family, gave to Yale 
its attractive college chapel, with its 
fitting enlargement. They supplied 
the founding and endowment of the 
Battell professorship of sacred music, 
lield by Gustave J. Stoeckel, as re- 
membered pleasantly by succeeding 
generations of Yale alumni. 

Mr. Battell wrote music of a high 
order, to accompany words written 



by himself or by other members of 
his family, or as pre-eminently 
adapted by words that had seemed to 
vv^ait for his accompaniment. It was 
said of Mr. Battell that he possessed 
a similar gift to that of Sullivan in 
his rare adaptation of music to words. 
Perhaps his best known contribution 
to sacred music is his setting to the 
hymn, "Abide with Me," and by that 
he will be long remembered; again, 
his ''German Trust Song," and 
"Evening," and "The Lord my 
Shepherd is," and "Sweet is the 
work, my God, my King," and many 
others. During our Civil War, Mr. 
Battell set to music a number of 
plantation melodies, which won gen- 
eral favor and drew forth warm 
commendation from John G. Whittier. 

A beautifully printed volume of the 
"Music and Poetry of Norfolk" 
suggests what treasures there are in 
this artistic field, and how much the 
country owes to this summit town of 
Litchfield County. A gallery of fine 
paintings, open to the public by Mr. 
Robbins Battell, has done much for 
the education of the taste of the 
community. A single illustration of 
this is the large painting by Thomas 
Hovenden, at the suggestion and 
order of Mr. Battell, of "The Last 
Moments of John Brown," — a Litch- 
field County neighbor. 

If, indeed, nothing more could be 
told of Litchfield County than the 
story of Robbins Battell and of his 
work, it would be a notable county. 
Of that work only a slight portion has 
been suggested. 

Another Litchfield County writer 
and teacher of note in the field of mu- 
sic and song was George E. Thorpe, 
who recently died in London, where he 



THE EVANGELIZATION OF THE WORLD 511 

was well known and honored. He ous cities. He perfected himself in his 

was born in Winsted in 1857. He was sphere in Leipsic. After this he was 

a student in Hamilton College, and in invited to London as a teacher, lec- 

the Boston Conservatory of Music, turer, and writer. He there became 

He began his career as a teacher principal of the National Scientific 

of vocal music in Thompsonville, Con- Voice-Training Society. His writ- 

necticut, in 1882. He was afterwards ings on method and voice culture are 

known as a singer and leader in vari- known on both sides of the ocean. 



TRAIIylNG ARBUTUS 



Darlings of the forest ! 

Blossoming alone 
When the Earth's grief is sorest 

For her jewels gone — 
Ere the last snow-drift melts, your tender buds have blown. 

Tinged with color faintly, 

Like the morning sky, 
Or more pale and saintly 
Wrapped in leaves ye lie, 
Even as children sleep in faith's simplicity. 

There the wild wood-robin 

Hymns your solitude, 
And the rain comes sobbing' 

Through the budding wood, 
While the low south-wind sighs, but dare not be more rude. 

Were your pure lips fashioned 

Out of air and dew ; 
Starlight unimpassioned, 

Dawn's most tender hue — 
And scented by the woods that gathered sweets for you ' 

Fairest and most lonely, 

From the world apart, 
Made for beauty only. 

Veiled from Nature's heart, 
With such unconscious grace as makes the dream of Art ! 

Were not mortal sorrow, 

An immortal shade. 
Then would I to-morrow 
Such a flower be made, 
And live in the dear woods where my lost childhood played. 
—From *Rose Terrv Cooke's Poems 



*Born in West Hartford. Conn., Feb. 17, 



THE BALLAD OF THE TIDE 



BY 

J. H. GUERNSEY 

Mr. Guernsey's mauy poems are to be collected and presented in book form. The following ballad will 
be included in this work. Mr. Guernsey is not only a poet but a practical citizen occupying the political 
honor of postmaster at Waterbur^^ Connecticut.— KniTOR 

One night when the moon like a 1)if»; silver bell 
Hung low o'er the waters at play, 
I listened entranced to the ebb and the swell, 
And the wonderful waves seemed a story to tell 
'Mid the .surge and the foam and the spray. — 

Oh, I am the Tide, swing low silver moon, 

My beautiful governess bright, 

Let me cradle your beams to a rhythmic old turre, 

For the watcher whose heart is perpetual June, 

Or a weary and wandering wight. 

Oh, I am the Tide, ever restless and wide, I 

There's no man can give me control, 

I drink all the rivers that flow to ray side, 

I send back the dew with a bountiful pride 

As onward forever I roll. — 

I lave the red coral on India's shore, 

I visit the glad Galilee, 

1 splash the long reeds where the North tempests roar, 

I feed the lone geese when the long flight is o'ar, 

In the marsh of Siberia's sea. — 

I bear to the loved all that love can bestow. 
The passion of presence again, 
1 harbour a grief while I laugh at the blow ; 
I have secrets Eternity only can know, 
And my silence is passionate pain ! — 

Oh, I laugh and I sing, and my breakers they roar, 

I sob, and I circle and grieve, 

And twice every day run away from the shore, 

Forever and aye, never less, never more, 

And return just as soon as I leave. 

Oh, I am the Tide, I shall live evermore, 

I was born before heaven or men, 

I'm a healer of wounds, I'm the mother of more. 

And when I depart any day about four, 

I wander back home about ten. — 



GOVERNMENT FOUNDED ON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE 



HOW CONNKCTICUT CAMR TO THE REvSCUE WHEN THE 
NEW REPUBLIC WA.S FACING ITS FIRST CRISIS- 
CONCLUSION OF ESSAY ON FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 



BY 



ARI.ON TAYLOR ADAMvS 



IT Vv-as after the Indian period that 
Connecticut became the home of 
distinguished statesmen. From 
1775 to 1800 was her most brilliant 
period. Her institutions were, com- 
paratively, the most highly developed, 
her people the most independent, her 
representatives the most famous in the 
legislative and judicial branches of the 
government. As the one state which 
can claim to base the origin and nature 
of her government on the will of the 
people, she stands alone, not only in 
the glorious union of states but in the 
world. The fathers biiilded well on 
the rocky New England foundation, 
and their sons have toiled, suffered 
and bled that the work of the fathers 
might endure. 

In this writing I shall give briefly 
the story of Connecticut's part in the 
niaking of the federal constitution as 
begun in the last article. 

The debates in the constitutional 
convention naturally fall into three 
periods. From May thirtieth to June 
nineteenth the convention resolved it- 
self into the committee of the whole on 
the state of the Union. During this 
time the resolutions of John Randolph, 
known ar> the "National" plan, were 
presented and considered (May 30- 



June 13). On June fifteenth the o;]; 
mittee reported in favor of this plan. 
Thereupon Patterson of New Jersey 
presented his scheme of a loose con- 
federation known as the "New Jersey" 
plan. This was referred to the com- 
mittee of the whole and the "Na- 
tional" plan also recommitted. On 
June ninetecntli the committee again 
reported in favor of the "National" 
plan. Brief debates followed before 
a quiet house. The second pcrioii 
(June 19- July 26) was occupied in 
extended debates on the "National" 
plan. On July twenty-sixth a com- 
mittee of five "on style," composed of 
Johnson, of Connecticut (Chairman), 
Hamilton, G. Morris, Madison, and 
King, was appointed to report a con- 
stitution conformable to the twenty- 
three resolutions adopted by the con- 
vention. During the third period 
(Aug. 6-Sept. 16) the detailed plan 
was considered. On September six- 
teenth the Constitution was adopted 
and after a few changes signed on the 
next day. All but three of tlie dele- 
gates present signed. Names of the 
Connecticut delegates do not appear, 
as they had already set out for home 
to push on the campaign for ratifica- 
tion in Connecticut. 



514 



GOVERNMENT FOUNDED 



Judge Ellsworth took his seat in the 
Convention on May twenty-eighth 
(28), Mr. Sherman on May thirtieth 
(30), and Dr. Johnson on June second 
(2). On the first day that he was 
present Sherman expressed the opinion 
that additional powers ought to be 
given to Congress, particularly that of 
raising money, which, he said, involved 
many others ; also that the general 
and particular jurisdictions should riot 
be concurrent. He inclined to favor 
merely a moderate revision of the 
Articles. The following day he op- 
posed the election of delegates to Con- 
gress by the people, advocating their 
election by the state legislatures. He 
favored one member from each state. 
In voting on the question of giving 
power to the federal government 
where the states are not competent 
Sherman vv^as recorded in the nega- 
tive, Ellsworth in the affirmative. 
Concerning the executive Sherman 
thought that branch of the govern- 
ment was merely an institution to 
carry out the will of the legislature. 
Hence he thought the executive ought 
to be elected by and be accountable 
to the legislature. He also held that 
the legislature should have power to 
remove the executive at pleasure and 
was opposed to conferring the power 
of an absolute veto upon him because 
''no man could so far exceed the com- 
bined wisdom of all the rest." More- 
over he proposed that there be a coun- 
cil to the executive. 

Sherman argued (June 5) that rati- 
fication should be by the state legisla- 
tures and Congress, as in the case of 
the Articles of Confederation, con- 
sidering a direct vote of the people 
unnecessary. He opposed a new 
system of inferior courts as too 



expensive, holding the state courts 
sufficient. He thought that these 
ought to have the power to decide 
appeals to the United States Supreme 
Court. He declared (June 6) that the 
state legislatures ought to elect the 
members of the national legislature, 
especially those of the upper house. 
He considered the objects of the pro- 
posed union few: First, defense 
against foreign aggression ; second, 
internal peace and prosperity; third, 
international treaties; fourth, regula- 
tion of commerce and the revenue. 
All other civil and criminal matters 
should be in the control of the 
several states. Nations ought neither 
to be too large for the powers of gov- 
ernment to pervade them nor so small 
as to be governed by factions. The 
national legislature should not have 
power to veto state laws, or if so, this 
power should be carefully defined. 
On June eleventh Mr. Sherman first 
proposed that the proportion of mem- 
bers in the House should be according 
to the free population, while in the 
Senate each state should be equally 
represented. He was thus the first to 
propose the basis of the "Connecticut 
Compromise." "His merit is that he 
saw^ the necessity at this early day of 
the convention and bore the brunt of 
its support after its apparent defeat 
until it was finally adopted." 

At the opening of the debate on the 
"National" plan. Judge Ellsworth de- 
clared it as his opinion that the breach 
of one of the articles ought not to 
dissolve the whole constitution. He 
wished it to be in the form of an 
amendment to the Articles of Con- 
federation so that the state legislatures 
might have power to ratify it. In his 
strongest speech he directed two ques- 



ON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE 



515 



tions to Mr. Wilson and Mr. Madison. 
Of Mr. Wilson he inquired whether he 
had ever seen a good measure fail in 
Congress for want of support ; of Mr. 
Madison he demanded whether a 
negative lodged with a majority of the 
states, even the smallest, could be more 
dangerous than the qualified negative 
lodged with a single executive who 
must be from one of the states. Mr. 
Sherman urged a national legislature 
of a single house, holding that all Con- 
gress lacked was sufficient power. If 
two houses were agreed upon, a com- 
promise in representation would be 
necessary. On the question the vote 
stool seven to three in favor of two 
houses. Ellsworth favored annual 
elections to the House with state pay- 
ment of the salaries of national legis- 
lators iDccause of local differences. 
Sherman favored the referment of 
both amount and payment to the state. 
Ellsworth spoke in favor of the elec- 
tion of senators by the state legisla- 
ture, and equal state representation in 
the senate to protect the minority 
from destruction. The debate became 
so heated on the subject of represen- 
tation in the two branches of Congress 
that Franklin, who was not renowned 
for his piety, moved that the sessions 
be opened with prayer each day. The 
vote was avoided by adjournment. 
Sherman declared that it was "not a 
question of rights but how can they be 
most equitably guarded. If some give 
more than others to this end there 
will be no reason for complaint. To 
require equal sacrifice from all would 
create danger to some and defeat the 
end." ("Writings of Madison, Vol. 
II, see June 28.") The vote was 
against equal suffrage in the House 
by states. Johnson spoke in favor of 



the compromise. He argued as fol- 
lows : The fundamental differences in 
the grounds of argument will render 
the debate endless. By some the 
states are held to be parts of one politi- 
cal society, by others as separate politi- 
cal societies. The fact is that the 
states exist as separate societies and a 
government is to be formed for them 
in their political capacity as well as for 
the individuals composing them. The 
states must have the power of self- 
defense given by the compromise. 
Ellsworth "did not despair, he still 
hoped that some good form of govern- 
ment would be devised and adopted." 
He moved that there be equal repre- 
sentation of the states in the senate. 
By a tie vote this motion was lost on 
July second. This was the crisis of 
the convention. If there had been a 
majority in the negative the conven- 
tion would probably have broken up. 
The vote stood five to five, with 
Georgia divided. The representative 
from Georgia whose vote in the 
affirmative brought about the division 
of his state was Abraham Baldwin, a 
native of Connecticut, who had 
recently emigrated to the south. 
Georgia was the last state to vote and 
Baldwin yielded his personal opinioi^ 
to the desire for union. As the rep- 
resentatives from New Hampshire and 
Rhode Island, who were not present, 
would undoubtedly have voted in the 
affirmative, a compromise was now re- 
garded as a necessity. Accordingly, 
a committee of one from each state. 
known as the committee of eleven, was 
appointed. It reported two proposi- 
tions as follows: First, that in the 
House there shall be one representa- 
tive for every forty thousand inhabi- 
tants, each state to have at least one : 



5i6 



GOVERNMENT FOUNDED 



all money bills to originate in the 
House and not to be amended in the 
Senate. No money to be drawn from 
the treasury but in pursuance of appro- 
priations originating in the House. 
Second, in the Senate each state shall 
have equal representation. 

Madison says that Dr. Franklin 
suggested the compromise in the com- 
mittee and that Sherman, who took 
Ellsworth's place, proposed that each 
state should have an equal vote in the 
Senate, provided that no decisions 
should prevail unless the states favor- 
ing represented a majority of the 
population of the country. This latter 
was not discussed at length. Madison 
adds that this proposition had been 
made before, probably referring to 
Sherman's suggestion in the Continen- 
tal Congress in 1776. Sherman's 
arguments for equal representation in 
the Senate were as follows : It would 
give the necessary vigor to the govern- 
ment. The small states have more 
\igor in their government than the 
large. Hence the more influence the 
small states have the stronger will be 
the federal government. With equal 
ixrpresentation there will always be a 
majority for public measures which 
some large states might oppose. It 
would preserve the state governments. 
He was not opposed to the per capita 
vote in the Senate, which was carried. 
On July twelfth, Ellsworth moved that 
direct taxation be apportioned accord- 
ing to the free population and three 
lifths of all other. Later both repre- 
sentation and taxation were appor- 
tioned on this basis. The whole re- 
port as amended was approved by the 
vote of five states to four with Massa- 
chusetts divided. 

A brief summary of the action of 



the convention on the Connecticut 
compromise is in place at this point. 
The first motion that the states have 
an equal vote in the Senate was made 
by Sherman in the committee, of the 
whole on June ninth. Although 
supported by Ellsworth, it was lost 
though by a vote of five to six. 
Directly afterward a motion that the 
right of suffrage be by population in 
both Senate and House prevailed. 
The third step was taken when Ells- 
worth moved that the rule of suffrage 
in the Senate be the same as by the 
Articles of Confederation. After a 
long debate the convention was equally 
divided on the question. A committee 
of eleven was then appointed to report 
a compromise. Their report was ac- 
cepted on July sixteenth. On July 
twenty-third, it was agreed that the 
vote in the Senate be per capita. 
Finally on September fifteenth Sher- 
man carried as a proviso to the Article 
on amendment, that "no state shall, 
without its consent, be deprived of 
equal suffrage in the Senate." 

Mr. Sherman was easily the most 
prominent of the Connecticut dele- 
gates. He "showed the highest quali- 
ties of a statesman in knowing when to 
compromise and when to be firm." 
Fie was equally firm in defending the 
power of the states against the federal 
government, and in opposing the coin- 
ing of money or emission of bills of 
credit by the states. He realized that 
the states would act together from 
unity of interest rather than from 
equality of size ; and, at the close, 
pleaded for equal representation in the 
Senate as the defense of all the states 
against the federal government. Ex- 
perience has shown that there never 
was any danger of the large states 



ON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE 



.517 



oppressing the small. Sherman was 
right in the belief tliat the majority 
of the people favored merely the 
amendment of the Articles of Con- 
federation, not a purely federal gov- 
ernment. Ellsworth had this attitude 
of the people in mind when he pro- 
posed the change in name from the 
"National Government" to "The 
Government of the United States." 
Nullification and the Hartford conven- 
tion proved the nationalists right in 
regard to the danger of the states to 
the federal government. The failure 
of both of these movements speaks 
well for the constitutional safeguards. 
The Senate never guarded the states 
against the House, it was never anti- 
national. It became a small body of 
picked men, a fit check upon the 
popular house and a safe depository of 
the treaty-making power. 

The convention prepared an address 
to the several states urging the adop- 
tion of the Constitution. The Con- 
necticut delegation sent a letter to 
Governor Huntington urging favor- 
able action. Besides the principles set 
forth in the plea of the convention, it 
called attention to the following 
points : First, that while Congress was 
differently organized than under the 
confederation the total number of 
members, and that of the Connecticut 
delegation remained the same ; second, 
equal representation in the Senate and 
its voice in appointment to office se- 
cures the rights of the small and large 
states alike ; third, the additional pow- 
' rs given to Congress have solely to do 
with the general welfare, while the 
states are left sovereign in local affairs 
and the powers not expressly granted ; 
fourth, the objects to which Congi'ess 



may apply money are the same as 
under the confederation — defense, gen - 
eral welfare, and the debts contracted 
for the same. The principal revenue 
v>all be from imposts, and the power 
of direct taxation will be little used 
if the states furnish their quotas. 
(Experience has shown this to be 
true.) Finally the prohibition to the 
states of the power to coin money and 
emit bills of credit is necessary for the 
interest of comm.erce, domestic and 
foreign. 

The state legislature acted promptly. 
A convention to consider ratification 
was called to meet at Hartford in 
January, 1788. There was little op- 
position either in the legislature or 
among the people at large. Dr. Ezra 
Stiles, President of Yale, expressed 
what was probably the typical opinion 
of thoughtful citizens of the state 
when he declared that the new consti- 
tution was not the best possible but 
the best obtainable at the time, better 
than he had expected and well worthy 
of adoption. The press was almo<;t 
unanimously in favor of ratification. 
Noah and Pelatiah Webster wrote ex- 
tensively in favor of ratification. Ho 
considered the constitution a compact, 
as Dr. Johnson, a stanch supporter of 
states-rights, declared. Noah Welv 
ster held that the new federal legisla- 
ture would not be more expensive 
and would not annihilate the state 
lespislatures. The rights of the libertv 
of the press and trial by jury arc not 
affected at all by the Constitution. 
The power to tax is necessary-, but 
granted only for specific purposes. 
The state was the stroncfhold of the 
"federalist" party, as it afterwards 
became known, until tS'^ 'Hv^ p-r^- 



5i8 



GOVERNMENT FOUNDED 



continued to control Connecticut state 
politics long- after it had ceased even 
to be represented in federal politics. 

The state convention met and organ- 
ized on January third, 1788, electing 
Hon. Matthew Griswold, of Lyme, 
President, and Jebediah Strong, of 
Litchfield, Secretary. Among the 
members prominent at that time were : 
General Wads worth, Jesse Root, Eras- 
tus Wolcott, Oliver Wolcott, Oliver 
Ellsworth, Roger Sherman, William 
S. Johnson, Gov. Huntington, Mat- 
thew Griswold, and William Williams. 
Ellsworth opened the debate. He 
argued that the new constitution pre- 
supposes the necessity of a federal 
government because of the insuffi- 
ciency of the Confederation; that it 
was necessary for defense, econom}^ 
internal peace and the preservation of 
justice. He referred to ancient, 
medieval and modern confederacies 
at some length in the classical manner 
of the period to show that the coercive 
power has always been possessed by, 
and is necessary to, all federal govern- 
ments. He made clear the injustice 
of state regulation of commerce by 
recalling the fact that New York col- 
lected yearly more than fifty thou- 
sand pounds in imposts on goods for 
Connecticut consumption which had 
to pass through the port of New York. 

The opposition was led by General 
Wadsworth, who attempted to show 
that the Constitution grants too much 
jjowcr to the general government, 
especially as to taxation, in that the 
power extends to all objects of taxa- 
tion whatsoever, it is partial, and 
ought not to be combined with the 
])ower of the sword in Congress. He 
also thought the addition of a bill of 
rights essential before the instrument 



should be seriously considered. Judge 
Ellsworth replied at some length, 
showing that the power of taxation 
did not apply to all objects exclusiveh". 
Every means of taxation, excepting 
imposts, still remained open to the 
states. The state debts had been 
incurred from want of federal power 
vested in Congress. The resources of 
the country must be at the command 
of the government. Moreover, the 
use of the power of taxation in regard 
to imposts would not operate partially 
to the disadvantage of any particular 
section of the country. The imports 
of the south were quite as great as 
those of the north. Finally he in- 
sisted that the power of the purse 
must invariably accompany the power 
of the sword in any strong govern- 
ment. The power of coercion is 
necessary. The compulsion of law is 
preferable to that of arms. Johnson 
spoke briefly along the same lines. 
The speeches of Ellsworth and John- 
son alone are preserved in sketches. 
Sherman's arguments are known only 
from private letters. He urged that 
no better government could be devised 
on more speculation ; that it had been 
agreed to by representatives of all the 
states present in the convention ; that 
an easy and practicable mode of 
amendment lay open as the last resort 
in case of necessity ; that the condition 
of the countr}'- demands adoption : and 
finally that the document will not need 
amendment under wise administration. 
Governor Huntington also spoke in 
favor of adoption. He said that the 
state governments would not be en- 
dangered as their representatives in 
the Senate would defend their own 
state interests. Mr. Richard Law em- 
phasized the case of amendment, the 



ON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE 



519 



security of the state governments, and 
the necessity for immediate action. 
OHver Wolcott declared that the Con- 
stitution estabhshed a reliable govern- 
ment, since it was founded upon 
popular election thus safeguarding the 
rights of the states and people as well. 
Said The New Haven Gazette, "All 
objections to the Constitution vanished 
before the learning and eloquence of a 
Johnson, the genuine good sense of a 
Sherman, and the Demosthenian 
energy of an Ellsworth." The con- 
vention ratified the Constitution by the 
handsome vote of 128 to 40. Calhoun, 
many years afterward, declared in the 
Senate (1847) that "it is owing 
mainly to the states of Connecticut 
and New Jersey that we have a federal 
instead of a national government. 
The best government instead of the 
most intolerable on earth. Who are 
the men of these states to whom we 
are indebted for this admirable gov- 
ernment? I will name them — their 
names ought to be engraven on brass 
and live forever. They were Chief 
Justice Ellsworth and Roger Sherman 
of Connecticut, and Judge Patterson 
of New Jersey. To the coolness and 
sagacity of these three men, aided by 
a few others not so prominent, we 
owe the present Constitution. 

The movement for a series of 
amendments to the Constitution, con- 
stituting practically a bill of rights, 
took its oriofin in the state conventions 



to ratify. In Congress Sherman and 
ex-Governor Huntington consistently 
opposed the movement. Sherman 
thought that amendments would not 
be favorably received by the people 
since sufficient time had not elapsed 
to discover by experience defects in 
the Constitution. This was the gen- 
eral federalist position — no amend- 
ment before a fair trial. Presidenl; 
Stiles in a letter to William S. John- 
son expressed the hope that no amend- 
ments would be passed "these twenty 
years." Sherman thought that such 
action ought to be avoided as tending 
toward disunion. As a member of 
the select committee of eleven ow 
Amendments he opposed the addition 
of any new matter to the preamble and 
the embodiment of amendments in the 
text of the Articles changed — ho 
wanted the amendments appended. 
Sherman was substantially the author 
of the following amendment in its 
final form : "The powers not delegated 
to the United States by the Constitu- 
tion are reserved to the states respec- 
tively or to the people." The seven- 
teen amendments proposed by the 
House were reduced to twelve by the 
Senate and adopted in conference. 
Connecticut refused to ratify these 
amendments as did also Massachusetts 
and Georgia. In taking this attitude 
the legislature was following the tradi- 
tional policy of the state. 



INDIAN NAMES 

Ye say they all have passed away — that noble race and brave ; 
That their light canoes have vanished from off the crested wave ; 
That 'mid the forests where they roamed there rings no hunter's shout :- 
But their name is on your waters — ye may not wash it out. 



'Tis where Ontario's billows, like ocean's surge is curled ; 
Where strong Niagara's thunders wake the echo of the world ; 
Where red Missouri bringeth rich tribute from the west, 
And Rappahannock sweetly sleeps on green Virginia's breast. 



Ye say their cone-like cabins, that clustered o'er the vale, 
Have fled away like withered leaves before the autumm's gale ; — 
But their memory liveth on your hills, their baptism on your shore 
Your everlasting rivers speak their dialect of yore. 



Old Massachusetts wears it upon her lordly crown, 

And broad Ohio bears it amid her young renown ; 

Connecticut hath wreathed it where her quiet foliage waves, 

And bold Kentucky breathes it hoarse through all her ancient caves. 

Wachusetts hides its lingering voice within his rocky heart, 
And Alleghany graves its tone throughout his lordly chart ; 
Monadnock on his forehead hoar doth seal the sacred trust ; 
Your mountains build their monument, though ye destroy their dust. 

Ye call these red-browed brethren the insects of an hour, 
Crushed like the noteless worm amid the regions of their power ; 
Ye drive them from their fathers' lauds, ye break of faith the seal ; 
But can ye from the court of heaven exchide their last appeal ? 

Ye see their unresisting tribes, with toilsome step and slow, 
On through the trackless desert pass — a caravan of woe ; — 
Think ye the Eternal Ear is deaf ? By sleepless vision dim ? 
Think ye the soul's blood may not cry from that far land to Him ? 

— From ''^Lvjjia Hltntt.y Sigoukxky's PoCIvIS 

*Born at Norwich, Conu., in 1791 ; died aL Hartford, iu 1865 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 

BEING THE SEVENTH SERIES OF THE BIOGRA- 
PHIES OF THE CHIEF EXECUTIVES OF THE STATE 



BY 



FREDERICK CALVIN NORTON 



LUZON BURRETT MORRIS 



1893-1895 

C^ON B. MORRIS was the 
son of Eli G. Morris of New- 
town, and was born in that 
town on April 16, 1837. 
He attended the district school, 
and at the age of seventeen com- 
menced to learn the trade of a 
blacksmith and tool maker. Dur- 
ing the next four years the young 
man worked hard and saved his 
money, having one object in view, 
and that was to obtain a good edu- 
cation. At twenty-one he had ac- 
cumulated sufficient means to en- 
able him to begin studying. He 
entered the Connecticut Literary 
Institute of Suffield and prepared 
for Yale College, which he entered 
in 1850. He would have been grad- 
uated in 1854, but for some reason 
he left college during his senior 
year and did not receive his degree 
until four years later. After leav- 
ing college he went to the town of 
Seymour, where he engaged for a 
short time in the manufacturing 
business, at the same time studying 
law. In 1855 he became a student 
at the Yale Law School, and after 
pursuing his studies there one year 
was admitted to the Bar. Mr. 



Two Years 
Morris returned at once to Seymour, 
where he began the practice of law. 
The popular confidence in his abil- 
ity was very marked from the first. 
In 1855 and 1856 he represented 
Seymour in the General Assembly 
with great success. He removed to 
New Haven in 1857 and made that 
city his home during the remainder 
of his life. Then began his long 
and eminently successful career in 
public life. Mr. Morris was elected 
Judge of Probate for the New 
Haven District for six successive 
terms, from 1857 to 1863, and in 
1861 became a member of the New 
Haven Board of Education, which 
position he held for a long time. 
He was elected Representative from 
New Haven to the General Assem- 
bly in 1870, 1876, 1880 and 18S1. In 
1874 he served as Senator from his 
district and was President fro tern, 
during that session. 

During the period that Judge 
Morris was serving in the Legisla- 
ture he carried on his extensive law 
practice, which consisted in a large 
measure in the management and 
settlement of estates. This neces- 
sarilv entailed a vast amount of 



522 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



labor, yet Judge Morris was able to 
serve both ends in an able manner. 
His long experience as Judge of the 
New Haven Probate Court, made 
him unusually well qualified for the 
settlement of estates. Any estate 
that was placed in his hands re- 
ceived the same careful attention, 
no matter whether it was that of a 
poor farmer or Daniel Hand, the 
millionaire. 

In 1880 Judge Morris was ap- 
pointed a member of the committee 
to permanently settle the boundary 
controversy between Connecticut 
and New York. A committee was 
formed in 1884 to revise the probate 
laws of the State, and Judge Morris 
was appointed its Chairman. Hav- 
ing always been a pronounced 
Democrat, Judge Morris became the 
candidate of that party for Governor 
of the State in 1890. In the election 
which followed he received a plu- 
rality, but not a majority, over his 
opponent. General Merwin; and in 
the deadlock which followed, Gov- 
ernor Bulkeley held over his term 
until 1892. Much partizan excite- 
ment was aroused during these 
years of controversy, but Judge 
Morris remained perfectly conserva- 
tive and very dignified. He was 
renominated for the same office in 
1892 and received 82,787 votes at 
the polls, 6,042 more than General 
Merwin, the Republican candidate. 
Governor Morris served from 1893 
to 1895 and reflected credit upon his 
party, although his administration 
was a very quiet one. During his 
second year as Chief Executive 
Governor Morris was made a direc- 
tor of the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford Railroad Co. 



After retiring from the governor- 
ship he again took up his law prac- 
tice. He was enjoying apparent 
good health, but on the morning of 
August 22, 1895, Governor Morris 
was stricken with apoplexy while at 
work in his office. He was removed 
to his home but died soon after 
reaching there. He left a widow 
and several children, one of whom, 
Robert Tuttle Morris, is a well- 
known New York surgeon; a daugh- 
ter is the wife of President Arthur 
T. Hadley of Yale University. 



OWEN VINCENT COFFIN 
1895-1897 Two Years 

Owen Vincent Coffin, the accom- 
plished and popular Ex-Governor of 
this State, was born in Mansfield, 
Duchess County, N. Y., June 20, 
1836. He is descended from 
Trisham Coffin, who emigrated 
from England in 1642 and settled 
in Haverhill, Manchester. In 1660 
he went to Nantucket, where he 
was a sort of William Penn among 
the Indians of the island. He died 
there in 1681. A homestead at Port- 
ledge, in Devonshire, England, has 
been held by members of the Coffin 
family for centuries. 

Governor Coffin is the son of 
Alexander Coffin and Jane Vincent, 
and is a descendant in the seventh 
generation from Trisham Coffin 
mentioned above. Mr. Coffin passed 
his early days on his father's farm. 
He was educated at the Courtland 
Academy and the Charlotteville 
Seminary. After leaving the sem- 
inary he taught school and then re- 
moved to New York City, where he 
was a salesman in a wholesale mer- 



Reproduced by Randall from painting at Conneiticut Statt Library 



,:=:Q^^,^y^/t^irx^ /j . ^tAX60-v--v5 



524 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



cantile house. From the age of 
nineteen to twenty-five he acted as 
the New York representative of a 
large Connecticut manufacturer. 
He subsequently became a special 
partner in a very successful firm in 
New York. Governor Coffin having 
married the daughter of Linus Coe 
of Middletown in 1858, removed to 
that city in 1864 and has made it his 
home since. When the Civil War 
commenced. Governor Coffin was 
anxious to enlist but was excluded 
from doing so on account of his 
inability to pass the physical exam- 
ination. He was patriotically in- 
spired, however; sent a substitute, 
and aided the cause in every way he 
could. 

Soon after settling in Middletown 
his rare managerial ability was rec- 
ognized, and he became the active 
executive officer of the Farmers and 
Mechanics Savings Bank. This po- 
sition he held for fifteen years, when 
ill health compelled him to retire. 
He was Mayor of Middletown in 
1872 and 1873 and made a popular 
official. His health having re- 
turned, he was elected president of 
the Middlesex Mutual Assurance 
Company, an office he still holds. 
He has been president of the Mid- 
dlesex County Agricultural Society, 
and later was a director and vice- 
president of the First National Bank 
of Middletown. 

Mr. Coffin was elected Senator 
from the Twenty-second District in 
1886, and again in 1888, thus serv- 
ing two terms. He received a good 
majority in a district where there 
had been only two Republican vic- 
tories in a generation. 

Governor Coffin was never a 



seeker for public office, but many 
have been thrust upon him. From 
1890 to 1895 he held over a score of 
public and quasi-public offices, 
among which was the treasurer of 
the Air Line Railroad Company. 
He filled all these offices in a satis- 
factory manner. 

In 1894 the Republicans of the 
State nominated Mr. Coffin for Gov- 
ernor, and his popularity was abun- 
dantly demonstrated at the follow- 
ing election, when he received 
83,974 votes, and a plurality of 
17,000 over Cady, the Democratic 
nominee. This was the highest 
vote ever reached by any candidate 
for a governor of Connecticut up to 
that time. 

Governor Coffin served from 1895 
to 1897, and although his adminis- 
tration was uneventful, he im- 
pressed the people of the state as 
being a model chief executive. 

Governor Coffin still lives in Mid- 
dletown and is one of Connecticut's 
representative men. "Anyone who 
has been fortunate enough to meet 
this genial, whole-souled ex-gov- 
ernor," says a writer, "will not soon 
forget the cordial handshake and 
the pleasant words of welcome he 
has for all." 

LORRIN ALANSON COOKE 

1897-1899 Two Years 
Solomon Cooke, the great grand- 
father of Governor Cooke, was a 
soldier in the Continental Army, 
and his son, Lewis Cooke, served in 
the War of 1812. Another ancestor, 
Benjamin Wheeler, was the first 
white settler in New Marlboro, 
Mass., and a prominent citizen of 
Berkshire County. 




Reproduced by Randall frotn painting at Connecticut State library 




526 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



Governor Cooke was born in New 
Marlboro, April 6, 1831, and when 
quite young his father moved with 
the family to Norfolk, Conn. The 
young man attended the district 
schools of the town and afterwards 
received a good academical educa- 
tion at the Norfolk Academy. Dur- 
ing his early manhood Mr. Cooke 
was a very successful school teacher. 
He first entered public life in 1856, 
when at the age of twenty-five 
years he was elected a representa- 
tive to the General Assembly from 
the Town of Colebrook. 

In 1869 he was chosen secretary, 
treasurer and manager of the Eagle 
Scythe Company of Riverton, and 
continued in that capacity for the 
next twenty years. Mr. Cooke was 
a Senator from the Eighteenth Dis- 
trict in 1882, 1883 and 1884, and 
during the last session served as 
President pro tern, of that body. 
While a member of the General 
Assembly, Mr. Cooke was Chair- 
man of the Committee on Engrossed 
Bills, a position which attracts little 
public attention but calls for a vast 
amount of labor. He was ap- 
pointed by the Senate a special com- 
mittee to make an investigation of 
certain affairs in connection with 
the Storrs Agricultural School. 

Governor Cooke was postmaster 
in his town in the early eighties. 
In 1885 he was elected Lieutenant- 
Governor of the State on the Re- 
publican ticket. He was reelected 
to the same position in 1895 on the 
ticket with Mr. Coffin. 

Always taking a great interest in 
religious matters, Mr. Cooke was 
chosen moderator of the National 
Congregational Council held in 



Chicago in 1886. He was chosen a 
delegate at large to the Republican 
National Convention at Minneapolis 
in 1892. 

In 1896 Mr. Cooke was elected 
Governor of Connecticut, receiving 
108,807 votes against 56,524 for Sar- 
geant, the Silver Democratic candi- 
date. This Republican] majority of 
over 52,000 was the largest vote 
that a candidate of that party ever 
received in this State. 

This unprecedented flood of bal- 
lots was a satisfactory proof of his 
undiminished popularity throughout 
the State. He served the State 
well and retired in 1899, after hav- 
ing conducted a most successful ad- 
ministration. 

Governor Cooke occupied no pub- 
lic offices after his retirement. He 
died at his home in Winsted, August 
12, 1903. A newspaper writer sum- 
med up his career as follows: 

"In the death of Lorrin A. Cooke 
the State of Connecticut loses a 
loyal son. Beginning as a poor boy 
with limited acquaintance and only 
such opportunity as he might make 
for himself, he became a man of 
prominence and influence, trusted 
by his fellow citizens to do much 
important work for them and finally 
chosen by them to hold the highest 
office in the gift of the people. His 
strength lay in the confidence peo- 
ple felt in him. They knew that he 
was a God-fearing, Christian man, 
desirous to do right, and not afraid 
of duty as it disclosed itself to him. 
Whatever was entrusted to him to 
do was done to the best of his 
ability, and when he had satisfac- 
torily discharged one responsibility 
another was sure to be laid upon 




Reproduced by Randall from f'ainting at Conneiiicut State Library 



Qjfy-7^^yi/t^CA^0(ri^^ 



528 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



him. It may be doubted by his 
friends whether the two years of his 
governorship were the pleasantest 
of his life. Its burdens and respon- 
sibilities are a constant load upon 
the conscientious occupant of the 



office — and he fully realized what 
they were. Socially, Governor Cooke 
was approachable, cordial and demo- 
cratic. Everybody knew him and 
he had the confidence and respect 
of a wide circle of devoted friends. 



SPRINGTIME 



ELIZABETH CURTIS BRENTON 

Oh, when the young green burgeons, clothes the land 

With filmy vesture like a bridal-lace, 

When all the hill-slopes, quickening apace, 
Yield fallow promise to the yokel's hand. 
Then does man's soul to nature's touch expand. 

Then does young blood in youth's high pulse run race 

Down the brave woodlands, keeping velvet pace. 
Wild things go mating, swift to understand; 

And then, Oh then, to thee my thoughts are sped 
On all light airs that sweep the gentle sky. 
On every fleece-white cloud that wanders by, 

On every wing the risen earth can spread ! 
There is a region, thou hast found and I, 

Where Springtime lingers when the year is dead. 






^ 



Plate I 



WHALE OIL LAMP FROM LINCOLN'S LOG CABIN HOME 



Is photographed in third figure— First figure is known as the Petticoat lamp, made 1835-The Second, Neal's patent 
sliding tube, 1813— Lincoln's Pedestal Lamp in third figure was used in his law office and made in 1817 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION AS A FACTOR IN 

CIVILIZATION 

FATS AND TABLE REFUSE PRECEDED INTRODUCTION OF 

SPERM OIL HUNTING WHALE IN THE POLAR SEAS TO 

SECURE LIGHT FOR THE MAKERS OF A NATION CONTINU- 
ATION OF ''LIGHTS AND LAMPS OF EARLY NEW ENGLAND" 

BY 

C. A. QUINCY NORTON 

REGULAR CORRESPONDENT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 



BEFORE the introduction of 
whale oil as an illuminant, 
fats, grease and table refuse 
were burned in the old Betty 
lamps. Refined animal oils, and 
some kinds of vegetable oils, were 
used at a very early date in the 
large and more elegant lamps, but 
until the use of whale oil became 
common, candles were almost uni- 
versally used. The New England 
colonists engaged in the whale fish- 
ery at a very early date. From 
1680 to 1750 it was carried on from 
the shore in boats, for the whales 
were frequent visitors to the large 
bays and coast waters of New Eng- 
land. About 1750 the whales had 
largely abandoned the in - shore 



waters, and it was necessary to 
employ larger vessels to follow 
them to their haunts in the Arctic 
and Antarctic seas. In 1768 there 
were over three hundrtd vessels 
engaged in the whale fishery from 
Massachusetts ports alone From 
1700 to 1758, Nantucket had more 
vessels employed in whaling than 
any other New England port. This 
port for many years enjoyed almost 
a monopoly of the whale fishery, 
and it was Nantucket fishermen who 
first captured the sperm whale. 
About 1772, New Bedford, Mass., 
began to engage in the whaling 
business, and by 1840 had become 
the largest whale fishing port in the 
world. 



53° 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 




Plate II 
LARD-OIL ASTRAL LAMP USED 
DANIEL WEBSTER 



BY 



While Practicing Law in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
in 1809 

The crude oil of the right whale 
was burned in nearly all of the ear- 
lier lamps, and for over one hundred 
and fifty years after 1690 was the 
most commonly used illuminant 



throughout New England. The oil 
from the right whale was known in 
commerce as "right oil." The ap- 
pellation "right," as applied to the 
oil from the whale of the restricted 
genus Baldena, was given by the 
early fishermen because this whale 
was the "right" kind to take, not 
only for the great amount of oil it 
furnished, but also because of the 
valuable whale bone obtained from 
its head. Sperm oil was lighter, 
and when refined was known in the 
trade as "astral" oil, and when 
burned in the larger and more cost- 
ly lamps, such as those supplied 
with improved Argand burners, fur- 
nished a strong, clear light. Sperm 
oil was, however, for a long time 
more costly than right oil, and con- 
sequently did not come into general 
use until after cheaper and more 
simple lamps and burners had been 
introduced. 

With an abundance of oil as a 
cheap illuminant, inventors soon 
turned their attention to the pro- 
duction of improved lamps and 
burners. While many new forms 
were introduced, and inventors dis- 
played much originality, and even 
ingenuity in the making of a great 
variety of shapes and forms, still it 
was many years before any real ad- 
vancement was made in lamp con- 
struction or in the production of a 
burner that involved the application 
of a new principle in combustion, 
nor was the demand for a good, in- 
expensive, handy lamp fully met. 
Even after the lamps themselves 
had become beautiful in shape, and 
their mechanical construction very 
materially changed, they did not 
present any marked departure from 



A FACTOR IN CIVILIZATION 



11^ 




Plate 1 1 1 

LIGHTS USED IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1800 TO 1845 

The first is photographed from a petticoat lamp, 1830 to 1850— Second is the Hammond Patent, 1842— Third is the 
Lantern combination of 1825— Fourth is the guest lamp used in the Inns from 1825 to 1845 



the old method of producing light, 
and the flame was but little im- 
proved over that of the most primi- 
tive lamps of the ancients. That 
which was most essential in the pro- 
duction of a satisfactory flame — 
namely a compact wick with but a 
small surface exposed to the flame, 
and a uniform supply of air to the 
burning wicks, seems to have been 
entirely overlooked by inventors 
and experimentors. A twisted rag 
or a braid of cotton or flax was the 
usual wick. This was loosely held 
in its place in the oil by a half- 
round, angular iron support, and in 
such a position that a large portion 
of the substance of the wick was 
exposed to the flame, and thus pro- 
duced a great volume of smoke, 
with a resulting pale, flickering 
flame, that possessed comparatively 
little light value. 

The so-called Betty lamps have 
already been spoken of and de- 



scribed. Undoubtedly this form of 
lamp was the one in most general 
use throughout the American colon- 
ies during the first hundred years 
after the landing of the Pilgrims. 
Most of these lamps, as has been 
stated, were brought from the 
mother country. About i6So a tin- 
smith of Newbury, Mass., began 
the manufacture in a small wav of 
a tin Betty lamp, which became 
known after 1764 as the Ne^vbury- 
port Betty. It was evidently pat- 
terned after an early English iron 
Betty lamp. These so-called New- 




Plate VI 
EARLY NEW ENT.LANP PEWTF.K I AMPS. 
1690 TO 1S40 



532 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 





j^ 



Plate IV 



LAMP USED BY ELIAS HOWE, INVENTOR OF SEWING MACHINES 



Shown in photograph on the right— On the left is an old mill lamp, 1830— In the center is a ship lamp on U. S. S. 
" Cumberland," when sunk by Confederate Ram " Merrimac," 1862 



buryport Bettys were simply a tin, 
flat, pear-shaped lamp, which was 
supported on an upright that ele- 
vated the lamp from the stand or 
table about six inches. This up- 
right was secured to an ample, 
circular base, often loaded with 
sand to make it more stable. The 
lamp was kept in its place on the 
upright by a narrow, corrugated 
upright rim, surrounding the stage 




Plate V 



OLD ENGLISH LAMPS 



Figure i isa pewter lamp of 1708 — In the center is a glass 
spark lamp of 1750— On the right an English pewter 
bull's eye lamp of 1770 



on the top of the upright. The 
lamp itself could be removed and 
carried about in the hand, or sus- 
pended by the linked hook attached 
to the curved handle. In another 
form of this lamp, the oil fount was 
of the same shape as that just 
described, but secured directly to 
the upright, while the large circular 
base was pan-shaped and kept filled 
with sand, as a precaution against 
fire, and also to make it more firm. 
This was called the Portsmouth 
Betty. 

The first step in the direction of 
a real improvement in the more 
common lamps, was the introduc- 
tion of a new wick holder, or, as it 
was generally called, wick-tube. 
This was a small, round metal 
tube which passed perpendicularly 
through a disk that fitted into the 
top of the lamp. This tube slightly 
compressed the material composing 
the wick, and thus assisted in the 
capillary flow of the oil to the burn- 
ng point, and also allowed but a 



A FACTOR IN CIVILIZATION 



533 



small surface of the wick to come 
into direct contact with the flame, 
thus the consumption of the wick 
itself was largely retarded, and the 
volume of smoke greatly reduced. 
A small, narrow orifice was made 
in one side of the tube through 
which the wick could be "picked 
up." The introduction of the im- 
proved wick-tube was soon followed 
by better and more suitable wicks. 
Cotton and hemp were loosely spun 
into a product called "wicking, " 
which was not only used for lamps 
but was also largely employed in 
candles. 

About 1740 that marvellously in- 
genious inventor, philosopher and 
statesman, Benjamin Franklin, dur- 
ing a series of experiments, discov- 
ered that two-wick tubes, when so 
placed with relation to each other, 
that the space between them about 
equalled the diameter of one, in- 
creased the light more than three- 
fold over that of a single tube 
burner. Franklin's theory was that 
the position of the two tubes cre- 
ated an upward motion of the air 
between the wicks when lighted. 



and thus the flame was supplied 
with additional oxygen under a 
mild, forced draught He found 
that the addition of a third tube did 
not give a third more light, while it 
did consume a third more oil. He 
explained this by saying that the 
position of the third tube in some 
way interfered with the proper cir- 
culation of the air, and thus re- 
tarded the uniform flow of oxygen 
to the flame. Franklin's invention 
was not patented, but like many of 
his useful improvements was freely 
given to the public When we re- 
call the fact that Franklin's first 
manual labor was cutting wicks in 
his father's chandler shop, it is not 
surprising that we find his versatile 
mind turned to the subject of do- 
mestic illumination. The Franklin 
burners were soon employed on all 
of the smaller lamps, and for years 
was the only burner on the market 
giving satisfactory results. 

The first improvement over the 
old iron Betty lamp was an arrange- 
ment for holding the wick in such a 
way that it was partly confined as 
in the wick-holders of a later date. 




Plate VI 



GLASS WHALE OIL LAMPS, 170O TO 1845 



534 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 











K 


^^^p'fl 




. ^ 


L ^^^1 


^'Ik*".^ "'^^ ■ 


B 


1 1 




9 . 


^ IHI^I 







Plate VIII 



GLASS CAMPHENE LAMPS, 1837 TO 1850 



Not many of these lamps have been 
found in New England. They were 
quite common in Scotland and the 




fe«»^f 4e 



Plate IX 
USED I^Y NOAH WEBSTER IN COMPILING 
DICTIONARY 



North of Ireland, a fev^ being 
brought to this country by the early 
emigrants. With the new burners, 
invented by Dr. Franklin, which 
came into use about 1745, there 
came also a new form of lamp. 
This was known as the pedestal or 
upright lamp. It was first manu- 
factured in Salem, Mass. They 
were made of tin, and the oil reser- 
voir was pear-shaped, and rested 
upon a tall upright which was sup- 
ported by a circular base, which in 
the tin lamps was made hollow and 
loaded with sand. Brass and pewter 
lamps were also made in this form, 
and were more elegant in finish. 
Brass lamps were most frequently 
made in pairs, while the pewter 
were often given an addition of deli- 
cate fluting to the upright, which 
added much grace and beauty. 

In 1866 the log cabin in which our 
lamented President, Abraham Lin- 



A FACTOR IN CIVILIZATION 



535 



coin was born, was brought to New 
York City and exhibited for some 
months. Among the many Lincoln 
relics, shown in connection with the 
log cabin, was an old tin pedestal 
lamp which in 1837 was used by Mr. 
Lincoln in his law office in Spring- 
field, 111. This historical lamp is 
shown in Plate 1, figure 3. Almost 
an endless variety of tin whale-oil 
lamps have been found by collectors. 
These include small upright lamps, 
large table lamps, and numerous 
patented devices, that were more 
novel than strictly useful. A whale- 
oil lamp that became popular, if we 
are to judge from the large number 
that have come down to us as relics, 
was introduced about 181 2, and 
from the peculiar flaring shape of 
its base was known as the '* Petti- 
coat" lamp (Plate I, figure i). 
They were made in several sizes, 
but were all of the same general 
form — that is, egg shaped, with a 
larger end resting in the upper por- 
tion of the so-called petticoat. They 
were generally japanned tin, with a 



handle secured to the oil fount and 
the base. Beneath the so-called 
petticoat, and attached to the bot- 
tom of the oil reservoir, was a round 
tin tube, usually about one-half 
inch in diameter, and in length 
reaching nearly to the bottom of 
the petticoat. We have inquired of 
many persons the object of this 
tube, and it has surprised us to see 
how many, even among older per- 
sons, were ignorant as to the use of 
this tube. This lamp, which by city 
users was called a "Petticoat 
Lamp," to people in the country it 
was known as the "Peg Lamp." 
The tube above described being 
used as a socket into which a stick 
or peg was placed, and the lower 
end of the stick being thrust into 
the ground, held the lamp in an up- 
right position, and thus aft:orded 
illumination while the farmer was 
employed in the cellar. A lamp 
with this same shaped reservoir, 
and with the round attachment on 
the bottom, as above described, but 
without the petticoat base, was 




Plate X 



BRASS WHALE OIL LAMPS USED FROM 1765 TO 1S4O 



536 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 




Plate XI 

PEWTER TIME OR HOROLOGIC LAMP 
OF 1640 

much in use by country black- 
smiths, wheelwrights and shoe- 
makers, and by them was also 
known as peg lamps. Plates III 
and IV show several tin whale-oil 
lamps. 

A unique lamp much in use in 
the better class of public inns from 
1740 to 1845 was known as a guest 
light, or as it was called in New 
York State, a "good-night lamp" 
(Plate III, figure 4). This is a 
small, round, upright oil fount se- 
cured to a pan base, and has a 
hinged extinguisher attached to the 
top. These were made in several 
sizes. A current saying among the 
humorists of early days was to the 
effect, that you could judge of the 
guest's condition as to sobriety by 



the size of the base of the lamp that 
was given to him by the prudent 
landlord when shown to his room. 
If the guest had gone to bed in a 
reasonably sober condition he was 
supplied with a lamp with a small 
base, while if unreasonably jovial, 
and proportionately unsteady, he 
was given a lamp with a broad base, 
this distinction being made with the 
idea that if sober he would not 
upset his lamp, while if in an op- 
posite condition, the broad base lamp 
would be less easily overturned. 

In whale-oil lamps more than five 
hundred different patents were se- 
cured in the United States from 
1800 to 1845. These embrace every 
imaginable form, and exhibit a 
variety of burners that is truly won- 
derful. In all these so-called im- 
provements there was little advance- 
ment towards securing a better 
light. Patents were secured for ar- 
rangements that kept the wick uni- 
formly submerged in the oil, for 
implements to remove the charred 
portions of the wick, for devices 
for filling the lamp, for extinguish- 
ers, and even for hood-shaped pro- 
tectors, which, as described in the 
specifications, were intended to pro- 
tect the user's face from the smoke 
of the lamp. But with all these 
improvements, no one seemed to 
pay particular attention to a burner 
that would give more light, nor did 
the inventors seem to avail them- 
selves of the simplest principles of 
combustion. Little if any advance- 
ment was made or improvements 
secured over that of the Franklin 
burners, and it was not until the in- 
troduction of kerosene oil as an 
illuminant that small portable lamps 



( 



A FACTOR IN CIVILIZATION 



537 



were made that were satisfactory as 
light givers. The Argand burners 
were too cumbersome and compli- 
cated to be applied to small hand 
lamps, consequently their use was 
confined to large table lamps, and 
lamps that were suspended, or those 
that were known as mural lamps. 

The introduction of camphene or 
burning fluid, in 1837, ushered in a 
new light that was clear and bril- 
liant, but the compound was so 
explosive in its nature that it was 
dangerous to use, and was never so 
popular as whale oil. The burners 
necessary to use this illuminant 
were long, tapering brass tubes, 
into which a compact wick fitted 
very closely. This was to prevent 
evaporation of the fluid, and also 
to prevent the flame from coming 
in contact with the bulk of the fluid 
in the reservoir. Small, thimble- 
shaped caps were provided to place 
over the end of the wick tube when 
the wick was not lighted, to prevent 
the volatile fluid from evaporating. 
After a few years' use this style of 
lamp gave place to the cheaper and 
better illuminant, kerosene oil. 

Glass lamps were imported into 
the colonies as early as 1640. These 
were mostly of the larger, more 
costly patterns, and were only used 
in the more elegant homes. Glass 
works were established at Salem, 
Mass., in 1639, and for a number of 
years did a thriving business manu- 
facturing bottles and common table 
ware. But few glass lamps were 
made at this establishment, and it 
is now impossible to identify any of 
the productions of these works, 
even if any are in existence, for 
they had no distinctive mark. 



About 1750 a company of Germans 
established glass works at German- 
town, now a part of Quincy, Mass. 
Here a large variety of glass ware 
was manufactured, among which 
were several styles of glass lamps. 
The distinctive mark or character- 
istic of lamps made at these works 
was a peculiar twist or spiral form 
that was given to the upright of the 
lamps, or in some cases a like twist 
to the handles. Another feature 
distinguishing these wares was the 
coarse nature of the material used. 
All the lamps produced at this fac- 
tory were fitted with whale - oil 
burners. In 1780 Robert Hewes, 
at his glass works in the town of 
Temple, New Hampshire, manu- 
factured glass lamps of good form 
and artistic design. At least one 
distinguishing feature will help in 
the identification of his lamps, and 
that is that they were all made to 
use burners supplied with the per- 
forated cork wick-tubes. The New 
England Crown Glass Company 
established their works at East 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1825. 
They made a large variety of glass 
lamps and candlestick:^. Prior to 
1840 all glass lamps were made to 
burn whale oil. After that date 
some were fitted with burners for 
the consumption of burning fluid, 
or camphene, or, as it was some- 
times called, "Poters' fluid." 

An interesting little glass lamp is 
shown in Plate V, figure 2, which 
has the distinction of having given 
a new meaning to an old word in 
our language. This form of lamp 
first made its appearance in New 
England about 1750, and was known 
as a "Spark" lamp, deriving its 



538 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 



name from the fact that its tiny 
flame was a mere spark of light,. In 
some parts of the South it was 
called the "Lovers' " lamp. Its 
office was to furnish light for 
lovers, and the couple were said to 
be "sparking" while engaged in 
love-making b)^ its feeble light. 
The presumption is that the size of 
the lamp, with its small capacity for 
oil, and the consequent diminutive 
flame, was an economic suggestion 
of some thrifty, careful father, who 
had a large family of marriageable 
daughters. It was said not to be 
uncommon for young men to supply 
their own spark lamp when calling 
upon young ladies whose fathers 
had shown some solicitude in regard 
to the amount of oil consumed at 
night. Frequently a young man 
could judge whether his attentions 
to his lady love were favored by the 
parents or not, by the amount of oil 
in the spark lamp. If he was 
thought to be a desirable match for 
the daughter, the careful mother 
would see that the lamp was well 
filled. It was not a good sign when 
but little oil had been provided. 
The old lady of whom the writer 
obtained the spark lamp in his col- 
lection, said that the oil in the lamp 
did not always regulate the length 
of the young man's visit, for, she 
said, "If the lady favored the gen- 
tleman herself the quantity of oil in 
the lamp did not figure very mater- 
ially, for we just blew the spark out 
and kept right on, the same as if 
the lamp were burning." 

A collection of glass hand and 
table whale-oil lamps is shown in 
Plate VII. These date from 1700 
to 1845. Plate VIII shows a similar 



collection of glass lamps fitted with 
camphene burners. These date 
from 1837 to 1850. 

What was known as the lard-oil 
lamp was introduced about 1760. 
The distinguishing feature of these 
lamps was the broad, flat, firmly 
woven wick. This not only gave a 
larger volume of flame, but added 
to the brillancy of the light. 

Lard oil had been previously used 
but the wick was a twisted rag or 
loosely-braided flax, and the result 
was an abominable smell from the 
unconsumed carbon escaping in 
the form of smoke, and a flaring, 
flickering, pale light. With the 
new wick - tubes and the firmly 
woven wick, most of these disad- 
vantages were done away. An 
improvement was later introduced 
which made this class of lamps 
still more useful. This was the 
introduction of a second tube ex- 
tending down into and through 
the oil reservoir, with the lower end 
open. This acted as a conveyor of 
heat from the flame, and thus in 
winter kept the lard in a liquid 
state, and also supplied air directly 
to the flame. An inventor secured 
a patent on a lard-oil lamp in 1818 
which introduced what was known 
as the "Canting Fount Lamp." 
The object of this was, that as the 
oil was consumed the reservoir 
could be tipped in its supporting 
yoke, and thus the wick world be 
kept uniformly submerged in the 
oil as long as any remained. A 
lamp of this class having more than 
ordinary interest is shown in Plate 
IX. This was known as an English 
student lamp, and is supplied with 
a polished, corrugated, adjustable 



A FACTOR IN CIVILIZATION 



539 



reflector, which is made movable by- 
sliding the reflector support through 
an opening in the base of the lamp. 
By the light of this identical lamp, 
Noah Webster did the first work on 
the compilation of his famous dic- 
tionary. It is said that the Doctor 
had two of these lamps in his study. 
It was his custom to regulate his 
labor at night by the capacity of 
these lamps. Both were filled and 
placed upon his study table, one 
being lighted at a time. When the 
oil was exhausted from both lamps 
he felt that he had accomplished a 
fair night's work. 

Lard oil was also burned in most 
of the larger and more costly lamps, 
especially those provided with im- 
proved Argand burners. A beauti- 
ful lard-oil lamp of large size and of 
French make is shown in Plate II. 
This stately lamp, complete as 
shown, was formerly in the law 
office of Daniel Webster at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, while he 
was practicing law in that town in 
1809. 

A characteristic anecdote is told 
of Mr. Webster in relation to this 
lamp. The office which he occupied 
at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
was in a building owned by a former 
governor of the state. The ex-gov- 
ernor was a widower with two 
grown daughters. Mr. Webster was 
a frequent visitor to the home of 
his landlord. At this time, 1809, 
Mr. Webster's law practice was not 
extensive, nor was his income large, 
so that an invitation to a generous 
Sunday dinner at the hospitable 
home of the ex-governor was almost 
like a dispensation of kind Provi- 
dence. Long years after, one of the 



daughters of the ex-governor re- 
lated to the writer that Mr. Web- 
ster's weekly visit to her father's 
house was always a source of much 
satisfaction, and was looked forward 
to with very pleasant anticipations 
by all the family, for Mr. Webster 
was a most delightful talker, and, 
as the daughter expressed it," When 
others were talking Daniel was an 
eloquent listener." Mr. Webster's 
slender income did not afford sump- 
tuous dinners during the week, so 
that when he sat down to the well- 
laid table of his generous landlord to 
enjoy the bountiful Sunday dinner, 
he no doubt fully justified the state- 
ment of his host's daughter, who 
said that,'* Daniel was truly eloquent 
even in his eating." 

Mr. Webster occupied this same 
office in Portsmouth until his re- 
moval to Boston in 181 6. He had 
in the meantime gained a national 
reputation as an orator and had 
served as a Representative in Con- 
gress, and was regarded as a lawyer 
in the very front rank of his profes- 
sion. His great mind, however, 
never seemed to fully realize the 
importance of promptly meeting his 
financial obligations. His landlord 
had passed away, and the manage- 
ment of the estate devolved upon 
his daughters. They had such a 
profound respect for Mr. Webster 
that to them it seemed almost sacre- 
ligious to send him a bill for office 
rent. To Mr. Webster this omis- 
sion was a relief, for even great 
minds are not adverse to escaping 
duns. So two years went by and no 
office rent was paid. At last the 
great lawyer removed to Boston^ 
and, the ex-governor's daughter 



S40 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 



said, *'He sent us a modest, kindly- 
note, expressing his profound ap- 
preciation of our hospitality, and 
saying in very choice language that 
he would call when in Portsmouth 
again," and, she added, in a tone 
that expressed her deep feelings of 
respect and confidence in the great 
man, *'Do you know? Daniel had 
such a keen sense of honor that he 
left a part of his office furniture 
when he vacated the room." This 
statement, when written in cold, 
legal form, and stripped of its sen- 
timent, simply means that the re- 
nowned statesman, lawyer and orator 
departed from the scene of his early 
legal labors owing two years' office 
rent, and left as collateral, four 
wooden chairs, a small pine desk 
and the stately lamp already re- 
ferred to. 

' Whale-oil lamps of brass were 
made in great variety of forms be- 
tween 1700 and 1840. Those manu- 
factured in this country were mostly 
the smaller, so-called hand lamps. 
Many were graceful and artistic in 
shape, while not a few were fantas- 
tic, and perhaps some might be 
called even grotesque from an artis- 
tic point of view. As utility seemed 
to be the chief point aimed at, users 
consulted their own tastes in select- 
ing lamps. Like brass candlesticks, 
brass lamps were most frequently 
made in pairs. In large families, 
where many lamps were used, it 
was quite a task for the busy house- 
wife and her help to keep the many 
brass lamps and candlesticks clean 
and bright. It was, however, one 
of the evidences of good housekeep- 
ing to have the lamps and candle- 
Sticks scrupulously cleaned and 



carefully polished. The chief manu- 
factory for these smaller goods was 
in Boston and the nearby towns. 
The brass lamps made in Philadel- 
phia were mostly of the larger and 
more costly kind, such as those re- 
quiring expensive ground - glass 
globes and cut-glass pendants. A 
group of small brass lamps dating 
from 1705 to 1835 is shown in Plate 
VII. 

The making of pewter ware was 
very early introduced into the 
American colonies. Pewterers came 
from England to Boston as early as 
1680. Among the first to establish 
the art in New England was Richard 
Graves, who carried on his trade at 
Salem, Massachusetts. He was a 
member of the "Guild of the London 
Company of Pewterers," and was 
permitted to use the **Guild Stamp" 
of that company for two years. 
After that time his wares bear his 
own private touch mark, *'R. G.," 
often with the date under the letters. 
Four early pewter lamps are shown 
in Plate VI. 

Graves made many pewter lamps 
and candlesticks, but not all of his 
wares were stamped, only those of 
finer workmanship, such as his tea 
sets and large platters were given 
the touch mark. 

Another pewterer, Henry Shrimp- 
ton, settled in Boston early in the 
seventeenth century, and became 
an influential merchant. His pew- 
ter wares gained much favor be- 
cause of their fine quality and the 
excellency of the workmanship dis- 
played. His establishment soon em- 
ployed many workmen from the 
"Guild of York Pewterers," Eng- 
land, from which city Mr. Shrimp- 



A FACTOR IN CIVILIZATION 



541 



ton came to Boston. His mark was 
*'H. S.," with two bars under the 
letters and the date often beneath 
the bars, the whole device enclosed 
in an oval, beaded circle. The 
writer has never seen but one pew- 
ter lamp bearing the Shrimpton 
touch mark, and that was a small 
hand lamp of graceful design, and 
evidently intended to be used in 
inns. This was a whale-oil burner. 
There were pewterers in the Con- 
necticut towns of New Haven, Mid- 
dletown and Meriden at a very- 
early date. One Hale of Middle- 
town did a thriving business in 
pewter table ware of excellent qual- 
ity. The few pieces of his make 
that the writer has seen were dated 
1740. One of these was a candle- 
stick of rather ponderous design 
and made to support a four-inch 
glass abatjour. Gleason of Phila- 
delphia, from 1705 to 1720, manu- 
factured many pewter lamps and 
candlesticks, and all bore the name 
**Gleason" deeply stamped into the 
ware. But few of Gleason's pieces 
have been found dated. The so- 
called English bull's-eye lamp, 
copied from an old English model, 
was largely made at Gleason's 
works. This was often called a 
**study lamp," and was much in 
favor with ministers and other pro- 
fessional readers. It was used by 
being held in the hand and direct- 
ing the light concentrated by the 
bull's-eye onto the page. One of 
these lamps, shown in Plate V, 
figure 3, has an interesting bit of 
romance connected with its history. 
A young clergyman of the Church 
of England had come to the colonies 
with his widowed mother a few 



months before the English General, 
Howe, was compelled to sail out of 
Boston Harbor with his frightened 
army of royalists. The clergyman 
settled in Dorchester. One dark, 
stormy night an American officer 
was riding hurriedly to headquar- 
ters when his horse fell in such a 
way that the officer's leg was badly 
broken. , He managed to crawl to 
the nearest house, which proved to 
be that of the young English 
rector. With true English hospi- 
tality he was at once taken in and 
made as comfortable as it was pos- 
sible under the circumstances. The 
army surgeon came the next morn- 
ing and, after an examination of 
the injured limb, informed them 
that it would be impossible to move 
the patient for some time. The 
American officer then suggested 
that his wife be sent for, that she 
might nurse him and thus relieve 
his English hostess. ; He also sug- 
gested that his own sister, a young 
lady nineteen years of age, should 
accompany his wife on her journey 
from Portsmouth to Dorchester. 
About two weeks after the arrival 
of the ladies, through some accident 
the bandages on the injured le;:^ of 
the officer became deranged, and as 
the surgeon could not be called at 
that late hour of night an attempt 
was made to re-adjust the dressing. 
The officer was suffering so that the 
whole household was aroused and 
all were anxious to administer to 
him and to relieve his distress. The 
sick-room was provided with can- 
dles, and in the work of the ama- 
teur nurses these feeble lights 
afforded but little assistance. The 
young minister suggested that the 



542 



ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION 



bull's-eye lamp from his study be 
brought. When this was lighted 
it was given to the young lady to 
hold, while the minister and the 
wife of the officer proceeded to re- 
arrange the dressing on the injured 
leg. In holding the lamp, the 
young lady was obliged to extend 
her arm over the shoulder of the 
kneeling minister. The lamp, being 
heavy, the graceful arm soon be- 
came tired and, as a natural conse- 
quence, drooped until it touched 
the clergyman's shoulder. A modest 
apology was quickly made, and the 
young assistant heroically endeav- 
ored to be more careful. But the 
great pewter lamp was heavy and 
the position of the holder was tire- 
some, so that again the arm rested 
on the clergyman's shoulder. An- 
other apology quickly followed, and 
the arm was again rigidly extended, 
but the nurses were slow and the 
lamp was heavy, and again the 
slender arm involuntarily found 
rest. This time the clergyman 
reached up and held the tired arm 
in its resting place on his shoulder, 
remarking: **I think you can find 
relief from your tiresome position 
and afford us more help by allowing 
your arm to rest upon my shoulder. " 



When the nurses had nearly com- 
pleted their work the clergyman 
looked up for a moment. The light 
from one of the great bull's-eyes 
was shining full in the face of the 
young lady and illuminating her 
fresh young beauty with a glow that 
must have seemed to the clergyman 
like a halo of grace, for when their 
eyes met he knew that from that 
moment he, a Royalist, was a 
prisoner to the fairest Rebel in all 
the King's colonies. Long years 
after, the granddaughter of this hap- 
py couple told the writer that her 
grandfather always called his bull's- 
eye lamp "Love's Illuminator." 

Pewter, like brass, was always 
kept clean and bright by the good 
housewife, and a row of pewter 
lamps and candle sticks made a 
brave show on the high shelf or 
mantle of many an old colonial 
home. 

Plate XI shows a pewter Time, 
or Horologic Lamp, with a glass 
fount, to contain the oil. The rod 
passing through the fount is marked 
with numerals, commencing at or 
near the top with eight and running 
down to twelve. The level of the 
oil indicated the hour. This lamp 
is dated 1640. 



CHARACTER IS A STRUCTURE THAT RISES UNDER THE 
DIRECTION OF A DIVINE MASTER-BUILDER— MAN'S SOUL IS 
GOD'S LIVING TEMPLE 

NEWELL DWIGHT HILLIS 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT 

Conducted by Charles L. N, Camp 



This department is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are required. The queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. The editor of this department proposes to give his personal attention to questions 
free of charge. Extended investigations will be made by him for a reasonable compensation Persons having old 
family records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with him with 
reference to printing them. Readers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the editor in answering queries, many 
of which can only be answered by recourse to original records. Querists are requested to write clearly all names of 
persons and places so that they cannot be misunderstood. Queries will be inserted m the order in which they arc 
received. All matters relating to this departmc nt must be sent to THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE, Hartford, 
marked Genealogical Department. Give full name and post office address. — Editor. 



A 



S there is among-st the heathen 
a notion of a Deity, so also 
they have of Honor, and like- 
wise of Arms, or distinctive 
symbols and badges. (See Favine, 
pages 8 and 9 ; * Elements of Arm- 
ory,' page 21.) John Lederer in his 
discoveries in the west of Carolina, 
says the Sasquesahanah nation gave a 
terrapin or small tortoise for their en- 
sign of arms; the Akenatzys, a ser- 
pent; the Nahyssans, three arrows. 
. . . The book entitled * Jews in 
America' tells you that the sachems 
and chief princes of the Nunnyganses 
in New England submitted to King 
Charles the First, subscribing their 
names and setting their seals, which 
were a bow, bent, charged with an ar- 
row, a tomahawk or hatchet. . . . 
A great part of Anno 1659 till 
the following February, I lived 
in Virginia, being most hospitably 
received by the Honorable Colonel 
Richard Lee, sometime Secretary 
of State there, and who, after the 
King's martyrdom, hired a Dutch 



vessel freighted her himself, went to 
Brussels, surrendered up Sir William 
Barcklaie's old commission for the 
government of that province and 
received a new one from his present 
majesty, a loyal action and deserving 
of my commemoration. 
While I lived in Virginia I saw once 
a war dance acted by the natives. 
The dancers were painted some. 
Party per pale gu and sa from fore- 
head to foot (some Party per Fesse 
of the same Colours) and carried 
little ill-made shields of bark, also 
painted of those Colours (for I saw 
no other) some party per Fesse, some 
per pale (and some barry) at which I 
exceedingly wondered, and concluded 
that Heraldry was ingrafted natur- 
ally into the sense of the human 
race. If so, it deserves a greater 
esteem than nowadays is put upon it." 
— Introductio ad Laiinam Blasoniam^ by 
Johanne Gibbons^ London^ 16S2. 

The above quotation seems an appropriate 
addition to our department for the Indian 
number. 



544 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



QUESTIONS 
66. (a) Royce, Phinehas Royce b. 



1715, 



married 



Thankful 



Nov. 15, 1743, 
Sarah and her 



brother b. April 8, 1745, d. 1760; 
Keziah Royce b. July 5, 1747, 
died Nov. 11, 1801; Mahitable 
b. May 29, 1748. 

Phinehas Royce m. (2) July 3, 
1 75 1, Elizabeth — — . Phinehas 
Royce, Jr., b. April 3, 1752, d. 
1776; Nehemiah Royce b. Sept. 
i» i753> <i« 1790; Thankful Royce 
b. Feb. II, 1755; Samuel Royce 
b. April 20, 1757; Elizabeth 
Royce b. Feb. 5, 1759, d. Sept. 
— , 1794. Elizabeth, wife of 
Phinehas Royce, d. Feb. 15, 

1759. 

Phinehas Royce m. (3) Anna 

April 23, 1 76 1. Sarah Royce 

b. Oct. 18, 1762, d. Nov. 5, 1766; 
Lois Royce b. Feb. 26, 1765, d. 
Feb., 1832. 

Phinehas Royce, Esq., died 
Ma}'- II, 1787, in 7 2d year of his 
age. 

His surviving- widow, Anna 
Royce, died Jan. 2, 1804, in the 
82d year of her age. 

Thankful Royce was married 
to Noah Tuttle June 6, 1771. 

(From Royce family Bible.) 

Now, can anyone tell if Phine- 
has Royce was a descendant of 
Nehemiah Royce of Wallingford? 
As one of his sons was named 
Nehemiah I thought it probable. 
Was Nehemiah Royce the emi- 
grant ancestor of the Royce 
family ? 
(b) Tyler. Hezekiah Doolittle, 
son of Abraham and Mary (Lewis) 
D., b. in Cheshire, Conn., May 



25, 17 1 1, m. Hepzibah Tyler. 
Who were her parents and an- 
cestors ? 
(c) Bronson. Who were the 
parents of Dorcas Bronson, who 
married Stephen Hopkins b. 
1634, son of John Hopkins ** the 
miller." 

Mrs. C. I. L 



67. (a) Button. Who were the par- 
ents of Jesse Button of Canter- 
bury, Conn., born , 1749 

(probably in Stonington or Pres- 
ton, Conn.), died at Canterbury 
March 18, 1783; married, first, 
Sybil Rainsford, from whom he 
had two sons born at Preston — 
Richard b. May 10, 1776, and 
Rainsford b. Nov. 22, 1777. 
Sybil, his first wife, died March 
31, 1780. Jesse Button, married, 
second, Dec. 7, 1780, Abigail 
Ransom, from whom he had son 
Robert b. March 28, 1783. Jesse 
Button was buried beside his first 
wife in Westminster Cemetery 
at Canterbury, Conn. 
(3) Who were the parents of 
Roswell Button, Sr., of Preston, 

Conn., born there , 1746, 

died June 12, 1820; married, 
first, MarySpicer; married, sec- 
ond, Lydia, her half-sister. Was 
saddler and harness- maker at 
Preston, Conn. 
(c) Who were the parents of 
Daniel Button, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Matthias 
and Phoebe (Butts) Button of 
Canterbury, Conn. They had 
sons John, Hazard and Daniel. 
A. B. 



Ljoudenoys of 
treacle hi Com/ 
iSu/U^x Or 3 

ia[ciA,c/e.i^ous of 
JG'rececU /ft Cow 
Heitfe^ ^ ar: 

^tfeuoUtious ef = 
dBi-ettde hi Ce?Tf -4— 

(l\icH£tA'cL Loude 
cj treacle Bfaf 



[Wctirhornc in 



"...T;. c/au if 
Afire of- . 
Wf/hOttc/ , 

of wiin Chelsea 
*w SuJJex (tf 







obi if S- 



^o4*f Hxury ^z=tjxtyt7e daucJt 
: Wartfrtryytt ____ iii¥o' BrtPLc 

I I 1^4 KettTe sa6^ 



1^ Sonue^ 



, luctr: to 
ofHarfherh 






I u Coh7 . SoJCff 



1 r r 



' t*2fclin4/fi 



Ccru^ ^/e^ £Lr ^f^raytoH ^ 

•? ft. '^^£- L^^ '** ^«"** Buck 






jCiE l/ifitoJ'i'oii. of- 
dfsex H^culeJ'D>ulO>IX 
Xju y^^^tc r^CL/u^^pi fu'cJitttfUd 

(fF a, JJepuTcct/ou jfroiu tli*. 
<>Cea/ruccL Catne/fu C/arcMCet*^ 



o^Sfxxp}efi'rc 
o.hbeH ,u ijjejr 

'Tunc '. 



JffitH Maeot—, 



The many descendants of Mabel Harlakenden living in Connecticut will probably b« 
interested in the accompanying chart taken from the original in the British Museum. 
This shows that Judge Chauncey and the Rev. Mr. Jones did not draw upon their imag- 
inations alone when they compiled the Harlakenden pedigree claiming a Loudenoy-Dacre 
marriage. — M. K. T. 



546 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



dZ. Fitch-Rogers, Information and 
dates wanted of Governor 
Thomas Fitch, born 169 — and 
died 1 8th July, 1774; and of 
Samuel Rogers, Secretary to 
Governor Fitch, and who mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Gov- 
ernor Fitch in 1748. 

L. R, McK. 

69 Bar bur. Wanted, ancestry of 
three brothers — Daniel, Amasa 
and William Barbur, iron work- 
ers, probably from Connecticut, 
who emigrated to Jefferson 
County, N. Y. , in the early part 
of the century, 

Amasa Barbur, 1770- 1831, 
married Betsey Weller, 1775- 
1849, of Washington County, N, 
Y. ; lived in Champion, N. Y. ; 
afterwards kept a hotel at Le- 
Raysville, N. Y. 

M. L. K. 

70. Wanted: (a) Date of birth of 
Governor Robert Treat. 

(b) Dates of birth and death of 
Mary Hooker, daughter of Rev. 
Thos. Hooker. 

(c) Name of husband of Sarah 
Wells (daughter of Gov. Thos. 
Wells) and names of their chil- 
dren and whom they married. 

(d) Maiden name of Mehitable, 
wife of Ebenezer Fish, who was 
son of Dr John Fish and Hannah 
Baldwin, who was daughter of 
John Baldwin and Mary Bruen. 

(e) Dates of birth and death of 
Samuel Stone, son of Ezekiel 
Stone and Hannah Merwin (he 
was baptized Dec. 1679), and 
Samuel Stone, Jr. 

(f) Which Samuel Stone served 
in the war of the Revolution, 



the one last mentioned or some 
other? 

(g) Dates of birth and death of 
Deborah Gold, daughter of 
Nathan Gold (Deputy Governor) 
and Martha Harvey. 

(h) Dates of birth and death of 
Mary Andrew, daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Andrew. She married 
Samuel Clark. 

(i) Parents of Bethuel Langstaff 
(Shipbuild er) . H e married H an- 
nah Buckingham who was born 
Oct., 1664. 

(j) Ancestors of Ann or Anne 
Camp, who married Captain 
Bethuel Treat (of Revolutionary 
War.) She died May 4, 1785. 

(k) Ancestors of Lydia Frisbie, 
who married, Dec. 28, 1773, 
David Mallory of Woodbury (son 
of John, Jr.) Did he serve in 
the Revolution under name 
spelled slightly different? 

(1) Ancestors of Prudence White 
of Middletown, who married 
Richard Hawley, who was born 
1738. Their son, Obadiah, mar- 
ried Betty Kimberly and I would 
like to know about her and her 
ancestors. 

71. (a) Hayes. The parents of Eli 
Hayes, born March 14, 1765, 

were George and Hannah . 

Is this George identical with the 
George Hayes born Dec. 12, 
1727, Simsbury ? If so, parent- 
age of Hannah desired; also, 
date of their marriage. Eli 
Hayes went from Russell, Mass., 
to Burton, O., in 1800. Eli 
Hayes had brothers, Seth, Jo- 
seph and Plynn, who also went 
to Ohio. 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



547 



(b) Tutile. Wanted, parentage 
of Phebe Tuttle, who married 
Amos Bishop of North Haven 
before 1760; also, date of marri- 
age. 

(c) Fond. Wanted, parentage of 
Lois Pond, who married, June 
24, 1730, Joseph Lee, son of John 
Lee and Elizabeth (Crampton) 
Lee of East Guilford. 

(d) Morrison. Wanted, parentage 
of Ann Morrison, who married, 
June 17 1714, Dr. Ebenezer Tal- 
man of North Guilford. 

(e) Fry. Wanted, parentage of 
Desire Fry, who married, Jan. 
30, 17 12, Bezaleel Bristol of Guil- 
ford. 

L. A. K 

72. (a) Needham. Who was Anthony 
Needham who settled at Salem, 
Mass , in 1653, and there mar- 
ried Ann Potter? (See Savage 
Gen. Diet) 

(b) Edna Badger Needham, wife, 
or widow of Frederick Needham, 
with her children, Dwight, Lu- 
cina and Olive, and one other 
child, name unknown, left South 
Brimfield, (now Wales) Mass., 
for her home in Coventry, Conn. , 
in 1815. Information wanted of 
or about all of said children and 
their descendants. 

(c) Wanted, all matter relating to 
Needham family, particularly 
descendants of i Edmund Need- 
ham of Lynn, 1639; 2 John 
Needham of Boston, 1655; 3 
Anthony Needham of Salem, 

1653 

H. C. N. 

73. Seymour. Wanted, name of the 
father and other ancestors of 



Sarah Seymour, wife of James 
North of Canaan (?) and mother 
of James North of New Britain, 
Conn. One of her sisters was 
wife of Phineas Judd of Ken- 
sington. I do not know if she 
had brothers. 

H. A. M. 

74. Gilbert. Wanted, information 
concerning Giles Gilbert, who 
resided in Canajoharie, N. Y., 
about 1800. He was a Revolu- 
tionary soldier and, I think, was 
thrice married. There is a birth 
recorded in Middletown, Conn., 
"Giles Gilbert, born Apr. 21, 
1759." Is this the name of Giles 
Gilbert, and who were his ances- 
tors? Names of wife or wives; 
dates and places of his birth. 
marriage, death and burial, also 
names of children. 

S. D. H. H. 

ANSWERS. 

To 47. There were two early settlers 
in Windsor, Conn. — Anthony 
Hawkins (or Howkins) and An- 
thony Haskins — who have often 
been confused. Anthony Has- 
kins married an Isabel Brown, 
but her parentage is unknown. 
It is certain that she was not de- 
scended from Peter Brown of 
the " Mayflower," or of his sup- 
posed son, Peter Brown of Wind- 
sor. Nor was Peter Brown of 
Plymouth, Mass., a descendant 
of a Sir Peter Brown of Eng- 
land. It has been erroneously 
supposed that Peter Brown was 
a descendant of Sir Anthony 
Browne of England, who was o^ 
Royal descent, but this supposi- 



548 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



tion is absolutely unfounded. 
Peter Brown's parentage has 
nev9r been ascertained, and the 
Mayflower Society, who are in- 
vestigating his lineage, have se- 
cured no proof that the Peter 
Browns of Plymouth and of 
Windsor were father and son. 

Anthony Hawkins (or How- 
kins or Howkin) came to Wind- 
sor, Conn., in 1640 (see Stiles 
History of Windsor), sold his 
land there in 1654 and removed 
to Farmington, where he mar- 
ried, second, July 16, 1656, Ann 
Welles, daughter of Governor 
Thomas Welles. She died in 
Farmington in 1863. She was 
widow of Thomas Thompson, of 
Farmington. Anthony Hawkins 
died in 1674. He was patentee in 
the Royal Charter of Connecti- 
cut, 1662; a deputy, Governor's 
assistant, 1 668-1 670, and a Rep- 
resentative seventeen sessions in 
General Court of Connecticut. 
The name of his first wife is un- 
known. She was mother of Mary 
Hawkins, who was born July 16, 
1644, and who married Lieuten- 
ant John Judd. 

Was Anthony Hawkins a cap- 
tain ? 

Ruth Hawkins, who married 
Captain Thomas Hart, was a 
sister of Mary Hawkins Judd. 

Being descended from the 
Hart, Hawkins, Judd and Welles 
families, I may be of some 
further assistance to Miss Moul- 
ton, and should be please to an- 
swer inquiries. 

Herbert C. Andrews, 
Lock Box 683, 

Pasadena, Cal. 



To No. 52 (b). 

Bishop. Abigail Bishop was a 
daughter of Amos and Phebe 
Bishop of New Haven, b. Sept. 

24, 1758; d. in Chesterfield, 
Mass., Oct, 2, 185 1. 

Mix. Thomas Mix of New Ha- 
ven 1643, died early in i6qi, 
married 1649 Rebecca, daughter 
of Capt. Nathaniel Turner, and 
had Samuel born Jan. 11, 1663, 
died April 10, 1730, married July 

25, 1699, Rebecca, daughter of 
George Pardee, b. July 29, 1669, 
and had George, b. 1702, m. 
Katharine Tuttle, b. Nov. 25, 
1699, had daughters Katherine 
Mix, b. Jan. 22, 1729, d. in 
Chesterfield, Mass., Aug. 26, 
1818, age 89 in Jan. 24, 1750, 
Gershon, son of Gershon and 
Hannah Todd. 

Asa Todd, b. June 28, 1756, 
d. in Cummington, Mass., July 
16, 1847, age 91, m. May 24, 
1778 Abigail, daughter of Amos 
and Phebe Bishop. 
Tuitle. William Tuttle married 
in England, Elizabeth, came to 
America 1635, in New Haven 
1639, had son Joseph baptized in 
New Haven Nov. 22, 1640, m. 
May 2, 1667, Hannah daughter 
of Capt. Thomas Munson b. June 
II, 1648. 

Joseph son of Joseph and Han- 
nah (Munson) Tuttle b. March 
18, 1668, m. in Milford, Conn., 
Nov. 10, 1 69 1, Elizabeth daugh- 
ter of Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Paine) Sanford, b. 167 1, had 
Katherine b. Nov. 25, 1699, m. 
Feb. 14, 1724, George son of 
Samuel and Rebecca (Pardee) 
Mix. 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



549 



Brown, Francis Brown m. in 
England Mary Edwards, d. in 
East Haven 1668. 

Eleazer Brown son of Francis 
and Mary (Edwards) Brown, 
bap. Oct. 16, 1642, d. Oct. 23, 
1 7 14, m. Sarah daughter of John 
Bulkley, b. 1640. 

Mrs. C. I. Ingham, 

Geneseo, 111. 

ToN. 52 (b). 

Bishop. Amos Bishop was son 
of James, Jr., and Elizabeth 
(Clinton) Bishop, grandson of 
James and Abigail (Bennett), 
and great-grandson of Deputy 
Governor James Bishop and sec- 
ond wife Elizabeth (Tompkins). 

Elizabeth Sanford, wife of 
Joseph, was not a daughter of 
Thomas and Elizabeth (Paine) 
Sanford as given by Tuttle. 
She was daughter of Andrew 
and Sarah (Gibbard) Sandford, 
granddaughter of William Gib- 
bard and Ann (Tapp) and great- 
granddaughter of Edmund Tapp 
and his wife Ann. 

Sarah, wife of Eleazer Bulkley, 
was daughter of Thomas (not 
John) and Sarah (Jones) Bulkley 
and is named as Sarah Brown in 
her Mother's will, dated Feb. 15, 
1680-1. The Bulkley line is 
traced back to Robert de Bulk- 
ley, time of King John (1189- 
12 16). Editor. 

No. 53. Partial Answer. Ebenezer 
Beebe, son of Benjamin and Han- 
nah, was baptized October 29, 
1704, at New London. — Church 
Record, New London. 



To No. 66. (a) Royce. Phineas 
Royce, born in Wallingford June 
16, 17 15, was son of Nehemiah 
and Keziah (Hall) Royce. He 
seems to have had a first wife, 
Sarah, who died April 30, 1742, 
age 22, leaving no children. His 
wife Thankful was daughter of 
Nathanial Merriman. His third 
wife, Elizabeth, was widow of 
Daniel Lord of Lyme, and his 
fourth wife was Anna Hopkins, 
widow of Thomas Bronson. 

Nehemiah Royce was son of 
Nehemiah Royce who married 
Hannah Morgan, daughter of 
James, Nov. 20, 1660, and 
grandson of Robert Royce and 
wife, Elizabeth, of New London. 
Editor. 

To No. 68. 

It is hardly possible that Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Governor 
Thomas Fitch, could have mar- 
ried Samuel Rogers. The pub- 
lished date of her birth (173S or 
9) would make her too young to 
marry in 1748. She married 
Andrew Rowland, son of Sam- 
uel and Abigail (Squire) Row- 
land (see Selleck's Norwalk p. 
208). There seems to have been 
a mistake in the early accounts 
of the Rogers family. In the 
New York Genealogical record, 
Vol. 16, Samuel Rogers *'son of 
James" is stated to have married 
Elizabeth Fitch and seven chil- 
dren are given as theirs. In the 
recently published Genealog}' of 
the Rogers family (page 71) the 
name of Samuel does not appear 
among the children of James 
and this same family of seven 



55° 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



children is given to Nehemiah 
Rogers, son of James. He was 
born May 7, 17 17, died May 30, 
1760, and married Feb 25, 1748, 
Elizabeth daughter of Hon Sam- 
uel and Susannah Fitch and niece 
of Gov. Thomas Fitch. Selleck 
also, in the history of Norwalk, 
p. 328, states that Elizabeth, 
daughter of Samuel and Susan- 
nah, married Nehemiah Rogers, 
The children thus transferred 
are: Fitch, Moses, Susannah or 
Susan, Henry, Nehemiah, Es- 
ther and Elizabeth. (Rogers 
Gen. p. 106-7). Of course these 
changes have not been made 
without a convincing study of 
the records. I am not absolutely 
certain that the pages quoted 
are correctly numbered as the 
books are not at hand. The 
Rogers line is Nehemiah*, Capt. 
James^ and Freelove (Hurlbut), 
James' and Mary (Jordan), 
James^ and Elizabeth (Row- 
land). 

Editor. 

To No. 70. 

(c) Sarah Welles daughter of 
Gov. Thomas Welles m. Feb. 
1653 John Chester of Wethers- 
field. Children: Mary b. Dec. 
23, 1654, m. John Wolcott; 
John b. June 10, 1656, m. Han- 
nah Talcott; Sarah b. Nov. 1657, 
m. Simon Wolcott; Stephen b. 
May 26, 1660, m. Jemima Treat; 
Thomas b. March 23, 1662, m, 
Mary Treat; Samuel b. May 23, 



1664, d. May 12, 1689 unm. 
Prudence b. Dec. 10, 1666, m. 
James Treat, Jr. ; Eunice b. May 
17, t668, m. Rev. Timothy 
Stevens. 

(h) Mary Andrew, daughter of 
Rev. Samuel, was baptized at 
Milford, Jan. 24, 1697. The 
vital statistics of the town for 
about fifteen years, covering 
that period, are missing but the 
regular intervals between the 
baptisms of her brothers and 
sisters and the fact that her 
father was pastor of the church, 
would indicate that she was bap- 
tized shortly after birth, prob- 
ably the following Sunday. The 
probate records show that she 
died in 1778. 

(j) Ann Camp, who married Capt. 
Bethuel Treat, was baptized at 
Milford in January, 1744, and 
was daughter of John and Mary 
(Camp) Camp, granddaughter of 
John and Mary (Northrup)Camp, 
great-granddaughter of Nicholas 
and Sarah (Beard) Camp and 
great - great - grand - daughter of 
Nicholas Camp the settler. 

Correction: December number, 1903, 
page 406, answer to No. 28, for 
Phebe (Treat) Canfield read 
Phebe (Crane) Canfield. 

F. A. C. 

December number 1903, page 
405, query 61 (k), for Silsby — 
Silsbre, read Silsby — Silsbee. 

G. H. S. 



FUND FOR THE ERECTION OF A MONUMENT TO 
THE AMERICAN INDIAN 



HAS it ever occurred to the American people that some permanent 
memorial is due to the American Indian ? Such a memorial might 
be embodied in a monument which should be most appropriately- 
erected at Plymouth, Mass. The members of the various patriotic 
societies throughout the country and all persons interested are invited to 
correspond regarding it and suggestions are solicited for concerted action in 
the matter; especially should the various societies of Mayflower descendants 
be interested in furthering the movement, recognizing, as they do, the 
valuable aid rendered the Pilgrims by the Red-man, and, too, the friendly 
and peaceful relations which, for the greater part, existed between them. 
The sympathies and co operation of Old Home Week Associations through- 
out New England may also be enlisted in the enterprise. 

We are not unmindful of the many demands of a similar nature upon 
societies, therefore we make no suggestions as to gifts of large amounts, 
but hope the cause may meet with such universal support that small amounts 
from many may, in the course of a few years, assure the accomplishment of 
the purpose. 

A nucleus fund was established by the Old Home Week Association of 
Carver, Mass. (formerly a part of Plymouth), last July. Receipts will be 
sent for all money contributed, and the same will be placed on deposit in 
the Society for Savings, of Hartford, Conn. Many have expressed their 
approval of the movement, and will give their support. 
Communications should be addressed to 

HERBERT RANDALL, Treasurer, 

The Connecticut Magazine Company, 

Cheney Bldg., Hartford, Conn. 



SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 
NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Office of The President-General, 745 Chapel St., 

New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Herbert Randall, 

Dear Sir :—\ have duly considered the suggestion which you made the 
other day to me in regard to the erection of a memorial to the North 
American Indians to be erected at Plymouth, Mass., near the place where 
the Pilgrim Fathers landed. 

I have come to the conclusion that the proposition is a most excellent 
one, and is worthy of the support and hearty co-operation of all American 
patriotic societies, and I most cordially and heartily approve of the proposi- 
tion, and hope you will be able to carry out the idea successfully. Your 
plan ought to meet with encouragement from all patriotic citizens in New 
England, which I believe it will. 

With my best wishes for the success of your enterprise, I remain. 

Very sincerely yours, 

EDWIN S. GREELEY, 

President- General. 



* ' I am going, O my people, 
On a long and distant journey. 
Many moons and many winters 
Will have come and will have vanished 
Ere I come again to see you. 
But my guests I leave behind me; 
Listen to their words of wisdom, 
Listen to the truth they tell you ; 
For the Master of Life has sent them 
From the land of light and morning." 
— Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 



MARVELWOOD 

AN ESTATE OF PRIMITIVE FORESTS 




B Y 



GEORGE V 



SMITH 



THE SUBTLE BEAUTIES OF NATURE 




THER than for its beautiful 
surroundings and command- 
ing situation, Marvelwood, 
the home of J. M. Griest 
of New Haven, Connecticut, is re- 
markable in that it embraces within 
its domain a compact body of wood- 
land nearly six hundred acres in ex- 
tent, unbroken by a public road or 
fence and without a single house or 
cultivated lield to mar its native gran- 
deur, and this immense estate of wild- 
land is entirely included within the 
territorial limits of the largest city in 
Connecticut. In no portion of the 
country east of the Plains of the Mis- 
sissippi is to be found the parallel 
of Marvelwood in this particular. 
From the main entrance on Forest 
street in New Haven to the farthest 
western boundary near the Town line 
of Woodbridge, it is distant exactly 
two and one-half miles. 

It is interesting to note that the 
land of which Marvelwood is a part 
has remained wild since the founding 
of the New Haven Colony. The orig- 
inal proprietors of New Haven in 
common with other early settlements, 
were particular to guard their wood- 
land privileges. Fire wood was con- 
sidered such an indispensable com- 
modity to the comfort of the early in- 
habitants, that they at once took meas- 
ures to reserve certain sections of the 
outlying wildland to be owned in com- 
mon or equitably divided among the 
proprietors for purposes of supplying 
fuel to the infant settlement. Every 
owner of land in the village either had 
a corresponding ownership in the 
woods to the west of the settlement, 
or else had a right in common with 
others to take wood from the common 
field. This wood lot was early desig- 
nated as the Westfield Common Field, 
and is so referred to in old deeds and 
records of the New Haven Colony. 
In ancient maps and survevs it is 



designated by that name, and many of 
the older inhabitants of the city still 
refer to it as the Westfield Common. 
In process of time, however, the com- 
mon ownership became vested in in- 
dividuals, and at the time Mr. Griest 
began his purchase, there were more 
than a score of individual owners. 
The Marvelwood estate, while not co- 
extensive with the ancient boundaries 
of the Common Field, embraces nearly 
all of the land which did not event- 
ually become cut up into farms and 
cultivated fields. 

In location, contour and nature of 
soil, the greater portion of this im- 
mense estate is admirably adapted to 
primitive forest conditions. Its native 
beauty and grandeur are the chief ele- 
ments of its picturesqueness. As sim- 
plicity is the chief element of the sub- 
lime, therein lies the chief attraction 
of the wonderful beauty of this exten- 
sive estate. Save in the immediate 
vicinity of the house, and where nec- 
essary to establish drives and paths, 
nature's forces are permitted to romp 
unchecked throughout the extent of 
its 600 acres. In this respect its own- 
er has the highest instinct of an artist. 
At best the most skillful designer of 
landscape effects can only partially 
rival the exquisite touch given to a 
scene by the hands of nature itself. 
To preserve the grandeur of a native 
landscape is one thing ; to love and 
appreciate it is another, but when the 
two concur, the highest expression of 
art is exemplified. 

The constant aim of the owner has 
been to preserve its primitive aspect. 
One may search in vain its miles of 
forest wilds for artificial display or 
meaningless grouping. Every rock, 
tree, stream and pond remains today 
as it was placed by the Great Archi- 
tect of the Universe. No human dis- 
torting of nature's forces has been 
countenanced in the laying out of 




SIMPI^ICITY IS THE CHIKF ELKMENT OK THE SlHl.lME 



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558 MARVELWOOD^AN ESTATE OF PRIMITIVE FORESTS 




UNSPOII^KD BY THE HAND OF CIVII.IZATION 



the estate. Only in remote instances 
when nature presented formidable bar- 
riers to access to a certain portion of 
the estate, have ancient roads and 
paths been altered in their course. 

The tendency of modern architect- 
ural effect, both in landscape garden- 
ing and in the rearing of homes, is to 
magnify at the expense of nature. 
Most home builders strike a false note 
when they elaborate upon formality 
in landscape effect. Nature is the best 
and surest judge. The owner of Mar- 
velwood has dared to follow in the 
footsteps of nature, and to stubbornly 
refrain from employing artificial meth- 
ods to attain to the beautiful. The re- 
sult is that one is impressed by its 
simplicity and pauses in admiration 
before the silent monuments of na- 
ture's own handiwork. 

Nowhere throughout its miles of 
woodland, can one find a flower, shrub 
or plant which is not indigenous to 



the soil. Beyond the planting of a 
few rods of hemlock hedge along the 
north entrance, not a single slip of 
vegetation has been transplanted. 
Save where a certain hickory grove 
near the house needed thinning out 
to preserve it, not a single stick of 
livng timber has been removed from 
the soil. 

Entering from the street one ap- 
proaches the house at a distance of 
300 yards along an artificial stone 
walk which, following the natural as- 
cent of the land, winds among count- 
less oaks, hickories and hemlocks. 
Following the walk, and at times leav- 
ing it to gain a less precipitous ascent, 
is the crushed stone driveway, with 
cobble gutters and grass covered sides. 

The hickory grove, through which 
the walk and drive enters, is a land- 
mark in the western end of the city. 
It remained in the Dickerman family 
continuously for more than 200 years, 



MAR VEL WOOD— AN EST A TE OF PRIMITIVE FORESTS 5 59 



and only passed out of the possession 
of the family when acquired by Mr. 
Griest. The date when the ancient 
grove became established in the soil 
is not known. To use the language 
of the law, — "the memory of man 
runneth not the contrary." That the 
early colonial proprietors suffered the 
trees to encroach upon cultivated land 
is attested by the presence of corn 
rows, which are still traceable in reg- 
ular lines at intervals through the 
grove. 

Emerging from the precincts of the 
grove the walk enters the expansive 
lawn in its approach to the house. 
The house stands in a vista of ancient 
trees, mostly chestnuts, many of which 
are more than four feet in diame.ter, 
through whose friendly avenues of 
trunks and limbs a merry company of 
squirrels labor, rollick and scold, fed 
and protected by the kind-hearted pro- 
prietor. 



In front of the house and receding 
from it in every direction, gently slop- 
ing toward the street below, is a car- 
pet of lawn of nearly three acres in 
extent. The lawn in itself presents a 
field of matchless beauty. Unbroken, 
save by a single group of hemlocks, it 
reaches to the eastward a distance of 
some 300 feet, and in breadth exceeds 
400 feet. 

The group of hemlocks which studs 
the lawn to the left of the house, was 
set forty years ago by the hand of 
Mr. Donald G. Mitchell (Ik Marvel), 
the Dean of American letters, whose 
beautiful estate of Edgewood adjoins 
Marvelwood on the south. In short, 
a portion of Marvelwood, particularly 
that upon which the house stands, 
was purchased directly of Mr. Mit- 
chell, and for nearly half a century 
was part of Edgewood. 

The situation of the house is beyond 
question the most striking feature of 




WVING IN PEACK AND FRIKNDSHIP WITH THK l-ORHSTS 




J^'^Hvh. :# 



562 MAR VEL WOOD— AN EST A TE OF PRIMITIVE FORESTS 




RESIDENCE ON THE MARVEIyWOOD ESTATE OWNED BY J. M. GRIEST 

Group of hemlocks set forty years ago by Donald G. Mitchell (Ik Marvel) the dean of American letters, 
whose beautiful estate of Edgewood adjoins Marvelwood 



the Marvelwood estate. From the 
rich plateau of the western section of 
the city, the land quickly ascends to 
the crest of the hill which entirely 
bounds the view of the western hori- 
zon. About 200 feet above sea level, 
and upon the highest point of the im- 
mediate elevation, stands the costly 
edifice of Marvelwood. The house 
faces the east almost as truly as the 
needle points to the north. The first 
rays of the sun bathe the house and 
its surroundings in a glow of golden 
light, and reaching through the tree- 
tops, mellows the western landscape 
long before the dwellers in the valley 
below behold its beams. 

To the north, and only a short aerial 
mile removed, is the abrupt precipice 
of West Rock, the historic eminence 
which has the proud distinction of 
having once sheltered two of the 
judges, whose decree of death sent 
Charles Stuart, King of England, to 
an ignoble death in Whitehall. Far 
over against the north, framed in the 



blue haze of a New England sky, re- 
clines in endless sleep the stony coun- 
tenace of the ''Sleeping Giant," the 
guardian spirit of Mount Carmel, 
whose towering summit, reaching far 
out to sea, gladdens the heart of the 
homeward bound sailor. 

To the south the eye follows the 
long expansive bosom of the Sound, 
flecked with the masts and sails of 
commerce, and far beyond the white 
domes and cliffs of Long Island. At 
the entrance to the harbor, towering 
heavenward, its whiteness glistening 
in the summer sun, lifts the historic 
old lighthouse, whose friendly light of 
welcome, long since burned out, once 
guided to a safe harbor the mariners 
of old, laden with the riches of the 
Indies. 

To the east, spread before the eye 
like a huge panorama lies the City of 
Elms, and miles beyond the range of 
vision 

" Girt by green and silent mountains." 
To the rear of the house the land 



» 



I 




THE GRANDEUR OF 6oO ACRES OF PEACEFUL \V1LI>S 



564 MARVELWOOD— AN ESTATE OF PRIMITIVE FORESTS 



sharply descends, and we enter the 
vale of beeches, whose frosty trunks 
are scarred and seamed with dates and 
initials of bygone knights and ladies. 
Ascending again we follow ancient 
roads and trails and unexpectedly em- 
erge upon a rocky eminence, 400 feet 
above the distant city, and our eye 
again beholds the panorama mellowed 
by the increasing distance. 

Crossing and recrossing the estate 
and intersecting each other upon every 
hand are innumerable old wood roads 
and trails, many of which have long- 
since become overgrown with grass 
and brush. Even though the neigh- 
boring forest is fast encroaching upon 
the old roads they still hold their 
course through the estate, and turning 
into them the stroller gains a view 
down an avenue of noble tree trunks 
and in the distance is outlined the ce- 
dar-capped mountains. 

'\\v. Griest is devoting much time 
and expense to the clearing of the old 
road ways to permit of carriage driv- 
ing through the estate. Already more 
than nine miles of the old wood roads 
have been cleared out and widened to 
permit of easy passage. When the 
present scheme of road ways is com- 
pleted there will be fifteen miles of 
drives almiost entirely improved upon 
the ancient foundations. Many of these 
wood roads took their origin in Indian 
trails as evidenced by deeds and rec- 
ords. In Colonial times the main tho- 
roughfare to the Naugatuck valley 
crossed the western end of the estate, 
now an abandoned grass-covered track 
through the woods. Tradition says it 
followed a well established Indian 
trail, the same trail over which the rep- 
resentatives of the powerful Mohawk 
tribe annually made their journey into 
the county of the Pequots to levy tri- 
bute upon that unfortunate and less 
powerful nation. 

In the very heart of the estate, now 
thickly studded with noble forest trees, 
many of them at least a century old is 
the evidence that some courageous 



Puritan made an unsuccessful attempt 
to reduce a portion of the soil to cul- 
tivation. In and out among the trees, 
as in the case of the hickory grove near 
the house, can be seen traces of a corn 
field and dead furrows left by the 
plow. Standing in the rows and fur- 
rows are immense oaks, chestnuts and 
maples, many of them two feet and 
more in diameter. 

About a year ago workmen upon 
the roads had occasion to remove a 
portion of a dismantled stone wall, the 
laborious work of an early proprietor. 
Incorporated in the material of the 
wall was found a moss-covered stone 
upon which the following inscription 
was rudely but plainly cut, 

'' Librty. 1776. N. H." 

The natural beauty of Marvelwood 
is greatly enhanced by several brooks 
which find their source in innumerable 
springs bursting from the wooded 
hillsides. Roaring brook, rightly nam- 
ed, is a tumultuous stream rushing 
through ravines, foaming and bound- 
ing over boulders to at length unite 
its crystal waters with a series of lakes. 
Mile brook, though less boisterous is 
none the less picturesque. It picks its 
way through long stretches of primi- 
tive forest, bathing the roots of an- 
cient trees with the purity of its wat- 
ers, and flowing onward serves as a 
never failing supply of pure water to 
an ice pond. 

The owner of Marvelwood has nev- 
er made an effort to stock the estate 
with game. The plan is to foster and 
protect the native game rather than 
to import from other sources. All the 
native game birds and animals abound, 
and as no hunting is permitted upon 
the estate the increase is noticeable. 
During the past year several deer have 
been seen and in the seclusion of the 
estate it is believed that they will soon 
become numerous. 

Marvelwood is thus an estate of 
peaceful wilds. The brooks course 
onward unpolluted ; the song birds 
nest in peace in the tree tops ; the noble 



MARVELWOOD— AN ESTATE OF PRIMITIVE FORESTS ;6; 



game birds and animals tread the car- 
pet of the forest unmolested by man; 
the stately trees proudly rear their 
heads unscarred by the axe. It is a 
noble monument to the good taste of 



^^^5 



him who worships at the shrine of na- 
ture, and who lives in peace and 
friendship with the trees, the birds, 
the beast of the wild, and joys in the 
love of nature's handiwork. 




EVERY THOUGHT AND FEELING IS A PAINTING STROKl-. 
IN THE DARKNESS, OF OUR LIKENESS THAT IS TO BK : AND 
OUR WHOLE LIFE IS BUT A CHAMBER, WHICH WK ARK 
FRESCOING WITH COLORS THAT DO NOT APPEAR WHILE 
BEING LAID ON WET, BUT WHICH WILL SHINK l-ORTH 
AFTERWARDS, WHEN FINISHED AND DRY 

HENRY WARD BICICCHI-K 



WINSTED— THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 

STORY OF ITS GROWTH FROM THE DAYS WHEN IT 
WAS A PART OF THE NORTHWEST WOODS AND FELL 
INTO THE CONTROL OF HARTFORD— THE SETTLEMENT 
ON THE BRIDLE PATH BECOMES A PROSPEROUS MANU- 
FACTURING CENTER— HISTORICAL ARTICLE 



ROBERT S. HULBERT 

Mr. Hulbert testifies to the thrift of Winsted, Connecticut, from his experience as a recorder of its 
progress while the editor of one of its leading newspapers. He was born at West Winsted, April 6, 1854, 
and received his early education in the schools of Winsted. He attended the Williston Seminary at 
:Easthampton, Mass., and was graduated from the Shefi&eld Scientific School at Yale University in the 
class of 1878. From 1893 to 1895 he was the editor of the Winsted Daily Herald, and since that time has 
been in active newspaper work and civil engineering. Mr. Hulbert is a member of the Connecticut Civil 
Engineers and Surveyors Association and has been a follower of the profession much of the time since 
1878. As a contributor to the Hartford Courant, and other publications, on Litchfield County, he is to-day 
recognized as an authority on matters pertaining to his home town. The illustrations used in the 
article are from photographs by K. T. Sheldon, F. H. De Mars, T. M. V. Doughty, Harry D. Penney 
and others. Several of the plates are used by courtesy of the Central New England Division of The New 
York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad.— ^^zV^r 



WINSTED, whose name is de- 
rived from the Alpha of 
Winchester and the Omega 
of Barkhamsted, is a Bor- 
ough lying within the former township, 
close to the line which divides it from 
the latter. It is a growing, beautiful, 
hill-encircled village with characteristics 
of which its citizens are proud, and 
which — so the more enthusiastic believe 
— differentiate it greatly from all other 
places. 

This belief may arise in part from the 
fact that the Town of Winchester, 
though comparatively young — of its 
neighbors in Litchfield county, only 
Colebrook is of lesser age — has a his- 
tory which has been unusually well told, 
and which seems to warrant a certain 
optimism. 

It was fortunate in being the birth- 
place and life-long residence of a man, 
accomplished and educated, who gath- 
ered the town's history into the in- 
valuable "Annals of Winchester." Its 
author, John Boyd, was born in Win- 
sted in 1799. His father was James Boyd, 



who, with his partner, Benjamin Jenkins, 
composed the firm of Jenkins & Boyd, 
"the pioneer manufacturers of Winsted." 

John Boyd graduated in 1821 from 
Yale College. He afterwards studied 
law and was admitted to the bar of New 
Haven County in 1825. From 1827 to 
1853 he was himself a manufacturer in 
Winsted, a member of the firm of J. 
Boyd & Son, except for the last three 
years, during which he carried on the 
business for himself. He filled many 
public offices. He was a representative 
to the General Assembly in 1830 and 
1835; county commissioner in 1840. 1849 
and 1850; town clerk from 1829 to 1S33. 
from 1837 to 1841 and from 1855 to 1877: 
judge of probate from 1854 to 1869, when 
he was disqualified by age; State senator 
in 1854 and secretary of the State of 
Connecticut from 1859 to i86t. 

During all his career his tastes appear 
to have been literary and historical. It 
was while he was yet a student, that he 
found and rescued the famous Charter of 
the State of Connecticut from its immi- 
nent fate of being cut up and becoming, 



568 WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 




Photo by Harry 1^. Penney 
FIRST FRAME HOUSE IN WINCHESTER — BUILT BY CAI.EB BEACH ON HAI.I, 
MEADOW ROAD— MASSIVE CHIMNEY IS AI^Iv THAT NOW REMAINS 



not ignobly, for to say that would be un- 
gallant, but incongruously, — part of a 
lady's bonnet. Mr. Boyd, who died 
December i, 1891, never knew that the 
valuable document he had saved was the 
original, but always supposed it to be a 
duplicate. Evidence discovered and pub- 
lished within a year or two, seems to 
prove that it was the very Charter itself. 



It was the fear of losing this Charter, 
vith all that it meant to tlem, which 
2:ave the people of Connecticut Col- 
ony the shock which they experienced 
upon the arrival at Boston of Sir Ed- 
mund Andros, in 1685, to assume the 
government of all New England. The 
same fear, indirectly, had much to do 
with Winsted's future. They determ- 




■'>".> ( , 



^'-^ 



1#- 




i-IRST MEETING HOUSE — BUILT IN 1769 AT WINCHESTER 
CENTER — IT WAS 30 FEET LONG BY 24 FEET WIDE 



Photo by F. H. DeMars 

FIRST FRAME HOUSE IN WINSTED BOROUGH— KNOWN 
AS OLD MILL HOUSB, BUILT BY DAVID AUSTIN 
ABOUT 1771 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 569 




TORRI NGTON 
/7a/ 



/77/ - /77a 



/ 7^^ 



MAP SHOWING DEVKIyOPMENT OF WINCHESTER 

Three distinct epochs are represented— 1761, the building of the old north and south roads— 1771 to 
1776, years respectively in which Austin's and Balcom's grist mills were built— 1779 when Greenwoods 
Turnpike was built on which Winsted developed in place indicated— Drawn by R. S. Hulbert 



ined not to give up the Charter if it 
could be avoided, but they also decided 
to save everything else possible if the 
Charter should be taken from them. 
The General Court immediately con- 
vened for action. 

Among things worth keeping belong- 
ing to the Colony, was a lot of unoc- 
cupied land of unknown value in the 
northwestern corner of the Colony, in- 
cluding all of what is now Litchfield 
County and considerably more. To save 



this land the General Court hastily gave 
it over, after a fashion, in a series of 
grants to different towns in the Colony. 
The action proved unnecessary in the 
sequel, for Andros not only failed to 
obtain the Charter, thanks to the re- 
puted incident of the Charter Oak, but 
in less than two years the revolution in 
England's politics brought his rule in 
New England to an abrupt end. The 
conduct of affairs in the Colony was 
then resumed under the old Charter. 




FIRST HOUSE ON MAIN STREET, WINSTED 
At extreme left is structure built in 1798 and used as Higley Tavern, afterward Union House 



570 



IVINSTBD—DHVBLOPMLINT OP AN IDEAL TOWN 



nearly as before. Any expectations, 
however, that the towns would hurry to 
give back to the Colony the lands which 
had been deeded to them against a con- 
tingency which never came, proved to 
be of the stuf¥ of dreams. The favored 
towns did nothing of the kind. They 
kept quiet, "laid low," as the expression 
is, for a generation, and then cautionsly 
began a set of manoeuvres designed to 
perfect their title and make them secure 
in their ownership. 

Without following the details of the 
"deal," it suffices to say that Hartford 




JOHN BOYD, HISTORIAN 

Photo by T. M. V. Doughty 

was well in it from the First, and in 1732 
became the (nvner of that part of 
the '•western lands" included in the 
towns of Winchester, Hartland, New 
Hartford, and the eastern half of Har- 
winton, with jjower to assign the terri- 
tory to the taxpayers of Hartford, who 
should divide it among themselves in 
projKjrtion to the amount of their taxes 
on the list of 1720. The men whose 
names were on the tax list of 1720, and 
their heirs, became, therefore, the "pro- 
prietors" of Winchester and the other 
towns mentioncfl. 




CHURCH IN WINCHESTER CENTER 
Dedicated June 30, 1842 

They had a corporate existence with 
the right to survey the lands and make 
the division among themselves when- 
ever they saw fit. They took their time 
ff)r it, and it was 1758 before the 
first survey and report of the divi- 




REV. FREDERICK MARSH 
Born September 18, 1780— Died February 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOH'X 



571 




WHERK THE ELECTRIC POWER FOR WINSTED IS OENERATKO— TINXIS l-AI.I. 



572 



WINSTED—DEVBL0PMBN7' OF AN IDEAL TOWN 




MKMORIAI, FOUNTAIN— GIFT OF MRS. MARY ANN BI,AK:e MITCHELI. 

Ivocated in Park at E^ast part of Borough— Above view is looking tow^ard Park Hotel and loaned 
by courtesy of Harvej' I,. Roberts 



sion of the Winchester lands were 
made. A preliminary valuation had been 
made in 1732 when New Hartford was 
appraised at fifteen shillings per acre, 
Winchester and eastern Harwinton at 
ten shillings, and Hartland at seven shil- 
lings and sixpence. 



The division of the land of Winchester 
was by lottery, a drawing being held. 
and the town was legally open for settle- 
ment. As a matter of fact the pioneers 
were already here. 

The proprietors had lost so much 
time that the towns of Norfolk, Canaan 




RESIDENCE OF CALEB J. CAMP 



Photo by K. T. Sheldon 



VVINSTED— DEVELOPMENT Of AN IDEAL TOIVN 



S7?> 




COI.ONIAI. MANSION BUILT BY SOLOMON ROCKWELL IN 1813 
For many years residence of John Boyd, historian, and now home of Miss Marj- P. Hinsdale 




:^iiki^i 



Photo by F. II. DiMais 

HIGHLAND LAKE SHOWING W\\KEFIELD BOULKVARD-LOOKIXG SOUTH 
TOWARD SECOND BAY 



574 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OP AN IDEAL TOW 



"m- 



1W-; ...iP '^^ •— ^^^^^^» 



Photo bv K. T.Sheldon 



WINCHESTER CENTER 



and Goshen were ahead of them and were 
filling up with settlers. To reach these 
towns from Hartford and the east there 
were at this time two bridle paths, both 
of which ran for some distance into the 
town of Winchester, one through the 
northeast corner and the other in the 
southwest. Either stopping along these 
paths or coming back to them from 
the other towns, a few men had built 
rude huts within the limits of Winches- 



ter and were living in them when the 
division of lands was made. They could 
not own the particular ground on which 
they had built, but some of them had 
bought "undivided rights" from proprie- 
tors who had grown impatient in wait- 
ing for the division. The buyers had 
then squatted on the theory that they 
were entitled to land somewhere in the 
town and might as well locate on corner 
lots on the bridle paths as anywhere. 




RESIDENCE OF ELLIOTT B. BRONSON— WINCHESTER CE,NTER 



WINSTBD— DEVELOPMENT Of AN IDEAL TOWN 



S7S 




homeste;ad at Winchester center buit.t by isaac bronson about isoo— 

NOW OCCUPIED BY EDMUND H. BRONSON 



The first of these settlers on the bridle 
path, mentioned in the records, was 
Caleb Reach. He came from Goshen and 
had bought an "undivided right" in Win- 
chester lands on May 21, 1750. It is 
said that he did not intend to build on 
his Winchester purchase but supposed 
when he put up his shanty that he was in 
the town of Goshen. Be that as it may, 
the building proved to be in Winchester 
on what is now called Hall Meadow, not 
far from the Goshen line. The original 
building was replaced some time later 



by the first frame house built in the 
town of Winchester. This house was 
standing in 1899. It has since been 
blown down and nothing remains except 
the chimney. Plans are now being per- 
fected to mark with a suitable monument 
the site, and it is possible that during 
the year the town will vote an appropria- 
tion for the purpose. It may be noted 
that when the divisicui was made Mr 
Beach received the land on which his 
house stood. 

Another notable settler on the bridle 





HUmUBUT BAHK^^; 







When Hurlbut Bank was organized inisr)7 the firm ol S. X L. Hurlbut i;;ivc M W to haxc >t "anu.a 
ifterthem-On first bank bills issued Samuel Hurlbufs portrait appears on fU note.- and Lemuel 
BEurlbut's on $3 bills, while on $5 notes is the picture of Lemuel Hurlbut s devon bull 



WINSTBD— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 



S77 




Clark House — Erected about 1859 aud demolished 
to make place for Hotel Winchester— First pro- 
prietor was William Forbes — C. B. Andrews was 
last proprietor — Photo by T. M. V. Doughty dur- 
ing Civil War 

path was Adam Mott, who actually built 
a "Public Inn" beside it. It stood near 
the present Hurlbut Cemetery and be- 
came somewhat famous in later years. 
At first, however, it was but a rude log- 
house with a roof of hemlock bark, and 
its patronage must have been meager, 
furnished largely bj^ hunters, who were 
frequent; visitors to these woods. 

Three other families, the Gilberts, the 
Filleys, and the Prestons, make com- 
plete, so far as known, the list of people 
living in Winchester before the official 
division of the lands in 1758. 

It would have been an unpromising- 
prospect for one who might have come 
to Winchester at this time with the idea 
of building a city. He would have found 
a rocky wilderness covered with forests, 
in which hemlock predominated; with 
the valley of Mad river, which runs" 
through the center of the present Bor- 
ough of Winsted, an impassable and 
tangled morass. So uninviting- would it 



1 "" 


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191 


JM 


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"H" " " 1 iliiiiiMiiM 


■■■■■■ 



have seemed, that he would probably 
hurriedly have abandoned his plans and 
moved on to the fairer and more hos- 
pitable looking lands, which lay not far 
away to the south and west. 

Quite likely, indeed, unfavorable re- 
ports of the region traveled back to 
the Hartford owners, for not one of 
the original proprietors ever settled 
on his Winchester holdings. Never- 
theless, despite inauspicious appear- 
ances, the growth of a town commenced 
as if predestined. About 1760, the travel 
over the bridle paths became so large 
that the General Assembly took the mat- 
ter of roads in consideration, and in 1761 
the "old north road" was built to super- 



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Home ol Ro,-^c Tcirv Cooke, poet< 
K. T. Sheldon 



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Homestead of William S. Holabird, Lieutenant 
Governor of Connecticut 1842-1844— Died 1855— 
Photo by T. M. V. Doughty 



sede the still older briillc path in that 
part of the town, ami in 1762 the other 
bridle path, on which the few settlers 
had located, gave way to the "old south 
road." An intltix of settlers began and 
in i7-(>8 there were at least "eighteen fam- 
ilies containing sixty-two souls" within 
the township, mostly living aloncr the 
south road. 

In 1771 there were thirty-two families 
and one lunulred and seventy-nine souls 
and in I 7SJ jhc p*>pulation »^f the town is 
given as (v^S. The majiM-ity of tiiose 
lived near the beautiful section of the 
town kuinvn now as Winchester Center. 
or the t^ld Society, which was approach- 
ing the zenith of its importance and be- 
came the scene of its greatest activity a 
quarter of a centvu-y later, or about iSo.V 



578 



WINSTBD— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 




Old Methodist Church erected 1833— Old Second Congregational Church dedicated i857— Old First 
Congregational Church built 1800— Style of architecture is in contrast to new edifice shown below 

Photo by K. T. Sheldon 

Meanwhile the infant village of Win- 
sted had been born. A man of the pion- 
eers on the south road seems, by some 
hap, — hunting, fishing, or exploring, — 
to have penetrated eastward to the out- 



let of Long Pond. There, looking out 
over the lake as it lay shining in the 
sunlight, untouched, but quivering as if 
vibrant with latent force, and noting the 
wild, precipitous gorge down which its 




II 



II® if I 




First Congregational Church erected 1891— Courtesy of H. J. Pierre 



WINSTED—DEVELOPMEXT OF AS IDEAL TOIIX 



579 




Second Congregauoaal Ch-rci ereciei 1- •'- 

waters tumbled in a drop of 150 fee: . 
less than a quarter of a mile to the river 
below, be saw, perhaps, in prophetic vis- 
ion, the future Winsted made rich by 
this waiting and abundant power. A: 
any rate he saw a good site for a gris: 
mill- So in 1771 he hewed a cart 
path from the Old South Road "throngh 
the forest, down to Sucker Brook, and 
over the hills west of the pond to 
its outlet-" There he built a mill 
and a shanty, and a little later the 
old "millhouse" in which he lived. 
and which is still standing and in- 
habited- It \\-as the first frame house 
in the \nllage. and to David Austin, its 




builder, must be given the hoaor ot the 
title, -Founder of Winsted." Tlic hardj 
old pioneer, restless, did not rcmam is 
to^Ti- His subsequent career has a 
tonch of pathos in it. but that is another 
-tory. 

Five or six years after David Asstin of 
the Soath Road built his grist mill at the 
Lake, John Balcom. a dweller oa the 
North Road, is believed to hare boilt 



i.fVH^^^^^^^ 







Methodist Episcopal Church 
tion— Photo bv K. l\ Sheldoa 



St. Jitnes Frccc^iiu.; Hp;> 
crated IS*? — Photo bv K. T 



near the present Wiuiiin — Gilbert 
CKx-k Company's works, reaching it by 
a road down WalHn's Hill. Around these 
two grist mills, separated by what is now 
the heart of the Borv^ugh of Winsted. 
but by what was then twv> miles of un- 
br^^ken forest and thick underbrush. 
with probably not even a path cv>n- 
nectittg them, small clusters of houses^ 
grew up: later a bridle path irvHn 
one to the other was made by way 
of the present Lake street. Hins- 
dale and Wetmore a\-enues and North 
Main street, which subsequently de\-eL 
oped into a rv>ad- In i;^ the Green- 
wv^vods turnpike was opened frvHn New 
Hartford K» Sheffield and a part of it be- 



s8o 



WIKSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 




Baptist Church erected 1889^photo by F. H. De- 
Mars 

came the Main street of Winsted. The 
new turnpike immediately monopolized 
the through travel to the west which had 
formerly passed over the old North and 
South Roads, and it was at once an im- 
portant thoroughfare. North Main 
street was quickly extended down to it 
•and the skeleton framework of Winsted 
streets was established, but it preceded a 
long time the day of the "Good Roads" 
movement. 

The year before the Greenwoods turn- 
pike was opened, the "Higley Tavern," 
afterwards the Union House, now torn 
down, was built in anticipation of the 
road and was the first frame house on 
the Main street of Winsted. 

The history of the next hundred years 
of Winsted's life, from the building of 
Austin's mill, can be but hastily sketch- 
ed here. It is given faithfully, ably 
and with minuteness in John Boyd's An- 
nals. Tt developed the town which the 
aged historian knew in his last years. It 
was a century of hard and plodding- 



work, of increasing wealth, of growth of 
character. For after all they would be 
rude people in these days, those old an- 
cestors of ours. Stern, honest and nerve- 
strong they were, but bigoted, super- 
stitious, rough and uncouth in many 
ways, with the cider barrel always in 
the cellar, rum a common beverage, and 
conducting lotteries to support their 
churches. We are proud of them be- 
cause they were in advance of their 
own times, not of ours. 

The bigotry and superstition have de- 
creased steadily. The history of the 




St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church erected 1853 
—Photo by K. T. Sheldon 




"Town Hall and Court House — Photo by F. H. 
Mars 



churches shows in miniature the world 
movement toward tolerance. It could 
be traced in Winchester from the rigid 
orthodoxy of the first minister, Rev. Mr. 
Knapp, through the pastorates of his suc- 
cessors, to the time when its most hid- 
eous dogma, the damnation of children, 
weakened; an event of which the late 
Lewis Andrews wrote, "It was my hap- 
py lot to hear the late Rev. Marsh preach 
his first sermon at a child's funeral, so 
he said, where he was able to bring com- 
fort to a frantic mother's stricken heart.'' 



WINSTBD— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 



;8r 




the; GII.BKRT SCHOOIv 



Courtesy of the Citizen Printing Co. 



We could trace the movement further, 
step by step down to the present time, 
when the Brotherhood of Man is be- 
coming the universal creed. As for sec- 
tarianism, its reign and subsidence are 
graphically pictured in Winchester his- 
tory, for Mr. Boyd says, "In those days" 
(when the first Methodist meeting house 
was built at the foot of Spencer street) 
"the Methodist and Congregational re- 
ligionists had little more sympathy or 



intercourse with each other than the old 
Jews and Samaritans. The circuit rider 
came on his rounds and declaimed a- 
gainst steeple meeting houses, pitchpipe 
singing and the doctrine oi election 
and the Presbyterians, on the 
other hand, looked on the Methodists as 
interlopers and fanatics. . Time 

and circumstances have worn away the 
prejudices and softened the asperities of 
the two denc^minatioiis. Intormarriaares 




Photo by F. H. DeMars 

THE WIIvIylAM L. GILBERT HOME FOR KRIENDIJCSS CHILDREN 



^82 



WINSTBD— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOIVN 




WII.I.IAM ly. GIIyBKRT, philanthropist 

have led to mutual forbearance. The 
temperance movement brought the best 
men and women of the two orders into 
co-operation and the anti-slavery move- 



ment, fearlessly advocated by the living 
Christianity of both churches, was the 
deathblow of sectarianism." 

The belief in witchcraft and the per- 
sonality of the devil have greatly waned 
since the days of Caleb Beach and the 
other pioneers, but they were very living 
beliefs then. Mrs. Beach herself had 
some experiences, according to tradition, 
while living in the old house which has 
been pictured as the first house built in 
the town: 

"Mrs. Beach was an expert and excel- 
lent weaver. Once she had to finish a 
large quantity of work by a given time, 
but she was sick for a while and after 
that unable to do her daily 'stent.' There 
was then talk of an 'evil eye' in the neigh- 
borhood, and a 'spell' upon the weaver's 
loom. One night as the. family sat 
around the huge fireplace, the sound of 
someone weaving in the back room 
startled them, but no one dared investi- 
gate in the dark. By the time the fire- 
knot was lighted and they had gone into 
the weaving room, the loom was silent 
and locked, but quite a strip of cloth 
had been completed of a different weave. 









r'^^lr l!li 


MM'». "^^M 


. -^ 


^ 


i« 


^MM 


Hi 


\^ ''^^m 


lb 




4^HHk3 


^H 


^ig 


1 




1^^' ajIMB 


1 



MKMORIAI. lylBRARY BUII^DING 



Photo by F. H. DeMars 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOIVN 



583 




Mrs. Delia Ellen (Rockwell) Miss Martha Beardsley— Born Mrs. Maria (Hewitt) Brown— 
Beardsley — Born January 16, February 13, 1856— Died Novem- Born September 2."5, 1H12— Died 
1811— Died March 19, 1878 ber 25, 1890 January 28, 1899 



the work of a new hand. When they had 
returned to the front room the same 
thing happened again, and then again. 
It was pronounced witchcraft, and there- 
after the weaver worked in constant fear, 
but hurried to finish the cloth and it was 
completed the evening before the day 
set for it. During the night the treadles 
of the loom were heard distinctly sev- 
eral times and in the morning the out- 
side door was wide open and upon the 
newly fallen snow were tracks of a clo- 
ven hoof and marks as if some creature 



had brushed its tail in the snow." 

And all this was not so very long ago. 
It is a somewhat remarkable fact that 
there are people living today who have 
seen every church edifice ever built in 
the town. The first church was in the 
Old Society. It was thirty feet long by 
twenty-four wide, with nine feet posts. 
It was built in 1769. The handle of the 
door of this church is now owned by 
Elliot B. Bronson of Winchester Center. 
It was made by David Austin in his 
blacksmith shop before he built his grist 





Jenison J. Whiting-Born January 9. 1818-Died ^^Ve^^'^^'■^^ V. ^.iJi^'^Mllr.^Ux'K^ r'^-Uim^^ *'''' 
October 22. 1897-Photo bv K. T. Sheldon Died April 14. iJHU-rhoto by K. 1 . bheldon 



584 



WINSTED—DBVBLOPMBNT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 




The late Hon. I,orrin A. Cooke— Governor of 
Connecticut 1897-1899 

mill in Winsted, and is stamped with his 
initials and the date, 1769. Near the 
church was a Sabbath Day house, where 
people could warm themselves and eat 
their luncheon during intermission. This 



church was afterwards removed from its 
site and used many years for a barn. The 
second church in the Old Society was 
built in 1785. It was used for more than 
fifty years before a stove was put into it,, 
and was succeeded by the present build- 
ing, which was dedicated June 30, 1842.. 

The first meeting-house in Winsted 
Society was really over the line in Bark- 
hamsted. It was situated on Wallin's. 
Hill and was used but a short time. 

In 1800 the First Congregational 
church was built. It was moved and re- 
modeled about 1850 and was used until 
TQoi, when the new church was erected.. 
The first Methodist church was on Spen- 
cer street and is now a tenement house. 
The present Methodist church, which is 
soon to give place to the one now being 
built, was erected in 1833. St. James 
Episcopal church was consecrated in the 
fall of 1848. St. Joseph's Catholic church 
was first used in 1853. The Second Con- 
gregational church was dedicated in 
1857 and used until 1899, when the new 
church was finished. The Baptist church 
was built in 1889 and remodeled in 1902.. 
A Second Advent chapel was built about 
1890 but was not well supported and is. 
now made over into a tenement house.. 

The material prosperity of the com- 
munity upon which all other progress, 
even religious, is undoubtedly more or 




THE TvlTCHFIEIvD COUNTY HOSPITAT^ 



Photo by F. H. DeMa 



WINSTED—DBVBLOPMENT OF AN WEAL TOWN 



585 



less dependent, came to Winsted from 
its valuable water power. About the 
time that David Austin built his grist 
mill, Richard Smith, an Englishman, 
built a forge at what is now Roberts- 
ville, in Barkhamsted, near the north- 
eastern corner of Winchester. At this 
forge pig iron was refined, which was 
brought, in saddle bags at first, thirty 
miles from the mines in Salisbury. 
Other forges, obtaining pig iron from 
the same source were built in the 
vicinity. Between 1800 and 1812, four 
at least were built in Winchester, some 
on the lake stream, between the lake and 
Mad river, and others on the river. At 
one of these forges, at a later date. Gen- 
eral H. A. Harvey, the inventor of Har- 
vejnzed armor for battleships, carried 
on business under the name of the Har- 
vey Iron & Steel Co. All of the old 
forges have passed away and their sites 
are occupied by other buildings. The 
last one, the Timothy Hulbert forge, 
was torn <iown about fifteen years ago. 
But for half a century the forges did 
valiant work in the building of the town, 
and in conjunction with the scythe 
shops, which were started in 1792 by 
Benjamin Jenkins of Bridgewater and 




JUDGE AUGUSTUS H. FKNN 
Born Plymouth, Conn., Jan. 18, 1844— Civil War 
veteran— Judge of Supreme Court for eight vears 
—Died Winsted, Sept. 12, 1897 

James Boyd of Windsor, under the name 
of Jenkins & Boyd, they gave to Win- 
sted what may well be styled its "Iron 
Age." 




" 



'..r^iii la ij vh: y 




RESIDHNCK OF T.ATE GOVERNOR I.OKRIN A. Cv 



S86 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 



In the article which follows, on the in- 
dustrial progress of the town, will be 
found, in more detail, the history of 
these early manufactures. 

Many events in the town's history ac- 
companied the rise of its manufactures. 




%CP(^ 





uriesy Iloutfliton, Mifflin ik Co. 



Banker poet— Published Winsted Herald in the 
fifties with Stephen A. Hubbard 



rose; tkrry cook]^, authoress 

Born 1827 West'^Hartford— Died 1892, Pittsfield, 

Mass. 



The first town meeting of Winchester 
was held July 22, 1771. The oldest as- 
sessment list of the town in existence 
was made in 1783. On it, the Win- 
chester Society's property footed up 
£4,242-i2s-9d and the Winsted Society's 
£i,425-i2s-9d. The latter's growth was 
already becoming important, and in 1786 
an effort was made to form a separate 
incorporated town by uniting the east- 
erly part of Winchester and the westerly 
part of Barkhamsted, but this plan fail- 
ed. In 1790 it was voted in town meet- 
ing to set off and incorporate the So- 
ciety of Winsted into a separate town 
from the town of Winchester, but the 
General Assembly "failed to pass the act 
of incorporation." In 1799 Winsted had 
grown sufficiently to cause the town to 
vote that one-third of the town meetings 
be held at the house of Horace Higley 
(the Higley Tavern, just built) and in 
t8o8 it was voted to hold one-half of 
the meetings in Winsted. In 1810 the 
assessment list gave Winsted $13,747.03, 



WINSTBD— DEVELOPMENT OF AX IDEAL TOIVX 



587 






Photo by F. H. DeMar 
MEMORIAI, PARK AND SOI.DIERS MONUMENT DEDICATED SEPT. U, IH'.MJ 



and the Old Society $17,398.32. The 
two parts of the town were nearing the 
time when the child should become as 
strong as the parent. The famous Fourth 
of July celebration on the Green in 1810 
may be regarded, perhaps, as the culmi- 
nation of Winchester Center's glory. 
Thereafter, though it had a long era of 
prosperity, it was subsidiary in import- 
ance to the growing village in the east. 
Strong men it had, indeed, most promi- 
nent among them the widely known 
Hurlbuts, merchants, farmers and drov- 
ers, from whom old John Brown bought 
cattle, Lemuel Hurlbut having "intro- 
duced upon his farm the pure Devon 
breed of cattle, the first of this beauti- 
ful and serviceable stock ever brought 
into the State." 

After 1810 one-half the town meetings 
were held for a time in Winchester Cen- 
ter; then only one-third; finally, about 
1840, this third was given up and all 
town meetings since have been held in 
Winsted. In i860, the long-established 
custom of selecting one candidate for 
representative to the General Assembly 
from the Old Society and one from Win- 
sted, and of holding a caucus in each 
place, was also broken. Thereafter all 
caucuses were held in Winsted and about 
1865 the separate tax list for Winchester 



Center was also abolished. The Old 
Hill settlement still exists, catching the 
first rays of the morning sun and look- 
ing westward over splendid vistas to dis- 
tant dreamy mountains, and there is 



IH 


• mm 




rBia^ 






d 




pHr 


^ ^^:^ 


W 


4 




^^, ■'• 1 


^^ ^l^i^^B^ J 



ET.DER MILES GRANT 

Born Torrinjrfoid.Conu.. Dec. ISth, l!*l;V— Taui^ht 
school iu Wiii.sted in the forties— Now occupyiu>; 
the pulpit at avje of S4 



588 IVINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OP AN IDEAL TOWN 







Photu by K. T. Sheldon 
RESIDENCE OF GE^ORGE: I.. FOSKETT ON SOUTH MAIN STREET 



prospect that the new era of summer 
homes for the dwellers in cities may 
bring it a great prosperity in the future, 
but whoever drives over the road from 
Winchester Center to "Danbury Quar- 
ter," once the most populous street in 




WII^I^IAM C. PHElyPS 

Born Colebrook, Conn., Sept. 4, 1808— At age of 96 
a now familiar figure in Winsted— For over 40 
years a school teacher— Last taught in First 
District, Winsted 



town, will see a long line of ancient cel- 
lars overgrown with briers, which tell 
a story of olden days which will never 
return. 

The century dating from the building 
of David Austin's mill and of the organ- 
ization of the town of Winchester, July 
22, 1771, ended in 1871, and that year 
saw the town's centennial celebration. 
Two years later the Annals of Winches- 
ter were published. Since then, though 
only the third part of another century 
has passed, the population of the town 
has doubled. If change in conditions 
could be measured by the same direct 
ratio, we should find that it had more 
than kept pace with the increase of pop- 
ulation. That century was one of man's 
work in Winsted, and its products were 
of iron, hard and homely. The thirty- 
three years have brought many modifi- 
cations. Some of the old industries have 
disappeared. More ductile metals, more 
easily worked, made into beautiful 
shapes and shining with bright plating, 
go out from its factories. Soft wool is 
the material used in two large establish- 
ments; silk in brilliant colors is the sole 
output of another, and in these factories 
many girls are employed in clean and 
well-paid work, Winsted has become a 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OP AN IDEAL TOWN 



589 



town of remarkably varied manufactures, 
so much so as to hold an almost unique 
position in this respect for a town of 
its size. 

Along in the seventies, at the be- 
ginning of the New Winsted, it be- 
came evident that the limit to the 
amount of power which could be de- 
rived from Long Lake was nearly reach- 
ed. When David Austin erected his mill 
in 1771, he built a wooden dam which 
raised the lake about four feet high- 




STEPHKN A. HUBBARD 

Born August 20, 1827 vSunderland, Mass —With 
Thomas M. Clark, founded Winsted Herald 185:5 
—Associated with Senator Joseph R. Hawley on 
Hartford Courant at time of his death, Jan. 11, 
1890 

er than its natural level. About 1806 
this dam gave way during a freshet, but 
the break had been expected and was 
repaired temporarily, averting disaster. 
The same year a new dam was built, 
made of two walls of stone, filled solid 
between, wide enough for a roadway 
along the top. This new dam was a 
foot higher than the old one. Again ii\ 
i860, when the Borough waterworks sys- 




THOMAS M. CLARK 

idiiig Ci 

War period, Kditor Winsted Herald— Died Nov. 
13, 1889 



tern was established, the Borough, by 
authorization of the legislature, raised 
the dam another four feet. Yet in many 
years there was a scarcity of water, and 
it was recognized that not more reser- 
v^oir capacity, but more water to fill the 
existing reservoir must be provided. For 







THKJDORK I'. V.Xll.L 

Born March -'7. 18;VJ— Kditor of Winsted Herald 
from 1805 until his death. Feb. 8. 1875 



590 WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 




WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AX IDEAL TUILX 



591 




RESIDENCE OF ARTHUR Iv- CI.ARK 



about ten years from 1875, the lake did 
not filL^to overflowing even in the spring 
freshets. A bold plan was formed, 
which preliminary surveys in 1880 prov- 
ed to be practicable. Estimates of cost 
varying little from actual later results, 
were made. Ten years elapsed after 
these surveys before the construction be- 
gan. Then, by will of the late William 
L. Gilbert, $50,000 were given for the 
purpose, and with that amount as a nu- 
cleus, the Borough of Winsted complet- 
ed in 1894, a lasting monument to its 
energy. Briefly, a tunnel six feet high 
and six feet wide was bored through 
3,252 feet of solid granite and gneiss 
rock, and through this tunnel from a 
feeding reservoir, water which formerly 
ran to waste down Mad river is poured 
into Crystal Lake (formerly 'Little 
Pond') and from this by its natural out- 
let, through Sucker Brook into High- 
land (formerly Long) Lake. At the same 
time the storage capacity was increased 
by raising Crystal Lake by a dam, and 
pipes were laid to this lake, 300 feet a- 
bove the level of Main street, from the 
Borough waterworks system, which 
formerly took its supply from Highland 
Lake. 



The achievement of improving its 
water power is the most important event 
in the industrial history of Winsted dur- 
ing the last thirty years. 

We come now to a splendid factor in 
the town's development — the gifts of 
public - spirited citizens. benefactions 
which, in conjunction with the industrial 
changes, have transformed the town 
since the "Annals" were written. Wil- 
liam L. Gilbert, whoso gifts made the 
tunnel a possibility, gave also to Win- 
sted the Gilbert Home and the Gilbert 
School, two institutions endowed with 
over a half-million dollars each: the one 
situated on a commanding position on 
a hill in the west part of the village. 
Dwning a tract of land of over joo acres; 
the other a niassive building facing "the 
Green" in l^ast Winsted. The Home is 
a refuge for friendless and poor chil- 
dren; the school is an institution oflfer- 
ing free to residents of Winsted. and to 
others for a small tuition fee. the ad- 
vantages not only of the best high 
schools, btit of further advanced study. 
It is perhaps true that, up to the found- 
ing of the Gilbert School. Winsted had 
hardly kept pace in its public schools 
with the general progress along the line. 



592 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 



There had been able teachers and the 
schools had advanced, but the old sec- 
tional feeling had retarded the move- 
ment. Some excellent private schools, 
notably the Winchester Institute, found- 
ed in 1858 by the Rev. Ira Pettibone, 
and continued with changes until about 
1885, had done good work, but their ad- 
vantages were not open to all. In later 
years the graded public schools had done 
the best possible under the conditions. 
But with one stride, at the opening of 
the Gilbert School in 1895,' Winsted step- 
ped to an advanced position in education- 
al ranks. The graded schools, freed from 
high school obligations, are able to con- 
centrate their energies on thorough 
preparation for the new school and its 
excellent courses. 

William I.. Gilbert was a native of 
Litchfield, where he was born, a farmer's 
son, in 1806. He remained on the farm, 
securing a district school education only, 
till he was twenty-two years old. Then 
his instincts led him from the farm to 
business. He went to Bristol, and bor- 
rowing $300, began, with a brother-in- 
law, the manufacture of parts of clocks 
for other concerns. In 1841 he came 
to Winsted and with others bought the 
Riley Whiting Clock Works on the his- 
toric site of the Doolittle Mill. Nearly 
a half century later he died, having built 
the largest business in Winsted, and 
having amassed a large fortune. He left 
the greater part of it to do good for the 
town in which he lived. 

The educational awakening of Winsted 
was also helped in 1874 by Mrs. Delia 
Ellen Rockwell Beardsley, widow of El- 
liott Beardsley, who gave into the hands 
of trustees $10,000 for the founding of a 
library. For twenty-five years the 
books were in a pleasant room in the 
Beardsley building. Before his death in 
1897, the late Jenison J. Whiting began 
the crjnstruction of the Memorial Li- 
brary. The building was completed af- 
ter his death by Mrs. Whiting, and with 
the lot on which it stands, representing 
a total outlay of about $20,000, was 
given to the town for the reception of 
libraries. The P>eardsley Library, whose 



funds had been augmented by a gift of 
$1,000 from Miss Martha Beardsley at 
her death, and by $600 given by Rufus 
E. Holmes of Winsted, was placed in 
the building. The town then voted an 
appropriation of $1,500 annually, to meet, 
with other expenses, those for which a 
small fee had been charged, and the 
books in the library were made free to 
tlie public. 

Standing on the summit of a hill in 
the center of Winsted is a square tower 
of native gray rock. On the top is a 
massive figure of a soldier. The lines 
of the tower are simple but graceful. 
The whole gives an effect of great 
beauty and is the most striking struc- 
ture in the town. It is Winsted's tribute 
to the soldier dead of the Civil War. 
On tablets in the tower are inscribed the 
names of thgse who died for the Union. 
This impressive and unique memorial 
was made possible by money raised in 
various ways and by many contributors, 
prominent among them being Henry 
Gay and Mrs. Maria Brown. 

On another hill-top, less than a half- 
mile from Memorial Park and the Sol- 
diers' Monument, is another edifice e- 
rected through money furnished in great 
part by public-spirited individuals, — and 
the Litchfield County Hospital of Win- 
chester, opened in 1902, is proving one 
of the most beneficent institutions in 
northwestern Connecticut. The grounds 
on which the building stands and $2,500 
additional, were given by Mrs. Julia A. 
Batcheller. Mrs. Maria Brown left by 
her will $5,000 for furnishing a hospital; 
the late Frederick B. Griswold bequeath- 
ed a fund of $40,000 to become available 
in the future, and Mrs. Mary B. Mix 
gave, by her will, $8,000. Two unknown 
donors have given $5,000 each for the 
founding of free beds, and many persons 
yet living have contributed amounts 
ranging from $too to $2,500 each. 

A mile away from the hospital, on the 
Green in East Winsted, is the Memorial 
lM)nntain, given by Mrs. Mary Ann 
P.lake Mitchell. 

There has been purposely left for the 
last in this recital, a legacy which has 



WINSTED— DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEAL TOWN 593 




RESIDENCE OF DR. SAI^MON G. HOWD 




RECEPTION HAIyl. IN RESIDENCE OF DR. SAI^MON c; HOWD 



594 WINSTED—DEVBLOPMENr OF AN IDEAL TOWN 



opened for the pleasure and recreation 
of the people the remarkable natural 
beauty of Winsted. Forbidding as the 
wilderness might have seemed for the 
building of a city when the forests were 
unbroken and trackless, it has become 
of the utmost beauty today. The be- 
quest by Harvey Wakefield of $10,000 
to the town of Winchester for any pub- 
lic use desired, was devoted by vote of 
the town to building a driveway around 
Highland Lake. As soon as the road 
was finished the erection of summer cot- 
tages began, and this movement was ac- 
celerated by the construction of a 
branch electric railway to the eastern 
shore. The "Boulevard" and the "Park" 
have now become the great summer 
pleasure resorts of Winsted. 

Where, one hundred and thirty-five 
years ago, David Austin looked upon a 
lonely lake, along whose borders an oc- 
casional red-skinned Indian stole in and 
out in search of game or fish, losing 
sometimes an arrow head, now the only 
memento of his presence, — the sum- 
mer visitor of today views a scene of 
gayety; watches moving panoramas of 
boats ; hears sounds of music, and 
through the foliage, where the Indian 
skulked clad in rude garments, catches 
sight of the summer girl arrayed in all 
her daintiness. 

On a tablet set in the rock of a high 
ledge beside the road on the west shore, 
is this inscription: "A tribute of remem- 
brance to Harvey Wakefield, a citizen of 
Winsted, whose generosity enabled the 
town to provide this beautiful lakeside 
drive, 1887." Mr. Wakefield was born 
in Colebrook, September 18, 1802, and 
died July 24, 1884. 

Our story is almost ended, and yet 
little of what might be written of Win- 
sted has been told. It is the home of 
patriotism. Rose Terry Cooke, in her 
glowing description of "Mytown" in 
Harper's, of October, 1877, bespeaks its 
spirit. Winchester's Daughters of the 
American Revolution may well be proud 
of their town's record. Says Mr. Boyd, 
"Our infant town had her representa- 
tions at Ticonderoga, Bunker Hill, Que- 



bec, Long Island, Saratoga, and many 
other battlefields. . . . Scarcely a ves- 
tige is found (on the muster and pay- 
rolls) of the service of drafted militia re- 
peatedly called out from Litchfield coun- 
ty to Danbury, Horse Neck, Long Island, 
Peekskill, and other points on the North 
river during the long protracted struggle 
for the possession of the Highlands. 
Probably not an able-bodied man of the 
town failed of being called out more than 
once on this harassing duty." 

And to this summary of the days of 
'76, might be added Mr. Boyd's vivid 
account of the effect in Winsted, made 
by the announcement of the news of the 
firing on Fort Sumpter in 1861, and the 
long and honorable record of Winches- 
ter's part in the Civil War. 

There are records other than those 
of war where names will be found which 
shed lustre on the town. John Boyd, 
Secretary of State from 1859 to 1861; 
William S. Holabird, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor from 1842 to 1844 ; Augustus H. 
Fenn, Judge of the Supreme Court of 
Connecticut from 1893 to his death in 
1897; and Lorrin A. Cooke, Governor of 
the State from 1898 to 1900; — are a- 
mong those who have been politically 
honored. 

Of the literary world, Edmund C. 
Stedman and Rose Terry Cooke have 
lived and written in Winsted, as have 
also such newspaper men as Thomas 
M. Clarke, Stephen A. Hubbard, and 
Theodore F. Vaill. 

But finally, to all these human inter- 
ests that invest the town, there is added 
the charm of a marvellous scenery which 
rests like a halo upon varied events. 
The new life of the springtime, bursting 
from field and bush, has made the ser- 
mon of the minister a sanctified mes- 
sage of love and hope; the grandeur of 
a winter tempest among the rugged hills 
has nerved the physician to fight and 
win from death itself. Drives through 
woodland roads when foilage was gor- 
geous with burning color, have left bright 
reminiscences, and the romance of even- 
ings on the lake — of the moonlight and 
the rippling water — lingers in many 



JVINSTED— DEVELOPMENT Of AN IDEAL TOWN 



595 



memories. For all who live and toil in 
this town of the hills, there are notes 
of joy which come from nature in her 
gladdest form, and from "the great 



paeon of Being that nature chants — notes 
in the divine diapason of life — of life 
singing its cosmic song." 



NOTE— Since this article was submitted to the publishers, Miss Amanda E. Church, a native of 
Winsted, who lived all her life in the house where she was born, has died at the age of eighty 
years, leaving an estate valued at over $10,000 to the Beardsley Tvibrary 



THE FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL HISTORY 

OF WINSTED 



MANUFACTURING— BANKING— BUSINESS IN- 
TERESTS— WITH HISTORICAL SKETCHES 
OF THEIR PROMOTERS— WRITTEN IN COL- 
LABORATION WITH ROBERT S. HULBERT 



BY 



EDWARD BAILEY EATON 



IN the preceding sketch of the gen- 
eral development of Winsted, 
many details of its progress and 
industries have necessarily been 
omitted, and yet material prosperity is 
possibly the most fascinating phase of 
history. 

The Winsted of today, risen from a 
rocky wilderness, has about 10,000 in- 
habitants and an assessment list of $5,- 
000,000. It is the center of trade of over 
500 square miles of territory, lies at the 
junction of two railroads, and is con- 
nected with its nearest large neighbor. 
Torrington, ten miles away, by an elec- 
tric railway. 

It has what is probably one of the 
finest water supplies in New England, 
a well-equipped fire department and low- 
insurance rates. It is lighted by gas and 
electricity, supplied from large modern 
plants, the one producing electricity be- 
ing situated at the romantic falls of the 
Tunxis, about three miles from the Bor- 
ough. It has also two telephone sys- 
tems, supplying about one telephone to 
every ten persons, and the manufactories 




Mice Ooujihtx Santorvl 



KKM.\1NS OF THK FIRST FORGK IN 
WINCHKSTHR 

lUiilt about 1TH5 by Jenkins & Boyd— Old water 
wheel is all that remained twelve years ago 



596 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



^ 






From i)aiiit 
THE IvAST FORGE IN WINCHESTER 



:e Doughty Sanford 



Known as the Timothy Hulbert Forge— Built about 1803 by the Rockwell Bros.— Torn down about 
fifteen years ago 



of Winsted turn out probably over four 
million dollars worth of products in a 
year. 

In the progress of this manufacturing 
may be traced the evolution of the me- 
chanical arts. There has been a mar- 
velous change from the primitive meth- 
ods of years ago to the present facilities 
for supplying the demands of a world's 
trade, and as the history of manufact- 
uring is largely a narration of individual 
success, this chapter of progress must 
be somewhat biographical. 

In Mr. Hulbert's article it is said that 
the early part of the last century might 
be called the "Iron Age" of Winsted. 
Besides the large output of refined iron 
and scythes, there had been made in the 
town, before i860, from iron and steel, 
the following products: Nails, by Jesse 
Byington, in i8to, who, during the War 
of t8i2, "employed more men as cutters 
and headers, than were employed by any 



other branch of business in the place;" 
axes, whose manufacture was introduced 
by Elizur Hinsdale about 1804; iron wire, 
the drawing of which from rods was a 
prosperous business near the present 
clock shop about 1812, and was carried 
on by Samuel and Luther Hoadley and 
James Boyd; hay and manure forks, 
made about the same time by hand in 
several shops; hoes, shovels and car- 
i)(Miters' tools, the making of which was 
started about 1828 by Samuel Boyd on 
the south side of Mad river; washers, 
nuts and bolts, made by the Clifton Mill 
Co., which succeeded him; table cutlery, 
manufactured first by the Eagle Co., on 
the site where the T. C. Richards Co. 
now stands; pocket cutlery, made first 
by Thompson & Gascoign in 1853, the 
business being developed into the pres- 
ent l^Lmpire Knife Co.; augurs, which 
were manufactured from 1853 to i860 by 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



597 



the Winsted Augur Co., where the Em- 
pire Knife Company's works are now 
situated; carriage axles, in the manufact- 
ure of which Reuben Cook & Sons em- 
barked about 1840; shovels, tongs and 
other fire irons, which were made, about 
1854, where the Woodruff Feed Mills 
now stand, the business being soon dis- 
continued, as Mr. Boyd rather naively 
remarks, because the concern "lacked 
capita], energy and business skill;" join- 
ers' tools, made by the Winsted Plane 
Co. for a few years from 1851 on the site 
now occupied by the Strong Mfg. Co., 
and finally pins, which have gone out 
from Winsted in millions upon millions 
since the Hartford Pin Co., the pred- 
ecessors of the New England Pin Co., 
began making them in 1852. In addition 
to these articles of wrought iron and 
steel, several foundries for making cast 
iron products were in existence at dif- 
ferent times, turning out clock bells, 
stoves, plows, and a great variety of oth- 
er castings. 



There were other important industries, 
however, in the town in the early days; 
grist mills, two of which have been men- 
tioned in the preceding article, and saw 
mills necessarily followed closely the 
early settlers. The first saw mill is be- 
lieved to have been built in Winchester 
Center, near the Hurlbut Cemetery. 
Others were built in different parts of 
the town. Lumber and various wooden 
articles including oars, wooden bowls and 
cheese boxes were made. Tanneries on 
a large scale were started in 1802 by two 
colonels, Hosea Hinsdale and James 
Sheperd, and have been always since 
then important industries of the town. 
The manufacture of woolen cloth was 
several times undertaken, but appears 
not to have been conducted long or 
profitably. In 1807, Samuel and Luther 
Hoadley and Riley Whiting began the 
manufacture of clocks, and that business. 
under different owners, has continued 
for nearly a century and has become the 
largest manufacturing industry of the 
town. 




n. sketch b\ Mis. Vli.f IVuuhtv Sinlorxt 
THE OLD THAYKR SCYTllK SHOP ON MAD RIVKR 
Built in 1831 and operated successfully for over fifty years 




■rj-7.': - 



I'l'lP: 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



599 



A brief history of this large concern 
may be interesting. When the Hoad- 
leys and Mr. Whiting started the busi- 
ness they made wooden clocks. "The 
machinery was carried by a tin wheel 
on an upright iron shaft. The cog 
wheels were of cherry, the pinion was of 
ivy (or calmia) and the face of white- 
wood, all home products. These, with a 
very little wire, a very little steel, brass, 
tin and cordage made up the staple of 
material in the old one-day shelf clock 
which they produced and scattered all 
,over the United States and Canada." 

Luther Hoadley died in 1813 and Sam- 
uel entered the army in the same year, 
retiring from the business. Mr. Whit- 
ing enlarged the business, tore down 
the historic grist mill, built new shops 
and began making eight-day clocks. He 
died in 1835. Lucius Clarke bought the 
business in 1841, the year that William 
L. Gilbert became identified with it. It 
was then carried on under the name of 
Clarke, Gilbert & Co., and W. L. Gil- 
bert, until its incorporation as The Gil- 
bert Manufacturing Company in 1866. 
It was reorganized in 1871 as the Wil- 
liam L. Gilbert Clock Company. The 
old building built by Mr. Whiting was 
burned down in 1870. It was replaced 
by two large three-story brick buildings 
which have been added to at intervals. 
In 1902 a handsome new office building, 
fronting on North Main street, was e- 
rected. The present extensive plant, an 
illustration of which is presented, is a 
.striking example of industrial progress. 



The buildings have a floor space of over 
90,000 square feet. The rooms are filled 
with the most modern and improved 
machinery. About 500 operatives are 
employed, turning out 2,000 clocks each 
day. These clocks are bewildering in 
their styles and sizes. They are of all 
prices, from the cheapest to the most 
expensive, and it is a long step from the 
crude modern affairs of 1807 to the 
beautiful objects of the clock-making art 
which go out from the factory in 1904. 

Steadily, for nearly a century, the con- 
cern has extended its trade, until now 
it has the world for its market. 

The company has established sales- 
rooms in New York. Chicago. San Fran- 
cisco, Philadelphia, Montreal, London 
and Rio Janeiro. Besides the sale of 
these goods throughout the United 
States, large shipments are made to 
China, Japan, South Africa. Australia. 
South America, and to a great many 
European countries, particularly to Eng- 
land. It would be difficult to find an 
illustration more typical of all that is 
involved in the building up of a great 
manufacturing industry, than is afforded 
by the history of this establishment, 
which has been identified so long with 
Winsted, 

The largo interests of the concern are 
at present managed by a board of di- 
rectors composed of James G. Woodruff. 
George R. Owen. Lyman R. Norton. B. 
F. Marsh and Henry Gay. and by the 
ottlcers, J. G. \\'oodruff, president and 
treasurer; George B. Owen, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager: E. S. Brown. 
secretary, and Arthur \\*. Oweti. assist- 
ant treasurer. 



6oo 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



Next to the clock company, in order 
of age, of the present manufacturing 
concerns of Winsted, is a representative 
of the tanning industry. The George 
Dudley & Son Company. 

In the first half of the last century, 
there were, around Winsted, several 
small tanneries for the tanning and fin- 
ishing of shoe leather. The tanning was 
all done in still vats, the skins being 
poled around by hand. When tanned 
they were made up into shoes in the 
same shop. 

It was in this way that George Dudley 
started in the leather business in 1831. 
He had a small tannery on the New 
Hartford road, near what is known as 
the Kellogg place. He remained there, 
however, only one year, buying, in 1832 
of Alanson Loomis, the tannery in Win- 
sted now called the "Home Tannery," 
and soon after took up the tanning of 
sheep and calf skins and English splits 
in hemlock bark for book purposes. 

It was at about this time that he gave 
up the old method of tanning and made 
use of the paddle wheel, which is the 




GEORGE DUDLEY— PIONEER IN THE TAN- 
NING BU.'^INESS IN WINSTED 

method used at the present time. The 
skins are put in a vat filled with the 




Photo by F. H. DeMars 
THE "HOME TANNERY" OF THE GEORGE DUDLEY & SON COMPANY 
Showing g^reat piles of hemlock bark .stacked in immense quantities in the yard of the tannery 



I 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



Go I 



%^.z 




THE "ROCKWELIv TANNERY" OF THE GEORGE DUDI^EY 



Photo b\ F. H. PeNUri 
SON COMPANY 



liquor from hemlock bark. A paddle 
wheel being set in motion makes a cur- 
rent in the liquor which keeps the skins 
constantly in motion. By this method 
the old fashioned and arduous work of 
hand stirring was done away with. An- 
other result was the shortening of the 
length of time necessary for the tanning 
of the skins. 

In 1853, Mr. Dudley, finding that his 
business had outgrown his capacity, tore 
down his old tannery and rebuilt it 
practically as it stands today. 

In 1867 he took his son, George Dud- 
ley, Jr., into partnership, when the busi- 
ness which had been conducted under 
the name of George Dudley was now 
done as George Dudley & Son. 

The business grew rapidly. For years 
they supplied the United States govern- 
ment with all the sheep and calf skins 
used in their bindery at Washington. 
On account of the increasing demand for 
their leather, it became necessary to 
buy more tanneries, among them being 
what was known as the "Woodruff Tan- 
nery" on North Alain street, and two in 
West Norfolk, Conn. Of these, one in 



West Norfolk is still in use, the rest 
having been dismantled. 

In 1882, Mr. Dudley and his son having 
both died, it became necessary to in- 
corporate the business, since which time 
the business has been carried on under 
the firm name of The George Dudley & 
Son Co. 

In 1888 the firm bought of John T. 
Rockwell the tannery in Winstcd which 
his brother and himself had operated un- 
der the firm name of J. S. tS: J. T. Rock- 
well. 

Tip to 1895 the whole attention of the 
company had been centered on the man- 
ufacture of book leather. In that year, 
however, a new branch was taken up, 
the tanning and preparing of sheep skins 
for use in organs, piano players, etc. 
Tliis branch has grown to such propor- 
tit>ns that practically all of the output 
of the "Rockwell" tannery is used in 
supplying the demands of this trade. 

The company lias now three tanneries 
in ciMistant operation, two in Winsted 
and one in West Norfolk. Conn. 

The present officers are: George E. 
Dudley, president; Dudley S. Vaill, treas- 
urer, and Andrew Fox, secretarj'. 



6o2 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




ElvIvIOT beardsIve;y 

The Empire Knife Company is an il- 
lustration of those industries established 
a half-century ago. Nevertheless, this 
company, manufacturing pocket cutlery, 
is one of the oldest manufacturers of this 
class of goods in the United States, in 
fact, they are the third oldest concern, 
and it is something over 50 years since 
the first pocket knives were made here 
in Winsted. In 1852, two Englishmen, 
Thompson & Gascoigne, came to Win- 
sted and commenced to make pocket 
knives, and an old publication of the 
Winsted Herald has an advertisement 
showing that the firm of Beardslev & 




JAMES R. AI^VORD 

Alvord, country merchants at that time, 
acted as the agents for them, selling their 
product. It was in 1856 that the Empire 
Knife Company came into existence, 
when Elliot Beardsley, who was a man- 
ufacturer of the Beardsley scythes, and 
James R. Alvord, who was his partner in 
the mercantile business of Beardsley & 
Alvord, took up the business of these 
two Englishmen, and formed the part- 
nership of the Empire Knife Co., the 
business has been in the Beardsley and 
Alvord families from that day to this. 
In 1890 this company was merged into 
a joint stock company, with the follow- 



x.'-^ 




Photo by F. 11. DeMars 
THE.PI.ANT OF THE EMPIRE KNIFE COMPANY ON MAD RIVER 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



603 



ing officers, who are today managing 
the business: Charles L. Alvord^ presi- 
dent; George S. Alvord, vice-president; 
and S. Landon Alvord, secretary and 
treasurer. 

This company employs over one hun- 
dred hands, made up of the most skilled 
workmen, and their product is very wide- 
ly distributed, the goods being largely 
used in the finest city trade, where the 
competition is keenest with the highest 
grade of English goods. 

The factory of this company, for thir- 
ty years, was on Lake street, water 
power of the first factory coming from 
Highland Lake, but in 1880 the old table 
cutlery factory property, the first water 
power on the Norfolk road, was pur- 
chased, and the works were removed to 
that point, where, in new and modern 
buildings, thoroughly equipped for this 
business, the company is now manufac- 
turing their well-known brand of Empire 
knives. 

The earliest factory work carried on 
in Winsted was the making of scythes. 
The first scythe shop in the town (and 
the third in the country) was on the 
same site where the only one re- 
maining in the toVn is now situated, and 
the concern which operates it — The 
Winsted Manufacturing Company — has 
also the distinction of being the oldest 
organized company in the town. 

The organization of the Winsted Man- 
ufacturing Company was effected Aug- 
ust 22, 183s, with the following officers 
(all of whom are now deceased): Direct- 
ors, Theron Rockwell, E. Grove Law- 
rence, Lyman Wakefield, Jonathan E. 
Hoyt, William S. Holabird; president 
Theron Rockwell; secretary, John Camp, 
treasurer, Lyman Case. Mr. Camp was 
the active manager from the organiza- 
tion until his death in 1862. Joseph H. 
Norton succeeded Mr. Camp, August 30, 
1862, as agent and secretary, and under 
Mr. Norton's efficient management a 
large and profitable business was carried 
on. Allen H. Norton, son of Joseph H., 
was elected secretary in 1875, and during 
the latter years of his father's life, was 
the active manager. Joseph H. Norton 
died in 1895, and his son. Allen H. Nor- 



ton, in 1901. The strict integrity and 
honesty in all business dealings which 
has characterized the management of 
this company since its organization, is 
a record of which those who come after 
them and assume the future burdens 
may be proud. 

Since Mr. Norton's death the business 
has been carried on by its present offi- 
cers: President, Lyman R. Norton; treas- 
urer, Arthur L. Clark; secretary, George 
H. Raidart. 

One of the most conspicuous buildings 
that the visitor notes on his arrival in 
Winsted, is the magnificent plant of the 
New England Pin Company, situated on 
Bridge street immediately opposite the 
Naugatuck railroad station. With an im- 
posing frontage of over 100 feet on 
Bridge street, the handsome new build- 
ing, five stories in height, erected in 1901. 
is a testimonial to progressive industry 
in Winsted. 

This business was established by J. G. 
Wetmore, and incorporated under the 
present name in 1854, with a capital of 
$Too,ooo. Since its inception, a career 
of success has marked the history of the 
enterprise which is today one of the 
largest plants in Winsted. 

The product of this industry is pins 
of many varieties, and the output is enor- 
mous, the modern machinery of the plant 
turning out from 12.000.000 to 15.000,000 
pins per day, equal in weight to about 
one ton of solid metal. The ci^npany re- 
cently purchased the hair pin plant of 
L. E. Warner of Oakville, and during the 
past year has practically doubled its 
capacit3^ The Winsted Paper Box Com- 
pany is owned and operated by the New 
luigland Pin Company, and not only 
manufacturers the boxes used by the lat- 
ter company, but supplies many of the 
other local manufacturers. 

About 125 skilled operatives are busily 
engaged in the manufacture of the shin- 
ing prdiluot of the company that has a 
market not only in this country but 
abroad. 

The prosont otlioers of the company 
are: George \\". Curtis, president; Jay !•!. 
Spaulding, secretary, treasurer and gen- 
eral manager, and George F. Drake, as- 
sistant secrotarv. 



6o4 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




SUBSTANTIAL BUII.DINGS OF THK NKW ENGI.AND PIN COMPANY 



The decade of the Civil War with the 
three years following, to the panic of 
1873, was a time of great prosperity for 
Winsted manufacturers and laid the 
foundations of many fortunes. One bus- 
iness only, that of making planters' 
hoes, was destroyed by the war, while 
several new concerns were started. 
Among them were the Strong Manu- 
facturing Co., making coffin trimmings; 
the business now known as the Franklin 
Moore Bolt Co., started by Edward 
Clarke and the late Franklin Moore; the 
Henry Spring Co., making carriage 
springs, and a large condensed milk fac- 
tory, organized by Gail Borden and 
others, which was operated from 1863 
to 1866. 

In i860, in the town of East Hampton, 
Connecticut, where so many kinds of 
bells are made that Edgar Allen Poe 
might have found material for at least 



one more stanza if he had lived there, 
were two young men, who, having begun 
the business of silver plating bells for 
manufacturers in 1856, had in the follow- 
ing four years added to it the making of. 
a small line of coffin tacks, screws and 
handles from white metal. It was the 
beginning of the more extensive business 
of the Strong Manufacturing Company 
of Winsted. For several years there- 
after, in East Hampton, the firm of 
Markham & Strong carried on its busi- 
ness, sometimes under the direction of 
David Strong, sometimes under that of 
his brother, Clark, who had returned to 
his home in East Hampton from Mis- 
souri at the breaking out of the war, 
and while both of the Strongs were 
wearing the blue in the service of their 
country, it was entirely under the man- 
agement of Mr. Markham. 

In 1866 the business came to Winsted. 
The Strong Manufacturing Company was 
formed and David Strong was author- 
ized to buy out Markham & Strong, 



t 

II 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



60s 




First Factory Building- of The Strong Manufacturing Company Where the company began its 

career in Winsted in 1866 



including the interest of Bevin Brothers, 
Vv^ho were silent partners. The original 
stockholders of the company which was 
formed were William L. Gilbert, Nor- 
mand Adams, A. L. Weirs, David 
Strong, Clark Strong, Charles B. Hal- 
lett, Joseph H. Norton, Ezra Baldwin 
and Theophilns Baird. The first presi- 
dent of the company was William L. 
Gilbert, who held the office for three 
years. Normand Adams was then presi- 
dent for one year and in 1871 David 
Strong was elected to the office and has 
held it since then to the present time. 
In the first year of the company Clark 
Strong was secretary and A. L. Weirs, 
treasurer. From 1867 to 1870 Clark 
Strong was secretary and treasurer. 
In the latter year he was made agent, an 
office which he held to 1877, the year 
before his death, when Henry G. Colt 
succeeded to the office, rendering effic- 
ient and successful service, dying on 
November 21st, 1897. He was succeeded 
in turn by Luman C. Colt, who still holds 
the office. In 1870, Harvey L. Roberts, 



who for three years had been bookkeeper 
for the company, took the office of sec- 
retary and treasurer and has retained it 
till the present time. The present board 
of directors consists of the above three 
mentioned officers, including also Lester 
C. Strong and Frederick C. Strong. 

Such has been the personnel of the 
management of the company during the 
nearly forty years of its life in Winsted. 
Few concerns see less changes in an 
equal time. 

The growth of the business was rapid. 
During the lirst few years David Strong 
carried on under his own name the 
manufacture of burial robes and casket 
linings, selling the goods to undertakers. 
including in his sales the products of the 
Strong Manufacturing Company. In 
187 J his business was consolidated with 
that of the company. 

While the goods made by the Strong 
T^Ianufacturing Company are of the kind 
necessarily associated with sombre re- 
flections, many of the articles are in 
themselves of great beauty. The first 



6o6 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




DAVID STRONG 
Founder of the Strong Manufacturing Company 

coflui handles made by Markham & 
Strong were plain drop handles of white 
metal. Later these handles were silver 



plated and, as time passed on, the few 
comparatively simple handles gave way 
to a greatly extended line in which the 
designer's art has vied with the plater's 
in producing the most elaborate and ele- 
gant articles. In every department of 
the company the men in charge are mas- 
ters of their business. The products of 
the factory range widely in cost. They 
are seen on the caskets of the lowliest 
and have been on those which held the 
mortal remains of many of the most 
prominent men of the country. When 
General Grant died in 1885, the casket 
handles, solid silver, and the name plate 
of solid gold were furnished by this com- 
pany. It supplied also the handles and 
plate for the caskets of ex-President 
Harrison and Cornelius Vanderbilt. 

The factory of the Strong Manufactur- 
ing Company is situated in the heart of 
the business district of the ea^st part of 
the Borough. When the company was 
first organized, it occupied a small wood- 
en building, but in 1873 a- new brick fac- 
tory was built. This was added to in 
1886 and the buildings now form one of 
the most substantial of Winsted's fac- 
tories. 




Photo by K.T. Sheldon 
PI.ANT OF the; strong MANUFACTURING COMPANY AS IT APPEARS TODAY 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



607 



Of the manufacturing industries which 
have been started within the last quarter 
of a century, the Winsted Hosiery Com- 
pany may be taken as a typical concern. 
This company was organized in 1882 
for the manufacture of hosiery by L. W. 
Tiffany and W. F. Taylor of New Hart- 
ford and J. S. Watson of the Norfolk 
and New Brunswick Hosiery Company, 
Norfolk. 

The original capitalization was $40,- 
000, but this has been increased from 
time to time to $200,000. The company 
began business in the small wooden fac- 
tory building shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration, with about 30 or 40 
hands. Mr. E. B. Gaylord became asso- 
ciated with the company in 1885 as as- 
sistant treasurer, and one year later, on 
the retirement of Mr. Taylor, was ap- 
pointed treasurer and general manager. 

The business has taken rapid strides 
in its progress since its inception, neces- 
sitating the extensive enlargement of 
the plant that is indicated in the illus- 
tration, where about 300 operatives now 
find regular employment producing an 
output to the value of about $600,000 
annually. 

The new and handsome buildings ot 
the Hosiery Company, equipped with 




Origiual Buildinyui ln^ Win- .•: iio^^icry 
Conipauy 

modern machinery and deriving the mo- 
tive power from steam, fittingly represent 
recent progress in manufacturing lines. 
The prosperity which has attended its 
operation is a source of gratification to 
Winsted people, not only because the 
manufacture of this class of goods adds 
so much to the earning capacity of many 
families, but also because it shows that 
Winsted, even without its excellent 
water power, is well fitted to be a profit- 
able manufacturing center. 

The present officers of the company 
are David Strong, president, and E. B. 
Gaylord, secretary and treasurer. 




PRESENT PIvANT OF THE WINSTED HOSIERY COMTANY 

lu marked contrast to above illnstratiou— ludicating- the material progress of the eoTupauy in 

less than a quarter of a century 



6o8 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




Photo by K. T. Sbeldon 
PI.ANT OF THE WINSTED SILK COMPANY AND THE SAI.TER SII.K COMPANY AT WIN3TED 



In 1747, Jonathan Law, governor of 
Connecticut, wore the first coat and 
stockings made of New England silk, 
and in 1750, his daughter the first silk 
dress made from domestic material. Not- 
withstanding all the efforts made, very 
little raw silk is now produced in this 
country at a profit. The opening up to 
commerce of the ports of the far East, 
greatly increased the supply of raw silk 
available for Europe and America. The 
United States today is one of the princi- 
pal silk manufacturing countries, with a 
product valued at over $80,000,000 per 
annum, and with the growing prosperity 
of the country a demand has been stim- 
ulated that now places the United States 
as the largest consumer of manufactured 
silk. 

Winsted has been recognized in the 
silk industry since 1874. In that year 
the business of the present Winsted Silk 
Company was established as a co-part- 
nership. In January, 1883, by a special 
act of the General Assembly, a charter 
was granted, the company being incorpo- 
rated as The Winsted Silk Company, with 
a capital of $150,000. The Salter Silk 



Company has since become a constituent 
of this company. The present officers of 
The Winsted Silk Company are: A. H. 
Livermore, president and treasurer; E. 
P. Wilcox, secretary, and James J. Law- 
ler, superintendent. 

The Salter Silk Company was incorpo- 
rated under the laws of the State of New- 
Jersey, in February, 1894, and the offi- 
cers are: A. H. Livermore, president and 
treasurer; A. S. Livermore, secretary and 
assistant treasurer. 

The plant of the two companies is sit- 
uated on Munro street near the Mad 
river, and employs about 175 operatives, 
mostly girls, exclusive of a large corps 
of traveling salesmen, and the clerical 
force of the various offices and sales- 
rooms of the companies in New York, 
Boston, Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul, St. 
Louis, and Johnstown, N. Y. 

The product of the two companies is 
silk threads of all kinds, consisting of 
sewing silks, machine twist, embroidery 
silks (of all the different varieties), cro- 
chet silk, knitting silk, and purse silk. 

In addition to the above the Salter 
Silk Company makes a specialty of Den- 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



609 



tal Flosses, both waxed and plain, for 
Dental use and Toilet purposes. Salter's 
Dental Floss is known throughout this 
country and in many parts of Europe, 
the Company manufacturing fully 80 per 
cent, of the entire output of this country, 
placing it on the market largely with the 
dry goods stores and druggists in the 
form of spools, and also in dainty flat 
disks or bobbins that fit the purse or 
pocket. 

The most recent additions to the man- 
ufacturing industries of Winsted, have 
enlarged still more the great variety of 
its products. 

The Goodwin & Kintz Company, 
whose factory is situated on Rowley 
street, manufactures a line of high grade 
metal goods. This company was incor- 
porated in 1897, and was first situated 
in Shelton, Conn. In 1899 they moved 
their business to Winsted, Conn., and 
purchased the factory of the Winsted 
Clock Co., on North Main street. The 
business grew rapidly and their quarters 



soon became cramped. In 1903 they ac- 
quired the factory of the Winsted Shoe 
Company, and added thereto two modern 
brick buildings. They now have a plant 
thoroughly up-to-date in manufacturing 
facilities, and have lately increased their 
capital stock to $50,000, as a preliminary 
to a further extension of their business. 

They devote particular attention to 
the manufacture of clock cases and clock 
materials, also small novelty clocks in 
fine Ormolu gold, and produce a large 
line of fine metal goods, including vases, 
candelabra, mirror plateaux, gas and 
electric portables. They do special sheet 
metal work to order and devote particu- 
lar attention to the production of prem- 
ium goods for trading stamp houses and 
similar concerns. 

The officers of the company are James 
G. Woodruff, president; Clemens Kintz. 
secretary; and Winslow Goodwin, treas- 
urer. The directors of the concern, in 
addition to the above, are E. B. Gaylord 
and A. W. Owen. 




FACTORY OF THE GOODWIN & KINTZ COMPANY 



6io 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



The series of articles by C. A. Quincy 
Norton, on "Lights and Lamps of Early 
New England," now appearing in The 
Connecticut Magazine, is attracting 
widespread attention, evolving, as it 
does, the development and improvement 
in the methods of lighting from the dark 
hour when the first flaring brand cast 
its flickering, smoky rays on the walls 
of the abode of some prehistoric cave- 
dweller, down to the present time, when 
chemists and inventors are striving zeal- 
ously to reach a perfection (if possible) 
in illuminating methods. 

"The lamp, in some form, has always 
been a necessity in the active life of 
man, and has been the means of length- 
ening his career on earth. So when we 
consider how much of the world's ad- 
vancement toward the realization of a 
higher civilization has been accomplish- 
ed by the aid of artificial illumination., 
we shall comprehend something of the 
importance of the lamp as a factor in 
the intellectual and material growth of 
mankind," says IVlr. Norton. 

Tt is interesting and timely to note at 
this time, that here in Winsted the skill 
of the inventor is being put to practical 
service in the creation of a portable 
house light which it appears should prove 
of inestimable value in lighting methods. 
l)y this invention it becomes possible 
f(jr the Icmely dweller on the hills or in 
the small towns removed from the pop- 
ulous centers, to have an illuminant 
equal and perhaps better than is afford- 
ed in the cities. The manufacture of the 
"Britelite" acetylene house lamp is one 
that should more and more give Winsted 
a widespread reputation, as the product 
of the manufacturer is placed on the 
market. Acetylene lighting is not en- 
tirely new, but the method of producing 
a house light that is at once brilliant, 
non-explosive and automatic in action, 
is the element of value which the par- 
ticular construction of this lamp make? 
possible. 

Under spectroscopic analysis which 
unerringly separates the rays, is reveal- 
ed the fact that those of acetylene gas 
are almost like natural rays. The "Brite- 
lite" lamp will stand a yet severer test; 
colors, which under other artificial 



lights evade discrimination, may be read- 
ily and truly distinguished. The news- 
paper or book may be read with com- 
fort and ease, without the eye-strains oc- 
casioned by other artificial lights. It was 
my privilege to be shown through the 
plant of the company and to see the 
lamps under tests. The quality of the 
light and the mechanical contrivances in 
the lamps are marvelous, and bespeak 
years of study and application in its per- 
fection, which has also required the ex- 
penditure of nearly $50,000 before the 
first lamp was placed on the market. 



<^/' 'y<mm^^ 




The " Brightlight"— A Winsted Product 

An invaluable quality of the "Britelite" 
lamp is the absolute safety in its use. 
It is built under the supervision of 
acetylene experts in the Winsted fac- 
tory. The system of generation (carbide- 
feed) is recognized by the leading acety- 
lene authorities as being at once practi- 
cal and safe. The lamp is constructed in 
accordance with the rules of the National 
Board of h'ire Underwriters, was tested 
and a])proved by their consulting en- 
gineers, and is included in the list of 
permitted devices issued by them. The 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



6ii 



practical operation of the "Britelite"' 
lamp is simplicity itself. Its mechanical 
devices cannot get out of order. The 
turning of a bottom releases the carbide 
which drops through a valve into the 
water below, producing a "cool genera- 
tion." This action is automatic. When 
charged, the lamp will give a bright, 
steady and brilliant light for ten hours. 
It is designed for use in the library, re- 
ception room and parlor, or indeed for 
any room in the house. The size of the 
flame is so small that there is no percept- 
ible heat from the lamp. It can be turn- 
ed on and off and lighted like city gas. 
When turned ofT the generation ceases 
instantly, which is a source of economy 
and convenience, and the gas cannot es- 
cape. The re-charging requires very 
little trouble, and when re-charged, the 
lamp will burn for approximately three 
evenings. The lamp emits no odor, re- 
quires no chimneys or wicks, and gives 
an illumination that has yet been un- 
equalled: This invention is the product 
of the "Britelite" Lamp Company, which 
has its main office at 45 Broadway, New 
York City. 



In olden days in New England it wa.s 
considered almost criminal to give time 
or thought to the body or countenance. 
The "ornament of a meek and quiet 
spirit" was the only one advertised or 
recommended in New England at that 
time, and was (hnibtless worn by many 
who would now be considered very un- 
tidy persons. Of late a different saying 
has gained in prominence, and the idea 
that "cleanliness is next to Godliness" 
is growing on us, and inventive genius, 
to promote cleanliness, has found ex- 
pression in Winsted in the form of tht 
i Iollow-1 oothed Rubber Brush, an all- 
ilexible brush, having a surface compos- 
ed of hollow projections (suction cups). 
The basic patent for this form of brush 
was granted the inventor, John G. 
Doughty, March 8th. 1898. Joseph R. 
Sanford became interested with Mr. 
Doughty, other patents were granted tc 
Mr. Sanford, details of construction were 
perfected, and the first goods — the 
Military Horse Brush — placed on the 
market in the year 1900. These were 
warmly received, and realizing that the 
patent was practically applicable to an 




l>y F. H. I>M«rs 

A BUSINKvSS SKCriON IN W1<:ST T A K P *.'■• liOKOl c;H 
Showing old Second Congregational Church in center, and chapel beyond After church was vacated 
Henry Gay to preserve property, purchased and remodeled buildings for business purposes 



6l2 



WINSTBD— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




Pho'oby K.T.Sheldon 
THE BEARDSIvKY HOUSK WKST PART OF BOROUGH 
One of the best known hostelries in I^itchfield Countj'— Conducted by Charles B. Andrews— Five 
minutes walk from Highland L,ake— The traveler finds an air of homelike comfort at this hotel 
with its handsome office and spacious varandas — Commercial service is two dollars per day, with 
special rates for a week or more 



endless variety of brushes and applian- 
ces, especially for bathing and massage, 
the inventors organized a joint stock 
company for the promotion of the pat- 
ents and the manufacture and sale of 
the goods. 

The Flexible Rubber Goods Company 
was incorporated under the laws of the 
State of Connecticut, March, 1901. Of- 
ficers of the company are: President, 
John G. Doughty; secretary and treas- 
urer, Joseph R. Sanford; directors, 
Henry Gay, John G. Doughty, J. R. San- 
ford. 

Quite a full line of all flexible, hollow- 
toothed rubber brushes, mitts, rollers,, 
etc., is manufactured, and the company 
is constantly bringing out new articles 
embodying original ideas for appliances 
to meet the popular demand for prac- 
tical aids to the perfection and preserva- 
tion of health and beauty. 
The goods have already gained a Na- 
tional reputation, and The Flexible Rub- 
ber Goods Company has every prospect 
of being an important factor in the 
manufacturing life of Winsted. 

The history of the medical profession 
is replete with important discoveries in 
analysis, compounding and surgery, and 
the world is each year receiving the ben- 



efit of the devotion and life study of such 
public benefactors. 

Over fifteen years ago. Dr. George W. 
Brown, a long-time resident of Winsted, 
compounded a remedy which he intro- 
duced among his patients as a family 
medicine, and a substantial demand was 
soon crea'^ed. 

In 1902 it was decided to prepare the 
remedy in large quantities, and a stock 
company was accordingly organized to 
handle the business more energetically. 
The company was incorporated under 
the name of The Brown's Anodyne Com- 
pany, with the following officers: Gilbert 
L. Hart, president; Darwin S. Moore, 
secretary, and Charles B. Moore, treas- 
urer and manager. The formula was 
then purchased of Dr. Brown, and under 
the present management the business 
has taken rapid strides and has added 
another article to Winsted's varied out- 
puts. 

In 1903 the company purchased the 
formula and stock of Dr. Bartlett's Alka- 
line Poultice Powder, which is also be- 
ing prepared for the market. 

The headquarters of The Brown's An- 
odyne Company is at No. 9 Lake street, 
near Main street, in the west part of 
the Borough. 



WINSTBD—FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



613 




6i4 



WINSTBD—FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



The printer's art has long been recog- 
nized as an essential factor to industrial, 
commercial and educational success. 

Among Winsted's industrial achieve- 
ments is the Winsted Printing & En- 
graving Company, owned and conducted 
by J. R. and C. Durand, brothers, who 
acquired the plant September 24, 1901, 
and from a modest beginning have ex- 
perienced a steady increase and devel- 
opment, which has necessitated adding 
much new machinery and the remodeling 
of the establishment, which is today a 
well-equipped job and book printing of- 
fice. 

The plant is situated in the center of 
the Borough, occupying the large and 
well-lighted building, Nos. 471, 473 and 
475 Main street, and turns out much 
work for the manufacturers and com- 
mercial institutions of Winsted in the 
line of catalogues, booklets and labels 
of all descriptions. They also furnish 
illustrating plates in half-tones, line etch- 
ing, electrotypes, plates, etc. 

A specialty is made of out of town 
business through mail orders, and they 
ship large quantities of every kind of 
printing to all parts of the United 
States. 

Manufacturers and business men gen- 
erally would no doubt profit by com- 
municating with Durand Brothers for 
samples and prices which will be 
promptly and willingly submitted by the 
company. 

It may be of value in this article to 
note some of the commercial interests 
of Winsted aside from the examples 
which have been cited of its manufac- 




JIIGin.AND LAKE HOTEL 
The one hotel situated on lake shore— Broad ver- 
andas — Commanding views — vShaded grounds — 
Boating facilities— Accomodates forty guests — A. 
M. Grant, Winsted offers property for sale or rent 



turing interests. The Local Telephone 
Exchange, established in 1894, does as 
its name applies, a local business only, 
extending, however, to Riverton, Cole- 
brook, Winchester Center and Burrville. 
It now has 425 subscribers at rates of 
$18 a year for offices and $12 for resi- 
dences. The only other places in Con- 
necticut having similar systems are Shar- 
on and Lakeville in one system, Wood- 
bury in another, and New Hartford, Col- 
linsville. Canton, Unionville and Farm- 
ington, having a central station in Col- 
linsville. 

Besides the educational advantages of 
the Gilbert School, there is in Winsted 
a commercial institution of learning of 
high order. 

The Winsted Business School was es- 
tablished in 1898 by Mr. H. C Bentley, 
and has built up an enviable reputation as 
a business training school for young men 
and v/omen. On February ist, 1903, it 
was purchased by the present principal 
and proprietor, Mr. H. N. Roberts, who 
has had many years' experience as teach- 
er in, and manager of business schools. 

It is the purpose of this school to 
thoroughly prepare young men and 
women to fill, in the most satisfactory 
manner, office positions in the business 
world. Thorough work and accuracy is 
the ambition of the proprietor. 

Three courses of study are offered, 
viz.: Commercial course, stenographic 
course and commercial - stenographic 
course. 

The school is finely equipped for its 
work and has all up-to-date office ap- 
pliances, with about fifty desks in its 
large study room, an illustration of 
which appears. 

The center of business activity in the 
east part of the Borough, is at the cor- 
ner of Main and North Main streets, com- 
monly known as "Nisbet's Corner." 
The roads leading into the Borough from 
Torrington, New Hartford, Barkham- 
sted, Riverton, Colebrook, and other 
towns beyond, all center here, making it 
one of the busiest of localities. The 
beautiful east village park with its new 
memorial fountain is at the intersec- 
tion of these roads. At the north end of 
the park stands the First Congregational 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



O15 




Photo by F. H. DeMar> 
BUSINESS SECTION IN EAST PART OF BOROUGH 

National Bank, William Nisbet's Store, Post Ofl5ce 



Commonly known as Nisbet's Corner — The First 
and Baird's Pharmacy, are located at this point 

church and the Episcopal church, while 
at the south end is situated the Gilbert 
School and Park Hotel. "Nisbet's Cor- 
ners" takes its popular name from the 
dry goods store of which William Nis- 
T^et has been owner since April, 1889. 
Before purchasing the business of L. R. 
Norton & Company, his predecessor on 
the corner, Mr. Nisbet conducted a 
large and successful dry goods store at 
Putnam, Conn., selling that out in the 



early fall of 1888. The constantly in- 
creasing business on the corner has de- 
manded more room almost every season, 
till the store now occupies nearly the 
whole of two buildings, the one on the 
corner and the next adjoining, making 
a floor space of some 10,000 feet. Be- 
cause of its well-earned popularity and 
its progressive advertising methods, it 
is probably one of the best known dry 
goods houses in Northwestern Connec- 
ticut. 




THE PARK HOTEL— EAST PART OF BOROUGH r o:- v k 1 - 

A homelike family and commercial hostelry conducted by N. H. Whitiiiji— The .<<pacious corridors 
and broad verandas impress the visitor -Commands a cheerful outlook ou the broad elm shaded 
park directly opposite— Electric cars take one directly to Highland Lake from holel—The service 
is two dollars per daj', with special rates for regular guests 



6i6 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



617 




HIGHLAND LAKE AND WAKEFIELD BOULEVARD 
Looking south from the shore front on Joseph F. Carey's property 



There has never been a "boom" in 
Winsted. The place has been noted for 
its quiet, steady and healthy growth. 
The nearest approach to a sudden in- 
crease of land value has been caused by 
the popularity of the shores of High- 
land Lake as sites for summer cottages 
since the building of the Wakefield 
Boulevard around it. One of the most 
fortunate of those who have profited by 
this increase of values is Joseph F. 
Carey. With his brother, who has since 
died, Mr. Carey bought some twenty or 
twenty-five years ago, over 800 acres of 
farm land, including nearly all of the 
shore front on the east side of the lake. 
The greater part of this is available for 
cottage sites, and has been surveyed and 
staked out for that purpose. Mr. Carey 
sold a few lots some years ago, but has 
until now declined to part with much 
of his holdings since that time. In the 
nearly two miles of shore which he 
owns, there is a great variety of sites. 
Some are wooded, some clear. Part of 



them terminate at the lake in rocky 
bluffs, while others slope gently to the 
water's edge. The boulevard on the 
east side of the lake is at varying dis- 
tances from the shore, so that some of 
the lots lie between the road and the 
lake, while in others the road crosses the 
lot. There has been little speculation 
in cottage sites, but the increasing de- 
mand for them has forced prices steadily 
upward. Mr. Carey's lots will be sold at 
different prices, depending on their sit- 
uation, but it is the last large tract that 
can be opened up on the shores of High- 
land Lake. The great diversity of these 
lots will permit at first a selection suit- 
able to the taste or means ot almost any 
purchaser. Several views are shown 
herewith which give a good idea of the 
general characteristics of the land own- 
ed by Mr. Carey, and of the cozy nooks 
and corners for pleasant little cottages, 
as well as of the commanding sites suit- 
able for more pretentious buildings. 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



6 19 




SWEEP OF SHORE FRONT ON BURTON E. MOORE S PROPERTY 
The site commands a magnificent view of Highland Lake, and is one of the most attractive on the lake shore 



There are some other tracts of simi- 
lar area which have been staked off and 
are for sale. Among these is one on the 
west shore owned by Burton E. Moore 
of Winsted. His lots are very prettily sit- 
uated, as to healthful surroundings, view 
of the lake and encircling hills, and are 
easy of access. They are supplied with 
good clear spring water (through a sys- 
tem of well-laid pipes and reservoir) for 
all modern improvements in the cot- 
tages. The tract of land includes a 
beautiful grove of hemlock trees, aft'ord- 
ing shade, but not obstructing the view. 



The remainder of the land is more open, 
but has a number of trees for shade. 
The land lies in such a position that 
from some portions of it both ends of 
the lake may be seen. This tract was 
opened up last year, and building sites 
for cottages or permanent homes have 
already been sold from it. A map siiow- 
ing- the location of the property is given 
on the opposite page, while tlie above 
cut shows a portion of this tract, in- 
cluding the hemlock grove, a portion of 
W'akeheld Boulevard and also oi the 
lake. 



620 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



Oq March 23, 1904, the Hurlbut Na- 
tional Bank of Winsted completed its 
fiftieth year. The institution was in- 
corporated March 23, 1854, as The Hurl- 
but Bank, with $130,000 capital stock. 

On July 12, 1865, it was voted to adopt 
a charter under the National Currency 
Act and become a member of the Na- 
tional Banking Association. William H, 
Phelps was elected president on the date 
of incorporation, March 23, 1854, and on 
June ist of the same year^ George Alvord 
was elected cashier, holding the position 
until May 14, 1857, when Rufus E. 
Holmes was elected to the office, 
which Mr. Holmes relinquished to ac- 
cept a similar position (cashier) with 
the Winsted Bank on December 12, 1863. 

On the death of the president, William 
H. Phelps, August 26, 1864, Mr. Holmes 
again became associated with the insti- 



tution, being elected to the presidency to 
succeed Mr. Phelps and remaining in 
that capacity until 1874, when upon the 
creation of a new office of vice-presi- 
dency, Mr. Holmes was elected to fill 
that position and William L. Gilbert was 
chosen president. Mr. Holmes has held 
the vice-presidency of the institution 
continuously since. 

After Mr. Holmes severed his con- 
nection with the bank in 1863, George 
W. Phelps was elected cashier to fill the 
vacancy, and resigning in 1865 was suc- 
ceeded temporarily by Warren Phelps, 
who was in turn succeeded after his res- 
ignation, January 24, 1866, by Charles B. 
Holmes, who was then teller of the Cit- 
izens National Bank of Indianapolis, In- 
diana. Mr. Holmes remained cashier 
until 1874, when Henry Gay was elected 
cashier and Mr. Holmes made assistant 




SUBSTANTIAL HOME OF THE HURLBUT NATIONAL BANK 
Erected in November, 1898, on Main Street, close to site of the old Higley Tavern 



WrNSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



62 r 




HANDSOME INTERIOR OF THE HURLBUT NATIONAL BANK 



cashier. On the death of William L. Gil- 
bert, June 29, 1890, Henry Gay was elec- 
ted president, which office he now holds,. 
and Charles B. Holmes was made cash- 
ier. Mr. Holmes dying on October 27, 
1900, was succeeded on November 2 of 
that year by William H. Phelps, grand- 
son of the founder and first president of 
the bank, and he still holds this office. 

The first increase of the capital stock 
of the bank was made June 3, 1857, when 
the amount was advanced to $200,000. 
It is interesting to note a still further 
increase: On October 23, 1863, the bank 
officials received a letter from Roland 
Mather, treasurer of the American Asy- 
lum for the Deaf and Dumb of Hartford, 
requesting a subscription to the bank's 
stock to the amount of $5,000, and a 
check for that amount was enclosed. 
The stock of the former increase had all 
been taken at the time, but under an 
act of the legislature which permitted 
charitable institutions to subscribe at 
par for the capital stock of any bank 
chartered by the State of Connecticut, 
the capital stock was accordingly fur- 
ther increased to $205,000, where it 
stands today. 

Sinceitsorgatiizationasanationalbank 
it has paid back to its shareholders $827,- 
175, or more than four times the amount 
of its capital stock, besides accumulat- 



ing a surplus of $102,500. one-half of its 
capital stock, and an additional undivid- 
ed profit account of over $36,000. 

The present board of directors con- 
sists of Caleb J. Camp (one of the orig- 
inal incorporators), Chauncey S. Foster, 
Rufus E. Holmes, W. H. Williams, W. 
T. Batcheller, J. G. Woodruff, and Hen- 
rv Gav. 




WILLIAM H. THELrS 

Founder of The Hurlbiil National Bank.— Horn Cole- 
brook, Ct., April 5, 181S; died Winsted, August a6, i854 



622 



WINSTED-FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




INTERIOR OF THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK 
Situated in the Winsted Real Estate Company's Block in the East part of the Borough 



The First National Bank of Winsted 
was chartered in 1879 with $50,000 capi- 
tal, which has since been increased to 
$100,000. Heretofore all the banks with 
the exception of the Mechanics Savings 
Bank, had been situated in the west end 
of the town and owing to the increasing 
manufacturing interests it seemed best 
that deposit and discount facilities should 
be offered on the east side. 

The bank began its operations in the 
office of the Mechanics Savings Bank, 
over Baird's drug store. It moved to its 
present location in the Winsted Real 
Estate Company's block in January. 
1882. 

The original directors were Elias E. 
Oilman, David Strong, Charles B. Hal- 
lett, Francis Brown, Lyman R. Norton, 
Franklin Moore and George S. Burn- 
ham. Messrs. Strong, Hallett, Norton 
and Burnham are still members of the 
board. 

Elias E. Oilman was the first president 
and he was succeeded by David Strong 



in September, 1883, who still holds that 
office. Frank D. Hallett was the first ac- 
tive cashier, having served continuously 
since April, 1879. Lorenzo M. Blake is 
vice-president and Charles P. Hallett, as- 
sistant cashier. The present directors 
are David Strong, Lyman R. Norton, 
Charles B. Hallett, Oeorge S. Burnham, 
Harvey L. Roberts, Lorenzo M. Blake, 
Luman C. Colt, James G. Woodruff and 
Frank D. Hallett. 

An improved burglar-proof vault was 
constructed in 1902 and a safe deposit 
department installed. This feature is a 
great public convenience and is far su- 
perior to the old tin box system. 

From humble beginnings in the corner 
of a clothing store in the Camp block, 
on Main street, with only sufficient space 
for desk room, the Winsted Savings 
Bank has expanded its interests until to- 
day it possesses a building of its own, 
with a handsome well-lighted interior, 
that is the result of 43 years of conser- 
vative financial judgment. 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 



623 



At the May session of the General As- 
sembly in i860, a charter was granted to 
The Winsted Savings Bank and the or- 
ganization was perfected in July of the 
same j^ear, with Warren Phelps, presi- 
dent, and Lyman Baldwin, treasurer. 
Resigning the presidency of the institu- 
tion in 1862, Mr. Phelps was succeeded 
by Moses Camp. Mr, Camp declined a 
re-election in 1874, and Henry Gay was 
made president, which office he resigned 
in August of the same year, when John 
T. Rockwell succeeded him, holding the 
office until 1878. 

Upon the death of Treasurer Baldwin 
in 1874, the vacancy was filled by L. M. 
Blake, who acted as treasurer until his 
resignation in September, 1875, when the 
present treasurer, George S. Rowe, was 
elected. 

In August, 1878, John Hinsdale was 
made president and served in that capac- 
ity until 1899, when he declined a re-elec- 
tion on account of advancing years and 
was succeeded by the Hon. Lorrin A. 
Cooke. Upon the death of Mr. Cooke in 
August, 1902, Arthur L. Clark was cho- 
sen president, in which office he still pre- 
sides. 

In 1868, eight years after the organiza- 
tion of the bank, the growing number of 
depositors and the accompanying jin- 
crease of the business required larger 



quarters, and the building of the Win- 
sted Bank (an institution which had just 
retired from business) was purchased, 
and has since been the home of the Win- 
sted Savings Bank. 

Situated on Main street in the west 
part of the Borough, adjacent to the old 
Methodist church, the building has re- 
cently undergone extensive alterations 
and additions, and is today a handsome 
and well-equipped banking house, afford- 
ing its depositors every modern conven- 
ience. The work on the interior has been 
in progress during the winter months. 
and includes not only an additional build- 
ing in the rear, but a complete dismem- 
berment of the entire old interior, and 
the substitution of a magnificent bank 
screen of quartered oak, with doors and 
window casings to match, and modern 
desks throughout, all of which was de- 
signed and built by C. H. Dresser & S«;mi 
of Hartford. A spacious modern vault 
has als(^ been installed by the Reming- 
ton & Sherman Company of New Vt^rk 
and Philadelphia, which affords an in- 
vulnerable protection. The floor is of 
tile of a handsome design, and the whole 
interior is noteworthily tasty. 

The bank carries o\\ its books the ac- 
counts of 4,954 persons, with deposits 
aggregating $1. 800,480. o() and a surplus 
of .$9 1,000. 



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RICHLY FINISHED INTERIOR KlXKNllA ^ OM I'l.i: I' K H — WINSTED S.WINC.S n.\NK. 



624 



WINSTED— FINANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 




INTERIOR DARWIN S. MOORE S INSURANCE AGENCY 
Established by Deacon John Hinsdale in 1852— Is the oldest insurance agency in Winsted 



The oldest and a typical branch of the 
insurance business in Winsted, is the 
agency of Darwin S. Moore. This agen- 
cy was established in 1852 by the late 
Deacon John Hinsdale. The first com- 
pany represented by him was the Aetna 
Insurance Company of Hartford, and the 
first policy written was for Edward P. 
Seymour, of Colebrook, Conn. Policy 
No. 2 was written for J. S. & J. T. Rock- 
well, as a joiner's risk on the present so- 
called Rockwell Tannery, situate on 
Main street near the Second Congrega- 
tional church. This policy has been re- 
newed every year since that date and the 
company has never been called upon to 
pay a loss under this policy. Deacon 
Hinsdale continued the agency until 
1866 when he took into partnership his 
son-in-law, Robert R. Noble. This con- 
tinued until January 1870, when the firm 
name changed to Noble & Beach. This 
was continued for about two years when 
Mr. Noble sold his interest to Mr. Beach, 
who in turn sold it to his son-in-law, 
Charles K. Hunt, and the firm name was 
Beach & Hunt. After the death of Mr. 
Beach in 1886, Charles K. Hunt contin- 
ued the agency until April ist, 1898, Mr. 
Hunt then consolidated his business with 
that of the present owner of the insur- 
ance agency, Darwin S. Moore. This 



partnership only lasted until October, 
1898, when Mr. Moore bought Mr. 
Hunt's interest and has continued the 
agency since that time. It might be in- 
teresting to note that this agency has 
represented the Aetna of Hartford since 
1852, and has written, for that company 
alone, 10,326 policies. The Home of New 
York has been with the agency since 
1864; the Insurance Company of North 
America since 1866; the Continental of 
New York since 1870; the Connecticut of 
H^artford since 1873; the Royal of Liver- 
pool since i860, and the German-Ameri- 
can of New York since 1876. 

The general agency of the Phoenix 
Mutual Life Insurance Company was es- 
tablished with this agency in 1857, and 
the general agency of the Travelers In- 
surance Company in 1858. Both com- 
panies have continued with the agency. 

This agency has been fortunate in its 
52 years of prosperity in having good 
business men to look after its welfare. 
The agency has grown steadily until it 
has become one of the largest and best 
known agencies in the State. The total 
assets of the companies represented are 
$151,634,986.00, and the combined surplus 
is $51,388,601.00. These companies have 
all been tried in the big conflagrations 
of the United States and are well known 
to the insuring public. 




THE RECONSTRUCTION OF WATERBURY 

RISES FROM THE ASHES OF DEVASTATING CON- 
FLAGRATION AND MAKES REMARKABLE PROGRESS- 
FIRST IN SERIES OF MUNICIPAL ARTICLES 

BY 

U. G. CHURCH 

REGULAR CORRESPONDENT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 



DISASTER is a tide in the sea of 
human affairs. For a time it 
recedes and leaves only the 
bright shores of prosperity, 
then, with the surety of destiny, it 
sweeps back, carrying all that stands in 
its way, destroying the signs of civiliza- 
tion that have encroached upon its do- 
main. 

The destructive conflagrations that 
have consumed the handiwork of man in 
many of the larger cities during the last 
few years, have been both great losses 
and great gains. 

It was not to be expected that the big 
fire of February 2, 1902, would check or 
even greatly retard the advance of such 
a city as Waterbury, with the founda- 
tions of its prosperity securely laid; nor 
has it. The catastrophe, which, in the 
hour of it, awakened widespread sympa- 
thy for the sorely distressed city, future 
events have shown should be regarded 
rather as one of the milestones from 
which the city's progress may be meas- 
ured, and not at all as the citv's tomb- 



stone. Great as was the property loss 
for a city of 55,000 people, and conserv- 
ative estimates place that loss at near 
the million dollar mark, and great as 
were those indirect losses to the busi- 
ness community by the ombarassmcnt 
and confusion into which it was plunged 
by the hre, losses that cannot be even 
approximately estimated in cold dollars 
and cents, the recovery has been rapid 
and complete. In less than two years 
the resurrection of the business center 
from its ashes has been well nigh ac- 
complished, and without exception the 
new construction is superior to the old. 
The burnotl sections oi Hank and South 
Main streets have been rebuilt for the 
most part with substantial structures, 
the best the city has ever had. and 
which compare favorably indeed with 
the business bKH"ks of any city of like 
size in the country. The reconstruction 
of Grand street has not been so com- 
plete, but that it will be fully rebuilt in 
a short time there is not the least ques- 
tion. The new government buildinfir. 



626 



THE RECONSTRUCTION OF WATERBURY 




THE STATELY COURT HOUSE AT WATERBURY JUST OUTSIDE THE FIRE LIMITS 



now well under way on this street, op- 
posite the burned section, promises to 
give to that thoroughfare a business 
prominence which it aspired to -but never 
quite attained before the fire. To the 
fire, perhaps, more than to anything else, 
Waterbury owes the new government 
building. With that in mind the na- 
tional legislature could not longer grace- 
fully ignore the just demands of the city 
for more commodious post office facili- 
ties it had been making for years, but 
which had been perennially overlooked 
in the log rolling. That the post office 
building promises a business boom for 
Grand street is already shown by the 
preparations for the erection of a sub- 
stantial structure on the present site of 
the "Old Rink," an assembly of sheet 
iron and lumber that has shared with the 



railroad stations for years the ridicule 
of the community and those who visited 
it. 

The development of Waterbury since 
the fire has by no means been confined 
to the rebuilding of the burned area with 
fine structures. To a considerable ex- 
tent of late, the business center has been 
extended by the erection of stores in 
sections not generally considered here- 
tofore as a legitimate part of the busi- 
ness center proper. This expansion was 
made necessary in the first place by the 
temporary re-adjustments of business re- 
sulting from the fire, and now seem fully 
warranted and required to meet the de- 
mands of the city's rapidly increasing 
population. A most notable building 
now being erected here by private enter- 
prise is the new hotel which is going up 



THE RECONSTRUCTION OF WATERJIURY 



62 




THE CAMP BLOCK A NEW BUILDING THAT HAS RISEN ON THE SITE OF THE FIRE 

. RUINS OCCUPIED BY REID & HUGHES DRY GOODS COMPANY LARGEST 

DEPARTMENT STORE IN ITS SECTION (^F THE STATE 



on West Main street, facing the Green 
from the north. With the hotels now 
open and the new hotel, the city will 
have ample accommodations for even a 
Democratic State convention, when it 
comes to town again, without putting 
the disciples of Jefferson and Jackson 
to the trouble and expense of chartering 
a sleeping car to visit Waterbury in, as 
did a party of innocent ones from the 
Elm City some years ago. 

The site of the old Scovill House, on 
the south side of the Green, is soon to 
have a business block erected upon it. 
The Colonial Trust Companj^'s handsome 
new building, facing the Green from the 
south, is another of the notable struc- 
tures opened for business since the fire. 
A sketch of Waterburv since the fire 



would not be ctnnploto without some 
reference to the splondiil nianufacturing 




JOHN II. GUKRNSFN 
Postmastf r at Waterbury 



628 



THE RECONSTRUCTION OE WATERBURY 




WATERBURY NATIONAL BANK 
FIRST BANK LOCATED IN WATERBURY 

Charter was given by General Assembly of State of 
Connecticut to organize The Waterbury Bank at the May 
Session, 1848, with capital of $200 000 and power to in- 
crease to $350,000. It was increased to $350,000 in July, 
1850. Increased to $500,000 by special Act of Legislature 
in May, 1851. Bennett Bronson was the first president, 
elected on Sept. 6, 1848. Dyer Ames, Jr. was the first 
cashier, appointed Dec. 4, 1848. On July 9, 1851, Augus- 
tus S. Chase was appointed assistant cashier. July"'23, 
1852, he was appointed cashier. "Bennett Bronson, presi- 
dent, died Dec. 11, 1850, and on Dec. 17, 1850, John P. 
Elton was elected president. John P. Elton, president, 
died Nov. 10, 1864, and on Nov. 2g, 1864, Augustus S. 
Chase was appointed president, and Augustus M. Blake- 
slee, cashier. Jan. 13, 1865, was converted to National 
Bank with Augustus S. Chase, president, and Augustus 
M. Blakeslee, cashier. Jan. g, 1885, corporate existence 
was extended to Jan. 13, 1905. Augustus S. Chase, pres- 
ident, died June 7, 1896, in Paris, France. On July 7, 1896, 
James S. Elton was elected president, and now holds that 
position. Mr. Blakeslee has held the position as cashier 
for nearly 39 years, and has been connected with the 
institution for over 52 years. The profits and surplus at 
time of organization as a National Bank was $63,000. On 
Jan. 1st, 1904, the surplus and profits, $336,430 68. The 
amount of dividends paid to stockholders since organiza- 
tion as a National Bank is $2,147,500. 

plants which have ever been the pride of 
the Brass City, and the rock bottom 
foundation of its remarkable prosperity. 
It was fortunate indeed that all of them 
were well beyond the reach of the 
flames. The fire stopped not a single 
furnace or machine, and on February 3, 
1902, the thousands of brass workers of 
Waterbury went to their accustomed la- 
bors without cessation fjf time or wages. 



although a million dollars had been wip- 
ed from the city tax list the night before. 
These large concerns have gone on 
steadily increasing their plants and 
equipments, and strengthening their grip 
on the brass industry of the world. 

There has been a steady growth of 
the residential portion of Waterbury 
during the period covered by this sketch. 
Handsome and commodious dwelling 
houses have been erected, and every year 
sees the city's suburbs pushed farther 
and farther out from the old city lines. 
It is impossible in a sketch of this kind 
to give more than a glance at what has 
been done by Waterbury in two short 
years. The writer has attempted noth- 
ing further than to call attention to cer- 
?.in things which everyone familiar with 
the city has observed. The growth of 
the city in these two years has done 




APOTHECARY HALL WHICH WITHSTOOD 

THE CONFLAGRATION 



THE RECONSTRUCTION OF WATERJSURY 



629 




SAINT MARGARET S SCHOOL FOR GIRLS AT WATERBURV 

It is recognized as one of the most scholarly institutions in New England, and combines the advantages of city life 
with the freedom and healthfulness of the country. The school is upon a hillside in the resident part of the city, over- 
looking the town, and has attractive lawns. There are tennis and basket-ball courts upon the grounds and opportuni- 
ties for golf, coasting and skating. The school provides the most competent instructors and requires thorough work, 
and the maintenance of a high standard of study. The atmosphere is essentially homelike. It is the constant desire 
of those in charge to promote this feature, and to develop in the daily life of the pupils simplicity, kindliness and 
refinement, together with power of self control and honesty of character. French is used in the dining-room by pupils 
studying the language. The Music Department is under the charge of Mr. Bernardus Boekelmann. of New York. 
The Art Department is directed by Mr. Montague Flagg, of New York City. Under his directions. Miss Helen 
Andrews, pupil of Mr. Flagg and of Laurens of Paris, gives regular lessons in drawing and painting. OtVicersand 
Instructors:— The Rev. Francis T. Russell, D.D., Rector ; Miss Mary R. Hillard, Principal ; Miss Helen D. LaMonte, 
Assistant Principal. Board of Trustees : — The Right ReV. Chauncey Bunce Brewster, D.D., Bishop of Conneiticut. 
President; The Rev. Francis T. Russell, D.D., Waterbury ; The Rev. John N. Lewis, Jr., NVaterbury ; The Rev. 
James H. George, Newtown ; Frederick J. Kingsbury, LL.D., Esq., Waterbury ; Mayor James S. Elton, Waterbury ; 
C. M. Beach, Esq., Hartford; C. E. Graves, Esq., New Haven; Edward L. Frisbie, Esq., Waterbury; Frederick S. 
Chase, Esq., Waterbury, Secretary ; Nelson J. Welton, Esq , Waterbury, Treasurer. 



much to confirm the faith of all who 
have the interests of the city at heart, 
that the foundations of the city's pros- 
perity are firm and established, and its 
future prosperity sure. Like many other 
cities of its size, Waterbury has many 
and pressing questions to solve, and has 
perhaps in the two years past had rather 
more than its fair share of difficulty in 
dealing with them. That the citizens of 



the place have the will and capacity to 
settle its municipal difticulties satisfac- 
torily, no one can doubt who bears in 
mind the lessons taught by the tiro and 
more recent events. The most crying 
needs of commercial and manufacturing 
\\'aterbury have been for years for im- 
proved transportation facilities. These 
have been long promised ami now seem 
to be actuallv on the wav. 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 




THE NEW HOTEL CONNECTICUT AT WATERBURY 
Constructed to meet the emergency when the two largest hotels in the city were destroyed 



M 



ODERN construction is one of 
the wonders of the age. From 
the days of the old well-sweep 
and the lean-to roof to the 
towering edifices of today, is a remark- 
able story. Fully as interesting is the 



story of the growth of the quaint little 
country taverns on the post road to im- 
posing structures which are now hous- 
ing the migratory world. Invention, 
which the old adage tells us, is born of 
necessity, solved the science of trans- 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 



631 




SPACIOUS OFFICE AT HOTEL CONNECTICUT 



portatibn and opened the earth's oppor- 
tunities. Man, in his restlessness, rushes 
into the new channels as they are open- 
ed by the powerful mechanism of civili- 
zation, consequently we have bred to- 
day a great migrating populace. Simul- 
taneously, the public inn has developed 
in proportion with the demands made 
upon it, until today the persons register- 
ed at the hotels in this country exceed 
a million. Recent government records 
state that there are 55,675 families resid- 
ing in hotels in the United States, who 
have no other permanent homes. 

Throughout the country endeavors are 
being made in every city to meet the 
necessities of the traveling world. In 
illustration of its accomplishment stands 
the Hotel Connecticut in the city of 
Waterbury. The destructive fire which 
swept the city, destroyed its largest 
buildings and the commercial interests 
were seriously crippled. To meet the 
emergency, Louis F. Haase, a promi- 
nent merchant, who in 1897 had erected 
a large five-story and basement building 
on Center street for the use of the grow- 
ing furniture business of the L. F. Haase 
Company, successfully accomplished the 



unique feat of transforming an extensive 
business establishment into an imposing 
and modernly equipped hotel structure. 

Coming from the Connecticut stock 
that has distinguished the State as the 
home of inventive genius, and born in 
Terryville, ]\Ir. Haase early began a 
business career. In ]\Iarch, 1885, he went 
into the wall paper and decorating busi- 
ness at 137 Bank street, Waterbury. un- 
der the firm name of Dennis Blakesley & 
Company. In June, i88r. ho succeeded 
the firm under his own name, and in 
January, 1893, organized the L. F. Ilaaso 
Company, moving on to Grand street 
and conducting one of the largest stores 
in Waterbury. The character of the bus- 
iness was broadened until it became the 
leading furniture house in its section of 
the State. 

The revolutionizing of the successful 
business establishment into the leading 
hotel in the city was an undertaking that 
required much skill. In realization of 
his responsibilities. Mr. Haase associated 
with him Fdwy E. Benedict, architect. 
In Mr. Benedict he found combined two 
valuable elements, architectural knowl- 
edge and practical experience. Mr. Ben- 



632 



SCIENCE OE MODERN BUILDING 





1 


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^ 

•"■■•-'V. 


^^'^--- •" -^I^H 





RECEPTION ROOM AT HOTEL CONNECTICUT 



edict began life as a carpenter's appren- 
tice and learned the trade under the ab- 
lest contractors of the day. His even- 
ings were spent in studying drawing and 
architectural works, until he soon became 
able to make plans for his employer. 
So practical and economical were his 
ideas that his services as an architect 
soon took him away from the bench and 
today he is a recognized authority in his 
profession. The materialization of the 
architect's plans were placed with the 
Tracy Brothers Company, general con- 
tractors. Associated with this firm is 
much of the history of the development 
of Waterbury. The most substantial 
structures in the city stand as monu- 
ments to their ability. By them the five- 
story business establishment was recon- 
structed according to designs of archi- 
tectural beauty and hotel necessity. 

The Connecticut presents at the en- 
trance an atmosphere of quiet and ele- 
gance. Its decorative windows, with 
stained glass setting, cast a subdued light 
onto the tiled floor of the office, and the 
metal ceiling of artistic panels. The 
walls are hung in dark red and relieved 



by four tapestries. The office is furnish- 
ed with huge chairs upholstered in leath- 
er, and there are many individual writing 
tables conveniently arranged. In it cen- 
ters the telephone lines from the other 
parts of the building, connecting with the 
long distance wires, and there is a mod- 
ern news stand and stenographic service. 

Into the arrangement of the dining 
room has been combined the elements 
of home and hospitality. Brilliant elec- 
tric globes blend the colors of the metal 
ceiling and the side walls, while the 
tables and their fine linen textures and 
dainty service present a most appetizing 
appearance. This cafe is a rendezvous 
for the epicures of the city, and from 
six o'clock in the morning until mid- 
night offers its unexcelled cuisine. 

The Connecticut has eighty rooms, 
with forty private baths; hot and cold 
water in every room, and connected with 
the long distance telephone; several of 
them are arranged for suites. They are 
carpeted in Brussells and tastefully dec- 
orated, — writing table, dressing case 
and brass chamber furnishings making 
them complete in appointment. There 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 



633 



is a reception room on each of the floors, 
and on the walls throughout the hotel 
are hung many costly engravings done 
by the most distinguished engravers in 
this country. 

Architect Benedict was born in Hunt- 
ington, Connecticut, in 1851, and his 
building experience includes the Third 
Congregational church, the Second Bap- 
tist church, factories connected with the 
Waterbury Brass Company, Waterbury 
Clock Company, and Holmes, Booth & 
Hayden. Cable's block and French 
block are also of his designing. On Jan- 
uary 18, 1904, Louis A. Walsh, a graduate 
of Columbia University School of Arch- 
itecture, class of 1900, became associated 
with him. 

There is a fact of historical signifi- 
cance that should also be stated and due 
credit given. Center street, upon which 
the hotel is located, was but a few years 
ago an alley leading to stables in the 
rear of Bank street. In September, 1896, 
John W. Gafifney, a prominent contrac- 
tor, undertook its development, model- 
ing, financing and managing the con- 
struction of a thoroughfare which has 
become one of the most important in the 
city. This valuable service was accom- 
plished under the name of the Milford 



Land & Cottage Company, of which Mr. 
Gaffney was the principal stockholder. 
About one-third of the buildings on the 
street are still held by the corporation. 
The undertaking met with many difficul- 
ties and there was much opposition by 
the so-called conservative element that 
so frequently stands in the way of all 
progressive movements. In its develop- 
ment were included water service, gas, 
electric conduits, and the most service- 
able pavement walks. In this excellent 
condition Center street was presented 
to the city of Waterbury, and is a memo- 
rial to the energy and ability of Mr. 
Gaffney. Daniel E. Cronin is a business 
partner in the firm of J. W. Gaffney & 
Company, becoming associated with the 
senior member in 1891. He has been 
twenty years in Waterbury, coming to 
this city from Middletown, Connecticut. 
The firm originally built the Connecti- 
cut Hotel and is now constructing the 
factory and office building for the Man- 
ville Machine Company, to be done Aug- 
ust ist, 1904; and another large building 
at the corner of Dublin and East Main 
streets. 

The Connecticut was opened Novem- 
ber 16, T903, on the European plan, un- 
der the management of George O. Pat- 




UINING ROOM AT HOTEL CONNKCl'lCUT WAVKKia'KV 



634 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 




GEORGE Q. PATTEE 

tee, one of the leading hotel proprietors 
in the East. The equipment and the ap- 
pointment of the hotel has been under 
his direction and through his manage- 
ment it became an immediate financial 
success, attaining a position with the 
finest houses of the kind. Mr. Pattee 
was born in Warner, N, H., July 19, 1861. 
He was graduated from the Simonds 
High School in 1879, and became a tea- 
cher of mathematics until 1881. Upon 
his decision to enter the business of ho- 
tel proprietorship he began studying its 
intricacies as a clerk in the Maplewood 
Hotel, at Bethlehem, N. H. Later he 
occupied a similar position at Warunbek, 
Jefferson, N. H., and at Cape Cottage, 
Cape Elizabeth, N. H. From 1889 to 
1894 he was proprietor of the Franklin 
House at Lawrence, Mass., later being 
manager of the Rockland House, Nan- 
tasket Beach, Mass., The Masconomo at 
Manchester-by-the-Sea, and the Willing- 
ton, North Adams, Mass. Mr. Pattee 
leased Brandon Inn at Brandon, Vt., Ap- 
ril T, 1902. On October 15, 1902, he leas- 
ed the Hotel Russwin at New Britain, and 
on November 16, T903, accepted the pro- 
prietorship of the Connecticut at Water- 
bury. At the present time Mr. Pattee is 
lessee of all three hotels, each one hav- 



ing gained an enviable reputation in its 
locality. The Russwin of New . Britain 
has attained a most excellent standard 
and a reputation for banqueting, recently 
dining the New Britain Club, an exclu- 
sive organization of manufacturers and 
bankers, 230 guests being in attendance. 
The New Britain Business Men's Asso- 
ciation also recently dined 180 members 
at the Russwin. On another occasion, 
a few weeks ago, eighty-five school 
teachers were entertained at the Russ- 
win, and on the evening of the same day 
Philip F. Corbin observed a half cen- 
.tury of business success by entertaining 
200 guests at the Russwin. Six hundred 
Sons of the American Revolution also 
banqueted at that hotel last month. 

A detailed description of. the Connec- 
ticut and the inside working of a twen- 
tieth century hostlery is of much interest 
and educative value. The kitchen of 
Hotel Connecticut is worthy of notice, 
it being entirely in keeping with the 
modern equipment of this first class 
house. Particular attention was given 
to the selection of the cooking appara- 
tus, and after careful inspection of the 
different makes, the Hub Cooking Ap- 
paratus, manufactured by Smith & An- 
thony Company of Boston, was selected 




LOUIS F. HASSE 



SCIENCE OF MODERN JWILDING 



635 



as being the best in quality, construction 
and efficiency. A large French range, 
also boiler, jacketed kettles, vegetable 
steamers, steam table, warming closet, 
and coffee urns have been installed in 
the kitchen, and a baking room equipped 
with a large oven, steamers and kettles. 
The Smith & Anthony Company is the 
only house in the country operating its 
own brass and iron foundries for the 
manufacture of this line of goods, and 
the Connecticut is only one of a large 
number which have been equipped with 
their complete outfits of cooking appa- 
ratus. 

Sanitary plumbing has become a sci- 
ence, and Hotel Connecticut is an ex- 
cellent illustration of its practical adap- 
tation. Recent authorities state that the 
principles of hygiene in the perfection 
of plumbing should tend toward a not- 
able increase in the length of life. The 
Charles Thatcher Company of 39 Center 
street, Waterbury, installed the system 
of baths and sanitation in the new hotel 
and it is stated by inspectors to be one 
of the best in the State. The firm i^ 
now filling contracts in many of the 
most important buildings in Connecticut, 
According to the endorsements of the 
Board of Health, the work of the firm 
is one of the factors in the good health 
of the city. Some of the larger con- 
tracts completed by The Charles Thatch- 
er Company are: Steam heating of Mil- 
ford building, Bowditch building. No. t 
fire house, No. 7 fire house; complete set 
of sanitaries for Bank street school. 
Webster school. Bishop street school, all 
of Waterbury. C. G. Belfit is president 
and treasurer of the company, which 
has been doing business for fifteen years. 

A feature of much importance is the 
protection against fire. Since the recent 
Chicago and Baltimore conflagrations, 
many of the public buildings of the 
country have been condemned as unsafe 
by fire commissioners. An inspection of 
the hotel has proven it to be exception- 
ally well protected. The metal ceilings, 
as described in the office and dining 
room, not only furnished a most artistic 
decoration, but insure safety in times of 



fire. There is nothing in the modern 
building that more adequately retards 
flames than this metal construction. The 
largest buildings in the country have a- 
dopted them. There is probably no oth- 
er manufacturer that has done more in 
proving their value than the Wheeling 
Corrugating Company, 47 Cliff street 
New York, who, through their agents.. 
Hawes & Gray of Springfield, Mass.. 
hold the leading contracts for this work 
in New England. The ceilings furnished 
by the Springfield agency for Hotel Con- 
necticut are in panels of beautiful de- 
signs delicately tinted in cream. 

Another firm that is doing much 
in insuring public safety is the R. Bren- 
ner Manufacturing Company of Water- 
bury, making a specialty of ornamental 
wrought iron and brass work. They 
have recently equipped the town house 
with fire escapes, and also furnished the 
doors and grill work for the new Camp 
building. Among their many recent con- 
tracts is the elevator enclosure in the 
Jones-Morgan building. This firm also 
supplies the gas and electric fixtures of 
the finest residences and public buildings 
in the State. The gas fixtures in the 
hotel were installed by them, while the 
electric and gas chandeliers in the resi- 
dences of George E. Judd, D. J. Welcli 
of Naugatuck, and other new buildings 
are of their design. Cliff & Gilbert, 198 
West Broadway, New York, have equip- 




SLEKFINC. Ar.\;-lTMl'.N 1 Al 
HOTEL CONNECTICUT 



636 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 




CORRIDOR AT HOTEL CONNECTICUT 



ped the hotel with hose reels on each of 
its five floors. The best grade of linen 
hose is used and sufficient length to 
flood the entire floor instantly in case of 
fire. 

In the building of a hotel, says a re- 
cent authority, its first essential is abso- 
lute freedom from the undesirable ele- 
ments that disturb the comfort of its 
guests. Whatever may be the apparent 
insignificance of the smaller insects, flies 
and mosquitoes, it is nevertheless true 
that they have wrecked the business of 
many public institutions that would have 
otherwise proven signal successes. The 
importance of window screening cannot 
be under-estimated, and it is probable 
that the most satisfactory work of the 
kind is done by G. W. Fernside of 60 
Temple street, Hartford. In the last is- 
sue of this magazine considerable was 
said of the excellent work of this fac- 
tory, which had then just finished 
screening 871 windows at Highland 
Court, in Hartford. Since then it has 
assumed many important contracts and 
during the next few months will be work- 
ed to its fullest capacity in meeting ite 



orders. Medical science has practically 
agreed that the mosquito and the fly are 
disease-carrying infestations, and that 
much of the illness during the summer 
months is due to these insects. So ef- 
fectually has Mr. Fernside succeeded in 
constructing screens to remove this dan- 
ger, that his business might be classed 
with that of science as well as that of 
manufacture. 

The National Wire Mattress Company 
of Waterbury, formerly of New Britain, 
of which W. E. Fielding is treasurer, 
supplied the sleeping apartments of the 
hotel with their goods. The firm is the 
original maker of the Twentieth Centu- 
ry Spring Bed which was patented by 
it April 9, 1872, and is constructed un- 
der expert supervision. It is built from 
a careful mechanical plan of the best ma- 
terials. The wire fabric is made of spec- 
ially drawn wire, and tinned at their fac- 
tory. It is handsomely finished with 
heavily enameled black side rails and 
gold bronze angle irons. The factory 
claims the reputation of manufacturing 
the most comfortable bed in the world. 

The painting and decorating in the 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 



637 



building was done by the A. F. Taylor 
Company of 43 Center street, Waterbury. 
This concern was established in 1880 and 
is incorporated with F. B. Taylor, pres- 
ident, and C. I. Taylor, secretary and 
treasurer. The artistic effects in many 
of the homes of their city is due to the 
original treatment of this firm. One of 
their recent successes is the American 
Girl in a variety of types and poses, dis- 
played as a wall paper design. The pat- 
tern includes a myriad of heads of the 
most beautiful types drawn by a distin- 
guished artist and is intended for the 
den. Other than the recent decorating 
of Hotel Connecticut, the firm has filled 
contracts for the Colonial Trust Com- 
pany, residence of H. L. Wade, John 
Kellogg, and many others. Their work 
includes the interior and exterior paint- 
ing, room mouldings, papering, and dec- 
orating. 

The refrigerator system was installed 
by A. E. Jones Company of '^6 Sudbury 
street, Boston, Mass. They have no fix- 
tures in stock a;nd publish no catalogue, 
but make from special designs to order 
for every customer. They consult the 
clients taste and endeavor to secure an 





LOUIS A. WALSH 



EDWY E. BENEDICT 

individual style of treatment, working 
out all details in harmony with the plan 
adopted with the available space. The 
Adams House, Hotel Touraine, Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, Randall and 
Memorial Halls (Harvard College), Ho- 
tel Manhattan, New York city, The 
Lodge, Briarcliffe Manor, The Louis- 
bury, Swan Newton & Co.. Bar Harbor, 
Charles Head, Manchestcr-by-the-Sea, R. 
LL Dana, Cambridge, IMass., Boston Ten- 
nis & Racquet Club and the Exchange 
Club, Boston, Mass. 

Another feature that gives the hotel a 
refined and homelike appearance is the 
art hangings on the walls. Both tapes- 
tries and engravings are done by distin- 
guished artists and lend a tone of cul- 
ture. The tapestries are four in number 
representing colonial scenes, and adorn 
the oftice. They are from the well-known 
house of Ferdinand Bing & Company, to 
AVashington place. New York, who have 
a national reputation for wi->rks of tapes- 
try art. Hotel Garde in New Haven al- 
so contains beautiful designs by this 
same firm. The most celebrated critics 
speak highly of the firm's achievements 



638 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 



and the important part it has played in 
instilling a love for the beautiful into 
homes and public buildings of America. 
Included in this distinction is the house 
of George C. Folsom, Tremont Building, 
Boston, Mr. Folsom is himself an art 
critic and is importer of paintings in oil. 
His suggestions are relied upon in the 
most cultured homes of the East. With- 
in a brief time he has been called upon 
to take entire charge of the purchase and 
hanging of paintings and engravings for 
the Adams House at Boston; Hotel 
Brunswick, Hotel Bellevue, Hotel Aspin- 
wall, at Lenox; Hotel Wellington at 
North Adams, Wentworth Hall, Jackson, 
N. H.; The Raymond, Pasadena, Cal. In 
the selection of the engravings for the 
Hotel Connecticut he has received much 
commendation, and while the contract 
did not allow an elaborate exhibit he 
succeeded in securing with the appro- 
priation allowed a most dignified effect. 
The beautiful decorative windows in the 
building are by the Bridgeport Art Glass 
Co., Hubert & Munich, the most expert 
makers of art glass designs in this coun- 
try. The magnificent stained and mosaic 
work is done under the direct supervis- 
ion of Joseph Hubert and Frederick Mu- 
nich, skilled artisans in the making of 
windows, with headquarters at 153 John 
street, Bridgeport, Conn. Recent art 
products from this firm stand as memor- 
ials to them in the Second Baptist church 
of Bridgeport, Slavonian R. C. church of 
l>ridgeport, German Reformed church of 
Hartford, Holyoke Polish R. C. church, 
Methodist church in Stratford, Conn., 
and many other public buildings and pri- 
vate residences. 

The magnificent designs in crockery 
and china in the hotel dining-room is by 
the French Mitchell Woodbury Com- 
pany, 76 to 92 Pearl street, Boston. C. 
H. Woodbury is president and manager 
of the extensive interests of this firm 
and J. Mitchell, treasurer. So wide has 
become their reputation as importers of 
the finest imported crockery that their 
business requires a New York office at 
25 West Broadway, Chicago office at 
132 Lake street, and a San Francisco 



office at 35 New Montgomery street. 

The table linen upon which the crock- 
ery is set is furnished by the Reid & 
Hughes Company, the largest depart- 
ment store in Waterbury. This house is 
also known throughout the State and 
does practically all of the business in its 
line in its surrounding territory. The 
table linen, bedding, and all the dry 
goods in the hotel came from this con- 
Dern, which is one of Waterbury's strong- 
est examples of modern mercantile en- 
terprise. 

The silverware used at the hotel comes 
from the factory which has become a 
synonym for silver goods throughout the 
country — The Meriden Britannia Com- 
pany, (International Silver Company, 
successor), of Meriden, Conn. For over 
fifty years the goods of this company 
have held the reputation of superiority, 
and its organizers and first managers 
were the pioneers in the electro silver 
plate industry. Today it is the largest 
organization of its kind in the world. Ho- 
tel and restaurant managers know the 
difficulty experienced in serving hot tea, 
coffee, or chocolate in the ordinary in- 
dividual pots. Either the handles become 
too hot to be comfortably taken in the 
hand, or if provided with ivory, pearl, 
bone, wood, or similar insulators, they 
loosen and rattle, often break and always 
absorb water and other liquids. The 
Meriden Britannia Company have just 
perfected and patented a new insulator 
that is absolutely perfect for the purpose 
intended. The company has also done 
much in perfecting the general service in 
the hotels, clubs, and homes of the coun- 
try. 

The ability of hotel management is 
best tested by its distribution of con- 
tracts for daily supplies. In the belief 
that it has attained the highest standard 
by securing the best products on the 
market, the management takes pleasure 
in announcing the firms from whom its 
supplies are being obtained. In the cafe 
a reputation has been gained for the most 
delicate menu. In speaking of this Pro- 
prietor Pattee states that the firm of 
Burbank, Hanly Company, wholesale 



SCIENCE OF MODERN BUILDING 



639 



produce house at 78 North street, Boston, 
furnished him with the finest poultry and 
game. William S. Burbank is president of 
the company, and Edward A. Hanly, 
treasurer, and as commission merchants 
they supply the epicures of New England 
direct from the game preserves and the 
country farms. The groceries at the ho- 
tel are selected by the chef from the 
large stock of the Woodruff Grocery Co., 
located in the Odd Fellows block, Water- 
bury. This establishment is the peer in 
its line of business and supplies the first 
homes of the city. 

The fish and oysters served in the caf«5 
are from the market of M. Hemingway, 
wholesale and retail dealer, at 23 and 25 
Phoenix avenue, Waterbury. These del- 
icacies have become very popular at din- 
ner parties and Mr. Hemingway is fur- 
nishing the most delicious sea food of 
the season. 

The wines and champagnes served at 
the dinners, are from the importing 
house of Codman & Hall Company, Dew- 
ey square, Boston, a firm that has for 
many years been supplying society and 
is recognized as the connoisseur of the 
trade. 

The coal supply used at the hotel 
comes from the Lehigh and Lackawana 
mines, through Frank Miller & Company 
II South Main street, Waterbury. This 
is another of Waterbury's leading busi- 
ness houses, controlling extensive yards 
and being in communication with the 
most reliable mines in the coal sections. 

The laundering of the linens at the ho- 
tel is done by the New Method Laundry 



Corporation, 36-44 Elm street, Hartford. 
This enterprise is the outcome of the 
consolidation of the New Method Laun- 
dry, established seven years ago, and the 
Best Laundry, which had its inception 
two years ago. This consolidation and 
the incorporation of The New Method 
Laundry Corporation took place in 
March, 1903. This concern has one of 
the best equipped laundry plants in its 
city. It occupies two floors of a sub- 
stantial brick structure, and utilizes near- 
ly eleven thousand square feet of floor 
space. Li its collection and delivery it 
operates four wagons. Its employees are 
about thirty in number. The plant is fit- 
ted with the fi.nest mangle manufactured 
for ironing flat work, and with the best 
collar and cuff machine obtainable, as 
well as with all other essential up-to-date 
laundry appliances. The officers of the 
New Method Laundry Corporation are: 
A. W. DeBarthe, President, and George 
L. Best, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Connected with the hotel is the light 
livery and boarding stables of C. B. Pin- 
ney at 25-39 Scovill street, Waterbury. 
Mr. Pinney came to Waterbury from 
Bristol and has been four years in the 
present location, having gained a super- 
ior reputation as an expert horseman and 
judge of light livery. The coaches and 
carriages are from the Waterbury Rub- 
ber Tire Coach Company, of which Thos. 
Lunny is the manaiicr. The most stylish 
and aristocratic turnouts in the State are 
at the company's headquarters on Church 
street. 




CONNECTICUT MUTUAL LIFE BUILDING AT HARTFORD, AS IT NOW APPEARS 
Showing the Magnificent Eight-Story Building Recently Erected Adjoining the Old Building 



THERE are comparatively few per- 
sons in these enlightened times 
who are not vitally interested 
in the progress and accomplish- 
ments in life underwriting; it is not sur- 
prising, when we consider the vast a- 
mount of money that is each year being 
dispensed to thousands of individuals 
b}'- the great life insurance institutions 
throughout the world, that the public is 
more and more looking upon insurance 
companies in the light of great public 
benefactors. Here in Hartford, the 
stronghold of insurance, the foundation 
of the present immense and far-reaching 
business of the Connecticut Mutual Life 
Insurance Company was laid, 58 years 
ago. 

A magnificent record, unparalleled in 
the history of the life insurance business 
in this country and very interesting not 
only to the company's policy-holders, but 
to the general public, was attained on 
March ist by this strong institution. 
On that date the company had received 
from its members in premiums the sum 
of $228,376,268, and had returned to 
them or their beneficiaries $228,724,073, 
or $347,805 more than it had received 
from them. 



In other words, the beneficiaries have 
received over a dollar for every dollar of 
premium paid by policy-holders. 

The Connecticut Mutual is the first 
American life insurance company to re- 
turn to its members one hundred per 
cent, of its receipts from them. And it 
holds besides $65,000,000 of assets, with 
a surplus of over $4,600,000 to protect 
over 70,000 policy-holders insured for 
over $166,000,000. 

This brief summary illustrates forci- 
bly the possibilities of carefully man- 
aged life insurance, and such a record 
stands as an enduring witness, not only 
to the stability of the company that has 
made it, but to that of the legal reserve 
system of life insurance. 

President Jacob L. Greene, under 
whose able leadership the affairs of the 
Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany have been conducted for more than 
one-third of a century, has established 
for himself a world-wide reputation for 
conservative and economical manage- 
ment, and to him and his competent co- 
workers at the home office, honor must 
be given for the building of a strong and 
popular life insurance company. 



Distinctiveness, without Extravagance, 
in Women's Costumes. 

This month of March, 1904, we reach the fifty-second anniversary of the 
foundation of this business. 

Fifty-two years of continuous and solicitous watchfulness of women's 
fashions in general. 

Fifty-two years of study and experience in the whims and preferences of 
Connecticut women in particular. 

There is no wonder that we enjoy the confidence and the patronage of 
that important class of women— the women who care for distinctiveness, taste- 
fulness and "dressiness" in their garments, but who care also for the cost 
of things. 

A visit to our " School of Style," now in the fullest Spring bloom, will 
show how we have succeeded in the difficult problem of combining elegance 
with economy. 



Established March 1852. 




NEW HAVEN. CONN, 



THE /ETNA NATIONAL BANK OF HARTFORD 



CAPITAL, $525,000.00 



A. Spencer, Jr., Pres. 



SURPLUS AND PROFITS, $550,000.00 
DEPOSITS, $3,000,000.00 



OFFICERS 
A. R. HiLLYER, Vice-Pres. 



W. D. Morgan. Cashier 



DIRECTORS 
Morgan G. Bulkeley, Appleton R. Hillyer, 
James B. Cone, Morgan B. Brainard, 
Alfred Spencer, Jr , A. G. Loomis, W. R. 
C. Corson. 



Safe Deposit Boxes 

For rent from $3 to $"^0 per yoar. Tliis bank offtM-s to de- 
positors every facility wliicli then Valances. bu>iness and 
responsibility warrant. Special accomodation for ladies 
and new money paid to them. 



GOMEGTIGUT TRUST 0\) SAFE DEPOSIT GO|VIPAIiY 

COR. MAIN AND PEARL STREETS, HARTFORD 

Capital, $300,000 Surplus, $300,000 

Trust Department 



Banking Business 

Conducts general bankiner busi- 
ness. Accounts opened and De- 
posits received subject to check at 
sight. Accounts solicited. 



Safe Deposit Vault 

The mosl Capacious in the City 

1100 Safe Boxes for Rent 

at from $10 to $100 per annum ac- 
cording to size. 



Is authori/.od by its cl\arter to aet 
as Trustee for individuals and t^^r- 
V>orations. Execuiv^r or administra- 
tor of Estates. (lUardian of Minors, 
Etc. 



Meigs H. Whaples, President 

John P. VVheeleu, Treasure 



Henry S. Roiunson. Secretary 

llosMKK P. Hbukiki o. Asst TrtMsurer 



Please Mention the Connecticut Uack/ask when patronizing our Advertisers, 



SECURITY COMPANY '.\ir^^'^Z 

Acts as Executor, Administrator, Guardian, Conservator and Trustee, and Transacts a 

General Banking Business 



Capital, $200,000 



Surplus, $100,000 



The Officers of the Company will be pleased to consult at any time with those who 
contemplate availing themselves of the services of a Trust Company 

Atwood Collins, President Henry E. Taintor, Vice-President 

Chas. Edward Prior, Sec. and Treas. Chas. Edward Prior, Jk., Asst. Treas. 




Why 



Use Impure, Unclean flilk 
Bottle Caps? Get Our Clean 

Oan/tarj/ Opruce ^ibre. 

THn BAVIER NOVBI^TY COMPANY, 
WINDSOR, CONN. 



ALSO MANUFACTUREKS OF 

MAYNARD LAWN MOWER SHARPENER. Try One! 



^ORGANS 



FOJ^ 



..Churches and !nesidences.. 



Self Playing 
Organs for 
Residences a 
Specialty 




JElectric and 

Tubular 

Pneumatic 

Organs. 

Austin Universal 

Air Chest 

System 

Patented 



High Grade Organs Only. Write for Descriptive Catalogue. 

AUSTIN ORGAN COMPANV 

HARTKORD, CONN. 



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II 



MAKING'S CHEST 



tK i( ti ii 



that's this? 
that's in it? 

there's my part? 

there's the Flexi- 
ble Rubber Goods 
[Company ? 

there's Winsted? 

/'here's Litchfield 
bounty ? 

^hat are steady 
labits ? 

^here can I get 
)ne ? 

there'll I be then? 




A Vita Brush 

Health and Strength. 

Flexible Rubber 
Goods Company 
have it. 

In Winsted. 

In the woods in 
Litchfield County. 

In Connnecticut, the 
Land of Steady 
Habits. 

Our Catalogue will 
tell you 

We will mail it. 

In the Bath-room 
saying, 



^^ Sive me the i/i'ta crushes and i/ou may 
have all the S/rays and Oponyes. 



FLEXIBLE RUBBER GOODS CO., WINSTED, CONN.. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

HOLLOW-TOOTHED RUBBER BRUSHES FOR BATH. TOILET AND MASSAGE PURPOSES. 

Also manufacturers of the MILITARY HORSE BRUSH. 

Catalogues Free. 



Please Mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizinjir our AdyertiBen. 



QUILTED nUSLIN 
MATTRESS PAD5 

Are made in all suitable sizes for Beds and 
Cribs. They are a Sanitary necessity. 



QUILTED CRIB 
SCREEN PADDING 

1^ Inch.es Wide, 

is the most useful article that a mother can buy for 
the comfort of her baby. When put around Crib it 
saves from draughts and protects arms, legs and head 
from contact with metal frame of bed. 

Ask Dry Goods Dealer and send 
to us for Sample. 

EXCELSIOR QUILTING CO., 

15 LAIQHT STREET, N. Y. CITY. 



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^^## 



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Please Mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 




FIND THE 



NORTHERN PACIFH 



"^be l^ellowstone parft IRoute" 
THE FINEST TOUR IN AMERICA. 



Send six cents for "Wonderli 

i.1 -ii-N^ir». , V. ^ r o I ^^o^o,^ «««>• 1904," tO ChA8. S. FbE, G 

New and Greatly Reduced Rates for Season, June 1 to Scot. 30, 1904. pass A^t. St. Paul, Minn 



Earth's Wonders Find Their Culmination in Yellowstone Park. 



The Art Cover of This Edition 
of This Magazine Is Made by 




-AT- 



LOCKPORT, N. Y.. U. S. A. 



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FHE 'lINinnEDMKRyiT 

TEAMSHIP 








Xh.e Ivand ot Never 

Ending June. 

DAYS KROIVl 

^ BOSTON 

DAYS KRONI 



fe;f ;i'j';^5^:; ^ Philadelphia 

Upon stee], Twin-Screw u. s. Mail sieamsliips 







Admiral Dewey. Admiral Schley. 
Admiral Sampson, Admiral Farragut. 

Weekly sailings between Boston. Phlludelplila 
and Jamaiea. Fare including meals and state- 
room, round trip, $75 ; one way, $40. 

For Information and Booklets 




, .^IIM-fct Offices 



>:^^ 



Please Mention the Connecticut Maoazinjs when patronizing our Advertisers. 




HOTEL 
HLBERT. 

EUROPEAN PLAN. 

llthSt. and University Place, 

NEM YORK CITY. 
One Block West of Broadway. 

MOST CENTRALLY LOCATED 
NEAR UNION SQUARE. 

First-Glass Service and Accommodations 
at Moderate Rates. 

Rooms at $1.00 per Day and upwards. 
Restaurant on Premises. 

L&E.FRENKEL, 

PROPS. 





HOTEL 


wuB^^UHnj y r«aa^ 


RUSSWIH 

NEW BRITAIN, 
CONN. 

RCIAL HOTEL. 

TEE, Proprietor. 


A FIRST-CLASS COMMEl 

GEO. Q. PAT 



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Successful 

i/fanufacturers 



Tl/Zii/? 





L50 Electric Portable 




376 Miller Heater. 



Because E^very= 
ttiing tlney make 
is tl:ie best of its 
liind to be tiad 

THEIR LAMPS 

have all the improvements 
They have every style for 

Oil, Gas, Electricity. 
Their Salesrooms are places 
of interest where all are wel- 
come to see their Large and 
Elegant Line of Lamps. Oil 
Heaters, Etc. 

riilier Oil Heaters 

Sn::iolt.eless and Self E2c= 
tingtaisluing. They Heat 
perfectly. Cost but little. 
Give Con^fort and Cheer 
Everjr where. 

STORES 
New York City, ^S .t aO West Broad- 
way. 
Boston, Mass , . 03 Pearl Street 
Chicago, 111.. . 35 Randolph Street 
Philadelphia, Pa., 1113 iNfarket Street 



■n 






•?my^ Gas Portable 





.Vi!M Miller l.aiup 



6clwarci 7/fiiier <Sc Co. 

F"actories aiitl tSttlessrotiiiis 

MS^RIDI^N, - - - COXXHCTICl T. 



/^ 

\f/ 

\f/ 

St/ 

vf/ 

\f/ 
M/ 
\f/ 
\f/ 






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ILLUSTRATORS 

FOR THE 

CONNECTICUT 
MAGAZINE. 



MAKERS OF PLATES 

AND DESIGNS 



-J 



FAMILY AND TOWN 

HISTORIES 

Commercial Work for 

MANUFACTURERS^ 

CATALOGUES and 

BOOKLETS. 

ZINC, COPPER and WOOD ENGRAVINC 
EMBOSSING and ELECTROTYPING. 

TH[ I. PINDIR CORP., 

730 Main Street, Hartford, Conn. 




COMFORT. 
SECURITY. 
RRFRESIIINC 
SLEEP. 

Passenger Ac- 
commodations 
First-Class. 



Hartford and New York Transportation Co. 

Leave Hartford from foot State St. at 5 p. m.- 



Leave New York from Pier 19, 



Steamers "MiDDLKTOWN " and "IIaktfoed 
East River, at 5 p. m —Daily except Sundays. 

Shipments received on pier in New^ York until 6 p. m. and forwarded to all points mentioned on Connecticut River, and points 
North, r ast and West from Hartford. We also have through tratflc arrangements with lines out of New York for points South and 
West, and shipments can be forwarded on through rates, and Bills of Lading obtained from offices of the Company. 

For Excursion Rates see daily papers. 




tbe n<w Crimson Rambler Rose 

Pbiladelpbia 

Outclasses the now favorite Crimson 
Rambler in beauty of foliage, vigor 
of growth, depth of color, double- 
ness and form of bloom. Could 
more be expected ? It also has the 
decided merit of holding its bril- 
liancy of color to the last. It is in 
full bloom before the old Crimson 
Rambler begins to show color. 

PRICES : 
"Very strong field grown, 
Lighter grade field grown, 
Light grade field grown, 

The above is one of our 
many new and desirable 
offerings for this season. 

If you are interested in the choicest 
that grows and is hardy, send for our new 
catalogue. It is the best one we have so 
far Issued. 

THE 

Elm City Nursery 

COMPANY, 

NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Our catalogtte sent intttifdiately en rtcei^t 
of request /or it. Special discounts on large 
orders. 



EACH. 


TEN. 


$1.00 


$9 00 


.75 


T.inj 


.50 


4.5«J 



GALLUP GENEALOGY AND THE 
BI-CENTENNIAL SOUVENIR BOOK 

OF THE 

iTiret Congregational Cburcb 



EAST HARTFORD. 



FOR SAL E B Y 

THE HaRTFORt) PRINTING COMPANY 

E. GEER SONS 

..BOOK and JOB PRINT^^RS .. 



i6 State Street 



Hartford, Conn. 



TJhe Senealoffical 
Quarier/y 9/fagazme 

In its new dress and enlarged form is not 
surpassed by any genealogical periodical 



Send 25c. for a Specimen Copy 
Congregational LfJiiilciiny: 



H 


18 BEAUTIFUL 
. PHOTO ENGRAVINGS 
j\ IN TINTS. 

^\ Illustrating the 32- 
^m\ page booklet "The 
J^L Lord's Prayer in the 
^^ Sign Language," 
hH Will interest young 
HfV or o}d. Printed on 
W7 finest quality coated 
^/ paper. Postpaid to 
y any addiess, 15 cts. 

Conn. Magazine Co., 
Hartford, Conn. 


^^^ 7 ^S^7^ 


WHOI.E FAMILY 

and your visitors will 
,cot hours of ouioyuiont 
' iVom the Niiinht-r 10 
. Piiaale. KascitiatinK, 
\ unique Se.^lod iustruo- 
1 \ tions with e.-ioh. Srnt 
m to anv «ddrt>s5 for 'i-Nc 

B EDUCATIONWI. 

^^ COMPANY. 

m^ H.Hrtionl, Cban. 





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Manufacturers' 
Work Solicited 

Suggestions and 

Estimates 
Furnished 



"rinters 
Olectrotypers 
Oookbinders 
Ongravers 



Flat and Curved 
Electrotypes 

We have all the latest 
machines for making 
same 



RRIINXIING 



Advertising 
Novelties 

Wood, Leather, 
Aluminum, Memo 
Hooks, Blotters, 

i':tc., Etc. 



THE LARGEST 
MaNUFaeTURERS OF 



Calendars 

and 

Calendar Pads 



IN NEW ENGLaNO. 



The Best 

Work 

That can be pro- 
duced h)y skilled 
workmen and up- 
to-date machinery 



. 



163*169 Pratt Street 



Long Distance 
Telephone, lOa^^S 



Meriden, 6onn. 



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" The Leading Fire Insurance Compmny of America 




WM. B. CLARK, President. 

/. H. KING, Secretary, A C ADAMS, HENRY E. REES, 
. J. IRVIN, A. N. WILLIAMS, Assistant Secretaries. 



TRE 



u^anclall Studios 

HIGH CLASS 

S^ortratture 



HARTFORD, NEW HAVEN, 

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN. 

^irst Awards in U, S, and Hurope 

Twenty Years of Success. 



THE 

Case, lyockwood & Brainerd 
Company 

HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 

|.. Printers ANb I 



% P00KPmbER5 



!i! 



MAKERS OF THE 

Patent Flap Opening Blank Books 

BINDERS OF THE 

Connecticut Quarterly 



4^:*^^. 



>X7tCidy: 



S.30 TO 7^.30. 



# 




W c%e<,?^^^i^. 



TAKE ELEVATOf?- 



^O^Maln.<Sii 



cTim^, 



C. D. PINNEY, 

LIVERY-BOARDING 

^acl^s for punerals, (/9eddin|s and par+ies. 
SINGLE OR DOUBLE RIGS. 

^5 "^o 39 Scoville Street, - - Waterbury, Conn. 




^ui West 



A Magazine of the 
Old Pacific and the 



Edited by CHARLES F. LUMMIS 
Los Angeles, California. 



The American Author 

N£:W YORK 

Published Monthly Under the Auspices of 
The Soelotv ot AMEHK^\X AUTHORJ 



corr:^spond:^nc^ relating to gi^:nbai,ogical matters 

IS IN r I TED B]' THE 

RESEARCH PUBLICATION CO. 

OF" BOSTON 

Researches undertaken anywhere in New England or Great Britain, reliabh' work, reasonable fees 

THE RESEARCH PUBLICA TION COMPANY, 14 Braccn Street, A'-.vA .., Mais. 



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The MOTHER'S Mission. 




1903. 



1840* JI GREAT Emperor once asked 

one of his noble subjects what 
would secure his country the firsi: 
place among the nations of the earth. 
The nobleman's grand reply was, 
^'Good Mothers." Now, what con- 
stitutes a good mother ? The answer 
is conclusive : She . who, regarding 
the future welfare of her child, seeks 
every available means that may offer to promote a sound physical develop- 
ment, to the end that her offspring may not be deficient in any single faculty 
with which nature has endowed it. In infancy there is no period which is 
more likely to affect the future disposition of the child than that of teething, 
producing as it does fretfulness, moroseness of mind, etc., which if not 
checked will manifest itself in after 'lays. 

mr$. Olinslow's Sootbing Syrup 

is unquestionably one of the greatest remedial agents in existence, both fot 
the prevention and cure of the alarming symptoms which so often manifest 
themselves during the teething period, such as griping in the bowels, wind 
colic, etc. It is also tiie best and surest remedy in the world in all cases of 
diarrhoea m children, whether it aris s from teething or any other cause. 
Twenty-five cents a bottle, and for sale in all parts of the world, being the 
best remedy for children known of. 



Mothers ! Mothers ! ! Mothers ! ! ! 

-TIIE BEST OF ALL- 
Mrs. Wikslo-w's vSoothing Syrup has been 
used for over SIXTY YEARS by MILLIONS 
of MOTHERS for their CHILDREN while 
TEETHING, with PERFECT SUCCESS. 
It SOOTHES the CHILD, SOFTENS the 
GUMS, ALLAYS all PAIN; CURES WIND 
COLIC, and is the best remedy for DIAR 
EHTEA. Sold by Druggists in every part of 
the world. Be sure and ask for "Mrs. Wins 
low's Soothing Syrup," and take no other 
kind. Twenty five cents a bottle. 



1840. 




1903 



Please Mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 




Butcher's Boston Polish 

IS THE BEST FINISH MADE FOR FLOORS, 

INTERIOR WOODWORK AND FURNITURE. 

Not brittle, will neither scratch nor deface like shellac or varnish. Is not 
soft and sticky like beeswax. Perfectly transparent, preserving the natural 
color and beauty of the wood. Without doubt the most economical and satis- 
factory Polish known for Hardwood floors. 

For sale by dealers in Paints. Hardware and Housefurnishings. 

Send for our free booklet telling of the many advantages of Butcher's Boston Polish. 

Onr No. 3 Reviver is a Superior Finish for Kitchen and Piazza Floors. 

THE BUTCHER POLISH COMPANY, 

356 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



William J. Luby 

ilarble and 
Granite Works 



upon Receipt of a Postal will Call with Designs, 
Orders Solicited in all Parts of the State 




u^eservoir Teases 
a Specialtj/, 



^*^^»s.^< 



139 Hanover Street 
rieriden, Conn. 



50-PIECE DINNER SET 



Wonderful inducement to sell our Swan Baking Powder. 
Every purchaser of a pound can of Swan Baklnar Powder 
under our Plan No. 65 will receive this beautiful Water Set, consist- 
ing of pitcher and six glasses, fuU size, free. Latest cut glass pat- 
tern, liemember tliis Water Set is given absolutely free to every 
purchaser of household articles as described by oiu: rian No. 65. 
To ever / lady who sells fourteen cans of Swan Bakins Powder, 
imder Plan No. 65, with the inducement of tliis beautiful Water 
Set free to each purchaser, we give a handsomely decorated 50- 
Piece Dinner Set or a 66-Pieoe Tea Set, absolutely free. We 
do not require any money in advance. Simply send ns your name 
and address and we wUl forward om- different plans and full infor- 
mation. You will be surprised to see wliat can be acoom- , , ,. ^ 
plished in a few hours' work. We will allow you fifteen days to deliver the goods and collect the money Ix^fore 
paying us. We allow large cash commission if preferred. We payiall fivight. We also cive Bedntoaa*, 
Tables. Couches, Chairs, Shirt Waist I'atterns. Musloal Instrumenis, I.aeo Curtains, Kaoking: ChairM .'iud 
hundreds of other useful and desirable articles, for selling our goods. W rite for Plans and full information. 
SAIiVONA SUPPI.1ES COMPANY, 1127 and 1I21> Pino Streot. St. l.ouiH. Mo. 
We assure our readers that the Salvona Supplies Company is thoroughly reliable, — Editor. 




Please Mention the Connecticut Maoaztne when patronizing our Advertisers. 




For over HP> Years 

A VALUABLE HOUSEHOLD REMEDY. 

Internal or External Use. 

Dr. BROWN'! 
A NODYN E 

I SAMPLE BOTTLE FREE | 
INTERNALLY 

Brown's Anodyne is an invaluable remedy for 

COUGHS, COLDS, 

CHILLS, CRAMPS, 

SORE THROAT, TOOTH ACHE, 
DIARRHCEA, DYSENTER 




INTO THE EFFECTED PARTS 



i 



1 



BROWN'S ANODYNH 

lb A PROMPT AND EFFECTIVE REMEDY FOR 

SPRAINS, RHEUMATISM, 
BRUISES, NEURALGIA, 

BURNS, FROST BITES, 

SCALDS, CHILBLAINS 



IN FACT IT IS 



THE BEST FAMILY MEDICINi 

Proved by many testimonials from our own Townspeople. 



PFtE:P.A.FtE:D ONI^Y BY 



THE BROWN'S ANODYNE COMPANY, INC. 



wiisrsTEiD, ooisrisr. 



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OPTICAL GOODS 




NEW 3A KODAK. 

3 1-4x5 1-'^ 



Kodak Outfitters. 

CKNTURY CAjMERAS. 



CATALOGS NOW READY. 



HARVEY & LEWIS, 

HARTFORD AND NEW HAVEN 
865 MAIN ST. 861 CHAPEL ST. 



rORRINGTON — HARTFORD 

I -9- Litchfield Street. 101-105 Asylum Street. 



TTATO store: 



AGENTS FOR. 



OSTERMOOR MATTRESSES, 
EDDY REFRIGERATORS, 
rr DANNER SECTIONAL BOOK CASES, 
PURITAN OIL STOVES, 

HUB RANGES. 

MAGEE RANGES. 





HEYWOOD, WAKEFIELD & WHITNEY 



The best of everything to fiirnlsh >our house or office. 

^rucoj y^i'liei/ dc Co. 



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Palhers patented HAnnocKf 

ARAWANA, UROPIA, SOLITAIRE and REPOSO. 

Largest Variety of Colors and Accessories 



Hammock 



SEND FOR 1904 CATALOG IN COLORS. 



Supports. 



Hammock 




Hammock 
Mosquito Ba 



Awnings ^'~^^^^mmM^'*\ 
Awnings. ,_,,,jjiM^j^^ 



Hammock 
Trapeze 






CUTN2 4594-T. 



Ba 



Also Manufacturer of 

Mosquito Nettings, Mosquito Bed Canopies, Canopy Supports and Fixtures, 
Crinoline Dress Linings, Window Screen Cloth, etc. 

T T^ Tl>ATN/rTH"t? middletown, conn., u. s. a. 

A. -CV. -l"^-iHVJ_>iV± E^-tX, New York Office, 56 Leonard Stre 



OMO DRESS SHIELD. 



A PERFECT 




DRESS SHIELD. 



WHY? 

Because it is absolutely odorless and absolutely Impervious. Every pair war- 
ranted. Contains no poisonous chemicals of any kind. Recommended by the 
American Journal of Health for its hygienic qualities. For sale by all the 
Dry Goods Stores throughout the U. S. and Canada. 

Omo Manufacturing Co., Middletown, Conn 



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WINSTED'S COMMERCIAL INTERESTS 




../^rtistie.. 



picture pra(T\i9(5. 

Souvenir Photographs. 

Photographic Supplies. 
Viewing. 

Framefl M Unfrainefl Pictures. 
The Art Store, 



700 Main Street, 

(With E. W. Jones & Co.) 

WINSXED, CONN 




Pablisbers j The Winsted Evening CitUcn-iKniy. winMed Herald-Weekh' 

of ) rhe I^itchfield County I^eader— Weekly. 

THE CITIZEN PRINTING COMPANY. 



Please Mention the Connecticut MA«i.\/,iNK when patronizinjr our Advortisors. 



WINSTED'S COMMERCIAL INTERESTS 



SEE WINSTED'S SCENERY; 

ca^TmIu, for 

HALE St BULL, 

Hotel Winchester Stables. 

First=Class Turnouts at Reasonable Prices. 

tmtSf feed M Boaraing Stables, 



Telephone 

Connection. 



REAR 9 ELM ST. 



WINSTED. 

CONN. 




H. J. PIERRE, 

Kire Insuraince 

72 Main St., Winstcd, Conn. 

STATION B. 



Local Telephone at Residence. 



REFERENCES. — Those who have had fires while 
insured in nny agency, 



THE BAIRD PHARMACY, 

L. P, CASE, Proprietor. 
74 Main St., Winsted, Conn. 



All the Periodicals 00 sale. 



MISSM. M. CLARK, »air dressing, ^ 

Telephone. MANICURING. 

Room 15, 109 Bank St. Facial«''''ScalpTreatmBiit 

WATERBURY, CONN. A SPECIALTY. 



DELIGHTFUL— FRAGRANT— ANTISEPTIC— CLEANSING. 
YOU WILL BE HAPPY WHEN YOU USE 



Jatolla 




THE TOILET REQUISITE OF QUEENS. 
THE QUEEN OF TOILET REQUISITES. 

On Sale at all First- Class Drug Stores throughout the 
United States and Canada, Mexico and Cuba, 

SAMPLE FREE AT ALL DRUGGISTS. 



If your druggist cannot furnish you with free sample, send 10 cents in 
stamps and sample will be sent you from home office. 

THE LATOILA CO., Inc. 



REFUSE SUBSTITUTES AND AVOID DISAPPOINTMENT. 



please Mentior^ the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



LEADING 



COOKING AND 
HEATING GOODS 
IN AMEBIC A 




ODEL HUB 



Has more improvements than any range made. 

Investigate the advantages of the sectional French Top 

in connection with Patent Broiler Hood. 



Cbc Perfect Control that a cook bas over the 

HUB RANGE 

makes Cooking a Pleasure, 

Used and indorsed by Boston, New York, Providence, and other 

leading cooking-schools. 

Made in every size and style, including a 

COMBINATION COAL AND CAS RANGE. 

Send for new descriptive circular. No. 7. 
Sold by Leading Dealers. 

SMITH & ANTHONY CO., 

45-50 UNION ST., BOSTON, MHSS. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

€ookmd ana l^eatina Jlpparatus 

OF EVERY STYLE AND DESCRIPTION. -'. — —" ^ . 

The Connecticut Hotel equipped with Smith & Anthony Go's HUB Kitchen Apparatus. 





LIGHT GHSOLINE 
TONNEHU 




J 2- 1 4 Horse Power (Honest Rating) 
Weight J700 lbs. Price $1750 

Canopy Top, - - - $200 Extra 

New system of control makes the two-cylinder opposed motor, which is placed toward in a 
removable bonnet, as flexible as a steam engine with none of its defects and limitations. High 
gear available for all ordinary speeds and grades. Gear changing by positive levers— no notches, 
no indices — making this the easiest of all gasolene cars to operate. Speed, two to thirty miles 
per hour. Lubrication automatic. Tonneau seats of full carriage size. Materials and work- 
manship highest grade in every detail. 

24 - 30 Horse Power Touring" Car (chicago-New York Record^ _ - _ $3500 

30-35 Horse Power Touring: Car ------- 4000 

Ligfht Electric Runabout, new model ------- 850 

Catalogue of Columbia Gasolene Cars and Electric Pleasure I'ehicles -.vill be sent on request : 
also stparate catalogues of Electric Town Carriages of the coach class and Ci>rnmercial I'ehic'es. 

ELECTRIC VEHICLE COflPANY, "^SJ^^n""*" 



NEW YORK SALESROOMS 
134-136-138 West 39th St. 

(0pp. Metropolitan Opera House) 



CHICAGO SALESROOMS 
1413 Michigan Ave. 

Member A sscc:,. 



BOSTON SALESROO.MS 
74-7S Stanhope St. 

A */<»»»««V/.V Mamt, fJCturers. 



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T 



HIS year we are to make a specialty of Blooming Plants, all 
which have been grown in our own greenhouses. 
The list includes the following : 

AZALEAS, CYCLAMENS (in pots and pans). 
POINSETTIAS, PRIMROSES, BEGONIAS (Lorraine,) 
BEGONIAS (Incarnata) and EASTER LILIES. 

We will also have a fine assortment of decorative plants such as PALMS, B0,'| 
TON FERNS, RUBBER PLANTS, PANDANUS, CROTONS, and tl 
New Piersoni Ferns. 



C^ttt Ffotvers* 



Our assortment of cut flowers will be complete, including Roses, Carnatioi 
Violets, Lily of the Valley, Mignonette, Roman Hyacinths, Stevia, Etc., Etc. 



Store : 
688 Main Street, 

Phone 1406-3- 




Greenhouses : 
Benton Stree 

'Phone, i6i3-4' 



N. B.— Special attention will be given to the packing of plants and cut /lowers 
for shipping out of town. 



Please Mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



^ke Waterbury gusif^ESS (JOLLEGE 



N]S:W JONMS AND MORGAN BUILDING 
io8 BANK ST,, - WATERBURY, CONN 



fi-. ^. pS^q^, Principal. 



m 







mployinent 
Department. 



In no department of the institutiou 
is there more energy and care dis- 
played than in the placing of prop- 
y prepared pupils in situations suitable to their attainments, 
d in this work hundreds of our students will testify as to 
ether or not we have been successful. Never before so many 
Is for graduates to take excellent positions. 



we Gtia.ta.Tltee N^°i positively and absolutely. No 
Positions ^ school with any sense of moral or 

business responsibility can. Persons 
o enter a school because of such propositions find, sooner or 
er. that they have been duped of something more than tuition 
ney— their ambition, their self-confidence, and, in many 
(tances their prospects for life, t The best thing any school 
Q do is to give opportunity for positive preparation, and this 

I do GUARANTEE. 



Xndividllcll Every student receives separate and 

Instruction, f"^ individual instruction just when 
he needs it. By merely raismg h>s 
hand he secures the attention of a teacher at his desk, who 
remains with him questioning and explaining until his ditTicultjr 
is mastered. No one is necessarily influenced in his progress by 
that of another. Each is supposed to do the best he can. and 
stands absolutely on liis own merits, as he must do when he 
encounters the active atTairs of the business world. Each stu- 
dent's progress is limited only by his devotion to his study and 
his capacity to acquire. 



Remember 



The "Little Things Make the Big.' 
.•\ Successful Business Course is not 
made up of one master stroke, but of many, the sum total of 
which means ifJl'CCJvSS. 

For further information, send for our catalogue or call at our 
office. 



Please Mention the Connecticut Mag.\/ine when patronizinar our .\dvertisors. 




I 

Vibration Zm. 



v^ibration Cure is a non-electrical trea 
ment for curing" disease without the use i 
drugs. The form of treatment — as admini 
tered by Dr. Wragg — is a small m.achine co: 
sisting of a series of small wheels which revol^ 
at a high rate of speed, and when brought in 
contact with the human body produces a powe 
ful, penetrating and pleasant sensation 
warmth to the surface of the body — reachi; 
not only the tissues lying near the surface 
the body — but the deeply seated organs a 
internal systems hitherto so difficult to reai 
thereby producing physiological effects nee 
sary for the successful treatment of disease. 
The world's leading physicians have 
a long time recognized the great preventil 
and curative effects of mechanical or ot 
movements applied to the body's surface. But up to the present period a me 
whereby the requisite intensity, rapidity and regularity of movement was afford! 
had not been discovered. 

The circulation of the blood is immediately stimulated, even in the small 
capillaries. From the fact that in these small capillaries the changes of the body 
continually taking place, it follows that this one effect is of the greatest importance 
the cure of disease. An inactive circulation of the blood in these small vessels alw 
causes an accumulation of remainder of tissue changes, which are gradually turned 
putrefaction, followed by a degeneration of the whole body, viz: Rheumati 
Obesity, etc., etc. i 

It is essential that the digestive organs be always kept in a healthy conditi 
for the changes of tissues in the body consist not only in the removing of consu 
vital substances, but also the supplying of building-up material of the body. 

Vibration makes stiff joints movable by removing all pathological matters ga 
ered at the joints, and by restoring and circulating the nutritious juices into the joi 
and bone tissues. Phenomenal success has been attained in cases of Paraly 
Sciatica, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Cramp, Congestion of the Liver, Insomnia, Dysp 
sia. Constipation, Kidney disease, and nervous troubles peculiar to the female sex. 

It is only by personal experience that you can tell what Vibration can and 
do for you '* Since I was cured by Vibration I am as strong and well as ever — ne 
felt better in my life," is the cry I am greeted with on all sides from grateful patie 
It is for you to say the same if you try Vibration for your ailments. You will ne 
regret it, but will only wish that you had tried it sooner 

Testimonials of various cures can be obtained at office. Consultation Free. 

Office Hours: 9 A. M. to 12 M., 2 P. M. to 5 P. M., 6 P. M. to 8 P. M., or 
special appointment. JVO SUNDAY HOURS. 

DR. iA£RAGG, 

The Hartford Institute of Vibration and Psycho-Magnetic Therapeutic '/j 

UNIVERSflLIST BUILDING, 686 MAIN STREET, HARTFORD, CONN- 



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ti 



/IS 
/IS 

/•s 

SI? 
SI? 
SI? 
SI? 
SI? 
SI? 
SI? 
SI? 

si^ 

SH? 
SH? 

SI? 
SI? 







4€ 



METEOR" 






A PERFECT COFFEE MAKER. 
PLANISHED COPPER, SILVER LINED. 

Coffee or Tea made by this method is very superior, as the bev- 
erage is distilled, and not boiled. By this automatic circulatinK 
process the entire strength is extracted, which proves it to be the 
most economical method of producing Coffee or Tea of the finest flavor. 



No. 993—'* Meteor" French 
Circulating Coffee Percolator. 



Made in over fifty styles and sizes. 




Seamless Tea. and Coffee F*ots in 
"IVORY" Enanneled Ware, Copper, 
Nickel related, Etc., Baking Dishies. 
Table Kettles, Hotel Ware, Bath 
Roonn Kittings, Etc. % % % 




Chafing 



Dishes 



WITH THE FAMOUS 
''IVORV Mnameled Food Pan. 

AN ENDLESS VARIETY WITH ALCOHOL 
LAMPS AND ELECTRIC HEATERS. 




Manning:, Bowman & Co., 



MEKIDEN, OONN. 



NEW YORK. 



OHIOAGO. 



SAN PRANCISOO. 



Please Mention the Connbcticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



I 
I 



I 



I 
I 



C. L ROCKWELL, President. 



C. F. ROCKWELL, Sec. and Treas. 



THE MILLER BROS/ 
CUTLERY COMPANY 




Manufacturers of 



J^/?^ S^ocket Cutlerj/^ J/nk 
erasers and Steel u^ens 



F^actory, 

Nleriden, 

Connecticut. 




New^ York: Office, 

Nltittjial Reserve 

Build^ing, 

309 Broad-^Aray. 



MILLER BROS.' STEEL PENS 



>^^CiR^^^^H 



ARE 






?9 



"AMERICAN AND BEST 

Send for Samples, they are yours for the asking. 

The Miller Bros.' Cutlery Co., 

MERIDEN, CONNECTICUT. 



f 



Please Mention the Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



20th CENTURY 



Spring beds 



re the strongest and most comfortable beds in the world. Our patented lug makes 
arping and twisting impossible. They are made with malleable iron corner castings, 
^placing the old style brittle cast iron used by many imitators. We are the 

wire fabric beds. Thirty-five years' experience plus our written guarantee for a lifetime's service 
stand back of every 20th Century Spring Bed. Beware of cheap imitations, which lack the good 
qualities of the original. Ask your dealer to show you the 20th Century. If he hasn't it 
send his name and we will send you a beautiful art picture, suitable for fram- 
ing or passepartout, together with our illustrated catalogue. 

NATIONAL WIRE MATTRESS CO., 

WATERBURY, CONN. 



Cushion Komfort 5hoes 




..AND. 



Sunshine Custom Made 

SHOES 



FOR MEN and WOMEN 

ONE OF THE BEST SHOES THAT GflH BE fOUHD FOR EASE R\id COMFORT. 



^arlor 839 Main Street 



Room 32 



XKFCB BUBiZKTOR. 



printers 
Blanh Boolfi 
/iDanutacturers 

llClbolesale anD 
IRetall Stattoncrs 

IN ALL THE WORDS IMPLY 



prices are IRitibt 






ITbc maatcrlnir\> 
Blann 1Boo\\ riDfci. Co. 



TELEPHONE 



59*67 iSranO Street 

ESTABLISHED 1887 



\Slualitv? \6 IRiiibt 



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■ ^ 




^ ^^^^^^:%, 






i:W^*!^i^^^^^^*^^ .. ^ ^.^.. ,:.v..-.,.,..^| 






^^^:&fyp>-^^ 









C. H. DEXTER & SONS. 



A. D» COFFIN. 



H. R. COFFIN. 



Paper manufacturers 

WINDSOR LOCKS, CONNECTICUT. 



ti 



maKersoT « 






TWO MILLS. 



"Princess** Cover Papers. 
"Unique** Cover Papers. 
" Abbotsford** Deckle Edge Papers. 
"Star** Bristol Boards. 
"Star** White and Colored Tissues. 
"Star** Manifold Linen and Onion Skin Papers. 
Specialties in Colors and Thin Papers, 



Please Mention the Connecticut Mahazinb when patronizing our Advertisers. 



The HisWand Goart flpaPtment Hoase, 



NO. 50 WINDSOR AVENUE, 
HARTFORD. 




NEW IN EVERY RESPECT. 

Suites ranging from one to eight rooms. 

Each apartment having its own Private 
Bath finished in marble. 

Long Distance Telephone in each 
Apartment. 

A Few more very desirable Suites left. 



A visit to our commodious Dining Room, 
located on the main floor, will con- 
vince one that we serve the 

Best SOc. Table d'Hote Dinner 

IN CONNECTICUT. 



Breakfast, 7 to 9. 
Luncheon, 12:30 to 2. 
Dinner, 6 to 8. 
Dinner served at one o'clock 
Sundays. 



The Highland Court Corporation, 



GEO. S. BRIGMAM, Supt. 



CUT GL-KSS "^° CHINK. 



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AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY BY 



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The Connecticut Magazine 



SECOND QUARTER FOR 1904-FOURTH AND LAST NUMBER IN VOLUME VIU 

An Illustrated Quarterly Magazine devoted to Connecticut in its various 
phases of History, Literature, Genealogy, Science, Art, Genius and Industry. 
Published in four books to the annual volume. Following is a list of contents 
in this edition, lavishly illustrated and ably written. 



Aft Cover louis orr 

Index for Vol. VIII . editor 

Frontispiece — Dutch Thrift Still Leaves Its Strong Impress 642 

Prologue — The Dutchman's Land . 643 

Country Life in Connecticut 

Scene on the Farmington 644 

A Connecticut Lake Scene . . . 645 

Little Glens Along the Shore 646 

Bowing Their Branches to the Earth 647 

These Were the Visions in the Dutchman's Land 64& 

Salmon Fell-Kill, Lime Rock 649 

A Wooded Drive in Dutchman's Land 650 

Falls at New Canaan '. . . 651 

Pointing Their Tapering Foliage Towards the Clouds 652 

Scene at Highland Park, Winsted 653 

Scene at Lakeville 654 

Held in Dispute by Dutch and English . 655 

The Old Elm on the Road Home . 656 

The New America— Introductory editor 657 

The New America — An Ode , . . henry t. blake 658 

Dutch Individuality . . Herbert randall 661 

Drawings by Angle Breakspear 

The Ox-Eyed Daisy — A Poem dr. Frederick h. williams 668 

Dutch Character dr. melancthon w. jacobus 669 

The River of Dreams — A Poem louis ransom 672 

Heredity lovell hall 673 

Longevity and the Modern Dietarian f. g. markham 684 

Pastoral— A Poem john h. guernsey 688 

Lime Rock— In the Connecticut Highlands rev. r. h, gesner 689 

The Fore-Runner— A Quatrain editor 705 



Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mall matter of the second class. 
This Edition Vol. VIII, No. 4 (Quarterly), went to press In June 1904. 



NUMBER IV Edited by Francis Trevclyan Miller VOLUME VIM 

Publications for 1904 are herewith announced : — 

Book I, Volume IX, Puritan Number. Book II, Volume IX, Contempor- 
ary Americanism. Compiled and produced by The Connecticut Magazine 
Company in Cheney Tower, 926 Main Street, Hartford, Connecticut. 



The Coming of the "White Man clara emerson-bickford 705 

Beginning of Trade in America • . • mac gregor fiske 70b 

Emigration From the Old World . robinson travers 707 

Dutch Endowment h. louise barker 708 

The Sky Line— A Poem horace hotchkiss holley 709 

The Breadth of God's Thought cora m. crat ty 709 

Lanterns in Early America • • c. a. quincy Norton 710 

Thoroughfares in Early Republic Controlled by Corporations • • h. c. warren 721 

The Achievements of Connecticut Men h. clay trumbull 730 

The First Apothecary Shops in Connecticut • hon. Frederick j. kingsbury 73S 

Greatest Real Estate Transaction Ever Recorded in Histo-y . judge l. e. munson 742 

Connecticut and the Exposition editor 754 

Drawings by Vernon Howe Bailey .By Courtesy Everybody's Magazine 755 to 759 

The Governors of Connecticut Frederick calvin norton 760 

George Edward Lounsbury 7<^ 

George Payne McLean 7^2 

Abiram Chamberlain 7^^ 

Investing Pottery with Personality Katharine spenckr-gulick 769 

Connecticut Artists and Their Work myra k. dowd monroe 775 

Gilbert Mungkr of North Madison. Connecticut 

Bridgeport— A Story of Progress juiian h. sterling 7S? 

With Introductory on Stratford and Thirty Illustrations 

Home-In Memory of Its Beauties .... john gaylord davenport, d.d. 803 

Nightfall— A Poem florella estes. m.d. S09 

Studies in Ancestry— Genealogical Department .... charles l. n. camp Sio 

Fireside Stories judge martin h. smith 817 

Art Notes S19 

The Fire Worshippers 82 1 

Tapestry Painting and Art Decoration . 823 

SUBSCRIPTION $2.00 A VOLUME. SINGLE NUMBERS 50 CENTS. 

Address all communications and manuscript to The Connecticut Magazine Coinpany, Hartfonl. Conn. 
Copyright 1904— By The Connecticut Magazine Company. 



3 F F I C I A L A NNOUNCEMENT 



WlS 



IT GIVES THE CORPORATION engaged in the enjoy- 
able work of compiling material, which is attaining for 
Connecticut a leading position in Arts and Letters, pleasure 
to announce that this book closes the <?/>/M volume of Vho 
Connecticut T^ayaz/ne, and with it the most notable year in the 
history of State literature, Never before has there been a 
stronger exposition of the qualities that give this State a leading 
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of State supremacy only upon conclusive proof that the rank 
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With appreciation for this honorable mention we wish to state 
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Commonwealth, who are enrolled on our subscription list and con- 
tributors to our pages, that we have been enabled to participate in 
this commendable achievement. 

As a laborer whose work is done, we come to you at the close 
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best in literature." Librarians from many institutions, and 
members of faculties of many universities have acknowledged its 
value not only to the State but also to the Tfation, 

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and in the following pages give you an idea of the magnitude of 
our work, and the necessity of your co-operation in the compilation 
of Volume IX. 



TO ALL PATRIOTIC HOMES 



WHAT YOUR CO-OPERATION HAS DONE 



IT IS NOT PROBABLE that you fully comprehend the importance 
of the work t/ou have assisted during the last year and the permanent 
influence it will have upon our future citizenship. While personally 
profiting by the grade of reading it has afforded, you have been a 
factor in a significant progressive movement. By a modest contribution 
of two doilars you have enabled : 

I. The compilation of over one hundred articles of research and investigation 
in establishing Connecticut's claim to a leading position in the nation. 

II. These remarkable compilations have been accurately illustrated with 
OYer five hundred photographs of historic importance. The value of these 
illustrations will increase as their subjects disappear and become price- 
less to future generations. 

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VIII. It has proven conclusively that Connecticut is the home of genius in art 
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X. This eight-hundred'page book has become recognized by other states as 
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sven excelling our past endeavors by building upon the foundation you 

lave laid. 

WE HAVE MORE THAN "IHREE HUNDRED cARTICLES OF IMPORTANCE 
NOW COMPLETED OR IN PROCESS OF COMPILATION 

Connecticut's Public JL,ihraries (illustrated). An extensive article by Caroline M. 
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twenty-eight years Librarian in Hartford. 

Connecticut Men in Presidents' Cabinets (illustrated). Presenting the biographies 
and official service of distinguished sons of the State in diplomatic capacities. 

Connecticut in the United States Senate (illustrated). Establishing for the first 
time the active part this State has taken in the building of government. 

Connecticut in the House of Representatives (illustrated). Recording the import- 
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Connecticut's State I^egislature (illustrated). Beginning with the earliest sessions 
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Connecticut's Judiciary (illustrated). The evolution of law from the earliest days, and 
recording distinguished Connecticut jurists and members of the Bar to the present time. 

Connecticut in Medical Science (illustrated). Beginning with the quaint customs and 
treatments of several centuries ago and recalling prominent practitioners. 

Connecticut in Ztiterature (illustrated). Showing the leading position the State has 
held in American letters and the men who have become writers of world-wide 
reputation. 

Connecticut in Art, in Science, in Industrial Achievement, and in the many 
other walks of life. 

Connecticut Towns and Their Histories, With articles on Bridgeport. Stratford. 
Torrington, Fairfield, Ridgefield, Madison, Noank, and many other Connecticut 
towns and cities. 

Historical Articles, and records from old diaries, personal narratives, church annals, 
etc. We now have more than two hundred of these historical articles completed. 

Old-time Customs and Home-life by octogenarians and from post-humous manu- 
scripts from men and women who lived long and well. 

Connecticut Citizenship. Articles by state officials and university professors on the 
tendency of the times. 

And Many Other Articles, including much material of permanent value compiled 
after many years of research and study. 



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A QUESTION OF PATRIOTIC PRINCIPL 

■■■■■■IMIIIIllllllMilillllllllllimiBMIMOTiBm?^^ 



AS IT HAS BEEN SAID SO FREQUENTLY, the possibilitie 

^% of Vhe Connecticut 7?fa^azine are illimitable. It can and is beln| 

jt JL made an important factor in American Literature. Connect/cu 

is the only State attempting so comprehensive a work. It 
possibly the only State with the material for compilation, and sufficien 
home pride, to undertake it. Its magnitude may be comprehended b) 
noting the index to Voiumo uiii. Considering the quality of the contents 
and the total pages to the volume, HJhe Connecticut Tlfa^^azine is remarkabH 
low in price. To gather material for a single year's presentation costiS 
several thousand dollars, and to correctly illustrate and publish it costs 
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an ei£^ht''hundred''pai^e book with over five hundred illustrations and on^ 
hundred articles for the contribution of two dollars. This book is published 
quarterly and its list of recipients should include the ten thousand best 
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^hen fill out blank belo'w and return by early mail* 



THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE COMPANY, 

Cheney Tower, Hartford, Connecticut. 

Appreciating the work of TJhe Connecticut T^ajs^azine in its perpetuation of the History 
Genius^ Art^ Letters, Industries and Professions of this remarkable State, 1 hereby co-operat 
with the enterprise by authorizing a record of my name on the subscription roll for Volume IX 
agreeing to pay volume price of two dollars. 



Date 



ENROLL BY MAILING ABOVE COUPON TODA\ 



[I STORY OF ANCIENT WETHERSFIELD 



THE MOST IMPORTANT WORK IN RECENT 
HISTORICAL LITERATURE is now being catalogued 
by all the leading public and private libraries. After 
many years of research and oHginal investigation, 0r. JIfenry ^. 
Sii'ies, Jf,9//., 9/f.*D,, the distinguished historian and scholar, has 
completed his notable J^/story of Ttncient Weihersfieid, Connecticut, 

comprisi'ny the present towns of Wethersfieid, Stocky Jfiii and 

9/&wi'nyion and of Stasionbury prior to its incorporation in 1693. 
The historical portion of this work is based upon the MS. collections 
of the late Sherman W, ^dams and is complete from date of earliest 
settlement until the present time, with extensive yeneaioyies and 

yeneaioyieal notes On their earty famiiies. The WOrk is published in 

two voiumes, from The Grafton Press, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York, 
large octavo, with about i,000 pages to the volume; copiously illus- 
trated with maps, portraits, views of old buildings, and historic 
localities and autographs* It is bound substantially in cloth, uncut 
edges, gilt top* It is uniform in size and style with the author's 

P Jif/story and Seneaioyies of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut, published 

in J 893. The edition will be strictly limited to 500 copies. Each 
copy will be numbered. Price $18.00 net. The edition will soon 

. be sold out and orders must be booked immediately. ^ J' j^ 

\ 

\ Historical Libraries cannot afford to be ^without this work; no private collection 

is complete ^without it. 

VOLUMES WILL BE SHIPPED C.O.D. UPON RECEIPT OF ORDER BY THE 
CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE COMPANY, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 



;DITI0N LIMITED TO FIVE HUNDRED COPIES 

(,Ov«r) 



NOTABLE WORK IN TWO VOLUME 

BH9HiHHHBBiH9HH^^9^HHIHIHHHHHi^HHHHBHHHHHHBBHHHBH^B8HHBHHHHBHHHD^^Bi^^DHlHHHHBBBBHBBIHHlBH 

nin T'~~"~'"~"°"~'~'""''''~''™'nii i iiM 

IIBRARIANS AND STUDENTS OF HISTORY, MEMBER; 
OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES and all who seek authoriti 
^" on matters of Historical Importance should note the followin 
suggestions from the Index: 

CONTENTS *OF VOL. I 

I. Preface. 

Chapter I. — Preliminary View of the Early Immigrations into the 
Connecticut Valley. i. Discovery. 2. The First "Adventurers." 3. 
Additional Settlers prior to 1641. 4. The Place of First Settlement — Pyquag. 
5. Indian Owners of the Territory and Purchasers from them. 6. Indian 
Names of Localities in Wethersfield. 7. The Survey of the Town. 8, The 
Naming of the Town. 9. The Murder of Mr. John Oldham. 10, The Indian 
Massacre at Wethersfield, 1637. 11. The Pequot Campaign. 13. The Consti- 
tution, or "Fundamental Orders" of 1639. 

Chapter II. — i. Topographical View of Wethersfield, 1640 (with map). 
2. Village Plot of Wethersfield, 1640 (with map). 3. House Lots and 
Earliest Divisions of Lands. 4. Commons and Highways. 5. Boundaries and 
and Patent of Town. 6. Shipyards, Landing Places and Wharves. 7. Ferries. 

Chapter III. — i. Church Beginnings. 2. Church Dissension. 3. Con- 
sequent Secessions and Emigrations from Wethersfield. 

Chapter IV. — i. Civil Organization, illustrated from Town. 2. Intra- 
Territorial Settlements. 

Chapter V. — Military Organizations. Wethersfield's share in the Earlier 
Indian Wars, 1637-1676. 

Chapter VI. — Ecclesiastical Organization. 1. The Minister. 2. The 
Meeting House. 3. The Parsonage. 4. The Evolution of the Parish and of 
the Ecclesiastical Society. 5. The Old Burying Ground. 

Chapter VII. — List of Early Inhabitants, 1635-1750, with notes on 
their Landed Possessions, Distribution of Lots, etc. 

Chapter VIII. — i. The Ministry of the First Ecclesiastical Society of 
Wethersfield, and Biographies of its Ministers. 2. That of the Parishes of 
Glastonbury, Stepney and Newington until their formation into Independent 
Ecclesiastical Societies. 

Chapter IX. — Connecticut Educational Legislation, i. The Schools of 
Wethersfield. 2. Those of Stepney Parish (Rocky Hill) and of West Farms 
( Newington). 3. Private Schools, etc. 

Chapter X. — Wethersfield's share in the French and Indian Wars. 

Chapter XI. — i. Wethersfield's share in the American Revolution. 2. Her 
Sons in the Continental Navy and in Privateers. 3. Names and Services of 
Wethersfield's Men in the Revolutionary Service. 



POSITIVE NECESSITY IN ALL LIBRARIE 



BY HENRY R. STILES 



A. M 



M. D 



OWING TO THE LIMITED EDITION, THE PUBLISHERS 
MUST RETURN ALL ORDERS RECEIVED AFTER AN 
EARLY DATE, It is therefore important that requests be 
forwarded immediately and sets reserved. 

Chapter XIL — The Maritime History of Wethersfield. 

Chapter XIH. — History of Religous Denominations in Wethersfield 
(other than Congregational), and Biographies of their Ministers. 

Chapter XIV. — Agriculture, Domestic Cattle and Stock Raising; Fairs, etc. 

Chapter XV. — Public and Quasi-public Works, Institutions, Mills, 
Manufactures; Various Industries. 

Chapter XVI. — Wethersfield's share in the War of 1812. i. The Mexi- 
can War. 2. War of the Civil Rebellion. 3. Spanish- American War. 

Chapter XVII.— Odds and Ends of Wethersfield History. 1. Witch- 
craft. 2. Mr. Leonard Chester's Adventure. 3. A Mysterious Pot of 
Money. 4. The Strange Story of Elizabeth Canning. 5. The Beadle 
Murders, 1783. 6. Grave Robbing. 7. Negroes and Slavery in Wethers- 
field. 8. Floods, Earthquakes and Conflagrations. 9. Odd Names of 
Wethersfield Localities. 10. Old Time Fishing in the Connecticut. 

Chapter XVIII. — Newington Parish and Town. 

By Roger Wells, Esq. ( dec'd ). 

Chapter XIX.— Stepney Parish and the Town of Rocky Hill. 

By Rufus W. Griswold, M. D. (dec'd). 
Appendices. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. II 

Genealogies and Biographies 

The following families are represented in these Wethersfield genealogies; 

being of considerable extent and interest : 

Brundish 

Bowen 

Bracey 

Bra7idegee 

Brattle 

Bridgman 

Brigden 

Bronson 

Buck 

Bull 

B%ince 

Burge 

Bulkeley 

Burnham 

Burrows 

Butler 

Cady 

Camp 

Carter 



those marked by italics 



Abbott 


Bascom 


Ackerly 


Bassett 


Adkins 


Bates 


Adams 


Baxter 


Alcock 


Beadle 


Alexander 


Beckley 


Allis 


Beldon 


Allyn 


Belknap 


Ames 


Bell 


Andreus 


Bement 


Andrus 


Benjamin 


Atwood 


Benton 


Ayrault 


Betts 


Backus 


Bevin 


Baker 


Bidwell 


Balch 


Biggs 


Barnard 


Blackheach 


Barnes 


Blinn 


Barrett 


Boardman 



Catlin 


Crowfoot 


Chappell 


Crane 


Cheeney 


L urtiss 


Chester 


Danjorth 


Chilson 


Denting 


Church 


Deane 


Churchill 


Dickinson 


Cleveland 


Dilling 


Cole 


Dimock 


Colefax 


Dix 


Coleman 


Don 


Collins 


Dwight 


Colson 


Ducasse 


Coltman 


Dupre 


Comstock 


Dunham 


Cornish 


EdNN-ards 


Couch 


Elsen 


Crab 


Furnsworth 


Crowell 


Fitch 



A N 



AUTHORITY FOR ALL STUDENTS 



HISTORY OF ANCIENT WETHERSFIELD 



ffiHBSsasa 



A FTER CAREFUL PERUSAL OF THE PRECEDING PAGES, 

jf_% it is found that this new work must be immediately added to the 
A IL library to increase and insure the library's accuracy and complete- 
ness» Then fill out the blank below and send hj return mail. 
Announcement is also made that a few sets of 0r. ^t/Us" Jiiatori/ and Sene- 
aiofft&s of j^nctGni ^i^indsor, Connecticut, two volumes, 8 vo., illustrated, 950 
pages (published in 1893 — a splendid companion work to ^z Wethersfteid 
A/story), are obtainable at price, $20.00* 



Flood 


Hatch 


Lewis 


Price 


Taylor 


Flower 


Havens 


Lockwood 


Porter 


Treat 


Foote 


Hay ward 


Lord 


Reynolds 


Tryon 


Forbes 


Hollister 


Loveland 


Rhodes 


Thrasher ( 


Fortune 


Holmes 


Lowry 


Richards 


Turner j 


Fosdick 


Hooker 


Lusk 


Rilev 


Waddafns 


Foster 


Horner 


Markham 


Robbins 


Warner 


Fox 


Horsford 


Merriam 


Rose 


Webb 


Francis 


Hunn 


Mills 


Rowlandson 


Webster 


Gardner 


Hunnewell 


Mitchell 


Russell 


Weekes 


Gibbs 


Hurlbui 


MoDtague 


Sage 


Welles 


Gilbert 


Ingraham 


Mygatt 


Samborn 


Whaples 


Goffe 


Janes 


Neal 


Smith 


Wheeler 


Goodrich 


Jennings 


North 


Siandish 


Whittlesey 


Goodwin 


Kellogg 


Northway 


Stanley 


Willard 


Grimes 


Kelby 


Nott 


Stedman 


Williams 


Griswold 


Kelsey 


Overman 


Steele 


Wills 


Hale 


Kilborn 


Palmer 


Stilhnan 


Woltott 


Hanmer 


Landres 


Parke 


Stoddard 


Woodhouse 


Hart 


Latitner 


Patterson 


Strickland 


Wright 


Hascall 


Leavitt 


Pierce 


Talcott 





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THE 

Connecticut Magazine 

VOLUME VIII NUMBER 4 



EDITED HV 




Vt>^UyU^^<y0 //z^^^'^^t.£i/a.€''i^-'''^^ 





DUTCH THRIFT STILL LEAVES 
ITS STRONG IMPRESS 



THE 

DUTCHMAN'S LAND 



IT was indeed a spot on which the eye might have revelled 
forever, in ever new and never-ending beauties, — spread 
wide before them, like some sweet vision of fancy or some 
fair creation of industrious magic. Its hills of smiling 
green swelled gently one above another, crowned with lofty 
trees of luxuriant growth — some pointing their tapering foliage 
towards the clouds, which were gloriously transparent, and others 
loaded with a verdant burden of clambering vines, bowing their 
branches to the earth, that was covered with flowers. On the 
gentle declivities of the hills were scattered in gay profusion, 
the dog-wood, the sumach, and the wild brier, whose scarlet 
berries and white blossoms glowed brightly among the deep 
green of the surrounding foliage ; and here and there a curling 
column of smoke, rising from the little glens that opened 
along the shore, seemed to promise the weary voyagers 
a welcome at the hands of their fellow-creatures. As they 
stood gazing with entranced attention on the scene before them, 
a red man, crowned with feathers, issued from one of these 
glens, and after contemplating in wonder the gallant ship, as 
she sat like a stately swan swimming on a silver lake, sounded 
the war-whoop and bounded into the woods like a wild deer, 
to the utter astonishment of the phlegmatic Dutchmen, who 
had never heard such a noise or witnessed such a caper in 
their whole lives. — Washington Irving s description oj the Neic 
World in the days of the first Dutch 



The following illustrations are by courtesy of the Central New England Railroad. 
Starting from Hartford and continuing along its line are some of the most beautiful 
retreats in America, which during the summer months are visited by tlunisands of lovers 
of majestic nature 




PL, CJ 

c/3 m 




-V '^ 



^ 2 
r. 2 



i: 2 

"Z > 

- X 

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'^^.^^ 



THESE WERE THE VISIONS IN THE DUTCHMAN S LAND 
SCENE ON THE FARMINGTON 




WHERE THE DUTCH PIONEER, KERNICKERBACKER, DWELT 

SALMON FELL-KILL, LIME ROCK 




THE OLD ELM ON THE 
ROAD HOME 




Cbe new JImerica 



HEN the hymn "America" was written this 
nation had its principal root in an English 
ancestry, and that ode reflects most prominently 
the Enoflish Puritan influence. With the enormous 

growth of our population from all parts of the world, such 
English pre-eminence has already passed away, and a new race, 
cosmopolitan in its origin and characteristics, is beginning to 
claim recognition as the one and indivisible American people. 
As the St. Louis Exposition has opened its gates for all the 
nations of the earth to come and behold what a century of free 
institutions and free immigration has done for America, it seems 
a fitting time for this forming race of mingled nationalities to 
voice the patriotic devotion of all its elements, whether native 
or foreign born, and of whatever creed or lineage, as loyal 
American citizens to their common country. For illustration 
of the manner in which this devotion is already expressed in 
other forms by foreign born Americans, witness the following 
oath of allegiance which children of immigrant schools in New 
* York City are accustomed to recite in unison : 

"Flag of our great Republic, inspirer in battle, guar- 
dian of our homes, whose stars and stripes stand for 
bravery, purity, truth and union, we salute thee ! We, the 
natives of distant lands who find rest under thy folds, do 
pledge our hearts, our lives, and our sacred honor to love 
and protect thee, our country, and the liberty of the Amer- 
ican people, forever ! " 




Cfte Hew Hmttm 

(Jfir, ^'Jfmerlca*') 

LL hail! Columbia grand! 
Our well beloved land! 
Whose flag unfurled 
In majesty and might 
Calls v/ith its starry light 
To all who love the Right 
Throughout the world ! 



Hark! From Atlantic shores, 
To where Pacific roars 

In ceaseless boom ; 
From never-melting snows, 
To where the orange grows. 
And lilies and the rose 

Forever bloom, 



Is heard the trampling hum 
Of thronging peoples, come 

To bide with thee ! 
Thy boundless plains to till. 
Draw wealth from every hill, 
And myriad cities fill 

With industry! 



THE NEW AMERICA 659 



All ! All, thy children true ; 
Whatever climes they knew 

For Fatherlands, 
To thee, their Mother now. 
In loyal love they bow, 
And pledge with joyous vow 

Their hearts and hands ! 



Thus Nature moves apace 
Building a mighty race 

But just begun ! 
To form her latest born 
The varied brains and brawn 
From all the nations drawn 

She blends in one ! 



Oh Father of all good ! 

Grant that with mingling blood 

And blending soul, 
Perfecting Nature's art, 
Each nation may impart 
Its noblest traits of heart 

To crown the whole ! 



66o THE NEW AMERICA 



The love of God and truth, 
Valor, with gentle ruth 

Ever combined! 
Honor without a flaw! 
Justice, and reverent awe 
For Order throned on Law 

In deepest mind ! 



Bring in the Age of Gold, 
When in that perfect mould 

All men are run, 
Whose pattern form is shown 
In him who stands alone : 
The Man of men ! Our own 

Great Washington ! 



And in those glorious hours 

When from their thrones all powers 

Of Wrong are hurled! 
Columbia! Still on high 
Uplift thy stars to sky ! 
Goddess of Liberty 

Lighting the World ! 



Henry T, Blake 




TWO GRAVE AND WEATHER-STAINED OLD FISHERMEN 



DRAWINGS BY ANGIE BREAKSPEAR 



THE HOLLANDER, UNSPOILED BY AMERICAN 

CIVILIZATION SKETCHED IN HIS NATIVE 

LAND ON THE DYKES OF THE ZUYDER ZEE 



BY HERBERT RANDALL 



BEING 

THE NARRATION 

F A 

LITTLE JOURNEY 

1 N 

H O L LAN D 



OUR cargo consisted of a bag 
of vegetables tied with a 
red string, a disjointed 
grindstone, and a coil of 
new rope. The passenger list was 
limited: a little, fat, old woman, 
whose steady blue eyes seemed to 
evince some intelligence, was hug- 
ging a bundle of cauliflower; two 
younger women, each rugged and 
brown as a harvest-field, with 
wrinkled foreheads, telling of 
courage and industry, occupied the 
neighboring seat. Their costumes 
were low in tone, but of the 
character to attract an artist, 
especially one who prefers a land- 
scape for background. 

A picturesque strength was 
rendered the grouping by two grave 
and weather-stained old fishermen 
who sat opposite. They were 
colossal in proportions, and it was 
evident that they had been permit- 
ted to grow in any way that nature 
suggested, untrammelled by the 
whims of society. Their garments 
were stiff with the salt of the ocean. 
Each wore the regulation suit of the 
Volendamer — i. e., baggy black 
breeches, gathered at the waist; a 
pink blouse-shirt, faded to soft 
broken tints, fastened by a large 
gold neck-button ; a coarse, black, 
furry cap ; a rough, somewhat dirty, 
jerkin, with slightly discordant 
silver buttons, and black, home- 
knit stockings, which settled down 
around the ankles in fitting pro- 
portions to the great clumsy sabots 
below. Two red bandanna hand- 
kerchiefs peered from their hip- 
pockets, and a pair of pipes, sallow 




"TUGGING AT A CANAL BOAT 

and rich with the stain of tobacco, 
combined to complete the study. 
A companionable cheerfulness and 
a Van Ostade atmosphere was lent 
by a light cloud of smoke that hung 
about their heads. 

Our craft was neither wagon, ship, 
nor gondola, but a sort of combina- 
tion of all three, dependent, we 
learned, upon neither tide, wind 
nor current. The crew, consisting 
of skipper and mate, were as mute 
as clams, but the face of the former 
wore a most satisfactory grin, 
evidently produced b}^ the fact of 
his having captured two travelers 
for the only inn at Volendam. As 



DUTCH 



INDIVIDUALITY 



663 



the saloon, an apartment canopied 
by a dingy sail, was rather low- 
studded and close, we took seats 
outside among the vegetables. 

Our luggage having been located 
with due reverence, if not alacrity, 
and the adjustment of rigging, 
harness, and sail accomplished, we 
found ourselves moving slowly over 
the greenish-brownish waters of the 
canal leading from Edam to Volen- 
dam on the Zuyder Zee. 

Our captain, with true Dutch 
grappling grit, his shirt collar 
unbuttoned and thrown back, was 
personifying the horse, tugging at 
about thirty feet of rope, which was 
attached to the bow of our convey- 
ance; while the mate, walking 
beside, by the aid of a long pole, 
which served as a rudder, was doing 
the navigating, at the same time 
contributing a little propelling 
force. The air was absolutely still; 
our black, misshapen sail hung list- 
lessly, becoming animated only by 
an occasional bump into the bank. 

The canal was much like a ditch, 
somewhat irregular, and in places 
not over eight feet wide. As we 
brushed along through the coarse 
grass bordering either bank, it 
made a hushing sound appropriate 
to the hour, for sunset lay on the 
land. 

The slow-coming darkness of a 
July evening in Holland is as rest- 
ful as sleep; so here, under a serene 
sky, amid the fertile meadows and 
the honest folk, we floated down 
to Volendam. 

To our left the view was broken 
by one continuous line of dwarfed 
trees, spaced at regular intervals, 
dark and rich in foliage, but other- 
wise expressionless, looking as if 
they were making a solemn pilgrim- 
age across the land. On the right, 
the rich green landscape, sleeping 
in the joyousness of silence and 
peace, stretched away into the 
infinite. Directly overhead the sky 
was blue, merging, towards the 
horizon, into a series of grays that 



were lost in an opalescent light, 
which, by another transition, 
melted into glowing gold, broken 
by one long, impassioned dash of 
red. To add impressiveness to this 
happy combination of color, now 
and then the figure of a wind-mill 
appeared profiled against the sky, 
with wings spread, hovering like a 
great night-bird over its own. 
Here and there groups of black and 
white cows were gathered, with 
drooping heads, patiently waiting 
their turn with the damsel who was 
milking, while nearby were boats 
containing large tubs and barrels in 
which to convey the milk. There 
were no evening vapors, no 
fragrance of pepper-bush, no 
carnival of song, as in our New 




TWO WEEKS OLD VOLENDAM FAPY 



664 



DUTCH 



INDIVIDUALITY 



England — but the benediction of 
peace brooded ov^er ail. 

An hour of this and we reached 
Volendam. The scene changes. 
Boys! bo5^s! boys! Unconscious 
childhood — there is a charm about 
it, find it where 5^ou will ; and, be it 
said to the everlasting praise of the 
Volendam girls and - boys, though 
the American is a startling wonder 
in their midst, and they stare at 
him, they are never saucy and do 
not beg. May the time of transi- 
tion never come to these artless 
ones, when they shall have been so 
spoiled by the traveler as to lose 
these simple ways of naturalness 
and truth ! 

A plump, placid little man, who 
eyed us with curiosity, took charge 
of our luggage, and we set out for 
the half-mile walk leading to our 
hotel. There is but one street in 
Volendam. This is a dyke, against 
which, on one side, the waters of 
the Zuyder Zee persistently and 
hopelessly beat, while, complacently 
along the other side, their red 
roofs peeping over, stretch the 
quaint little houses of the fisher- 
men. 

A rabble followed in our wake. 
Eyes to the right of us, eyes to the 
left of us ! Grandfathers and grand- 
mothers, young men and maidens, 
came out to see the fleeting show. 
No fewer than forty urchins 
surrounded us when we reached the 
Spaander Hotel. Dinner was swal- 
lowed somewhat hastily, after 
which we went forth "for to admire 
and for to see." Twilight still 
lingered, so did the youngsters, 
each one shaped like a bottle, full 
of eagerness and human nature, to 
which our smiles gave sufficient 
impetus to inspire a most unique 
and laughable performance, a sort 
of shadow-dance in which the legs 
and arms of flying Dutchmen and 
the clatter of sabots were strangely 
mixed. This vvras kept up until our 
interest waned, and then we were 
escorted home by the entire cortege^ 



who bade us a Dutch "good night," 
turned, and went waddling otf. 

At twelve o'clock I looked from 
my window over the sea. It was 
grave and silent. One solitary 
dusky figure of a fishing-boat cast 
its broad shadow against the watch- 
ful light of Marken, which was 
intermittently swinging out into the 
night like a great lustrous pendu- 
lum. Later I learned of the som- 
nambulant habits of these fishing 
boats. 

Of course the absorbing interest 
of Volendam is piscatory. Every 
corner denotes this; the straying 
winds tell it; the lanes and alleys 
are choked with the smell of it. 
The fleet goes out between Sunday 
afternoon and Monday morning. 
All through the evening hours and 
the night, the boats may be seen 
quietly and clumsily laboring with 
their great black sails on towards 
the fishing - grounds. By Monday 
morning the little hamlet has 
resumed its quiet; few men are 
seen, and these, for the most part, 
are past their fishing days. They 
sit about their doorways, mending 
nets and sails, smoking their pipes, 
apparently at peace with them- 
selves and the world. 

This same devotion to the absent 
ones is evinced by women and 
children. They are industrious in 
the old fashioned way. Every child 
knows how to knit; they stand 
about the doors and knit ; they walk 
in groups and knit; they sit on the 
piers and knit in time to the melo- 
dious swish of the sea. Others are 
busy repairing hooks. This they 
do with wonderful dexterity and 
regularity. All seem to be happy, 
but there is a seriousness, a pathos 
in the contemplative gaze of the 
little Dutch girl which is both 
touching and winning. The wives 
busy themselves during the week 
by smoking, salting, and packing 
fish. 

On Friday things spring into new 
life; everybody is out early; scrub- 



DUTCH 



INDIVID U A L I T Y 



66: 




DUTCH LIFE ON THE ZUYDER ZEE 



bing begins; the front steps are 
polished and things about the 
chimney-piece are given an extra 
rub, till the candlesticks shine like 
the stars and kettles turn to gold. 
There is a radiance about a Dutch 
fireplace— an air of welcome which 
makes the heart yearn for the old 
swinging crane and backlogs of 
New England. On Saturday morn- 
ing I was out of doors at four 
o'clock to witness the return of the 
fleet. Alas! a Volendamer's ways 
are not as our ways. The man 
with divided skirts and the waddle 
of a duck was their first; under 
cover of the darkness he had 
captured the town! There must 
have been two hundred boats at 
anchor — heads and tails, packed 
like sardines in a box, their black 
masts looking like tree-tops against 
the morning. Men were swinging 
their nets to dry; tackles were 
rattling; pennons were floating; 
fish were flapping. A group of 
women in white caps were gathered 
about a vegetable cart drawn by a 
dog. A grizzled old man was sell- 
ing peat-cakes. Docks and decks 



were alive with children and there 
was the air of business everywhere. 

The boats are deep-bottomed, 
permitting the catch to be carried 
alive. The large fish are disposed 
of at Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and 
other cities; the smaller ones are 
brought home and with one 
flourish of the knife are flayed alive. 
There are odd looking flsh among 
them, many unlike those of our 
seaboard, their names quite as odd 
— for instance, "paling" and "kabel- 
jamo. " 

There is a bustle about the dykes 
all day. Things are put in readi- 
ness for another departure, but by 
afternoon the men get the sea-weed 
out of their hair and the whiskers 
off their chins and begin to saunter 
around the place. They squat 
down in groups, like Turks, in the 
middle of the road, and sit there by 
the hour, smoking their inevitable 
pipes,engaged in (luiet conversation, 
looking as sober and inscrutable as 
mummies. 1 saw no convivial 
circles and no unsteady legs. 

Sabbath day was observed, so far 
as good order was concerned. The 



666 



DUTCH 



INDIVID U A L I T Y 




UNCONSCIOUS CHILDHOOD, THERE IS A CHARM ABOUT IT 



people for the most part are Roman 
Catholics, with a few Protestants to 
leaven the lump. 

The priest, a genial man, tall, 
slim, and delicate, which character- 
istics were emphasized by his long- 
funereal garb, apparently enjoyed a 
revered leadership. 

As an example of the high value 
placed on education in Holland, a 
well-built, good-sized school build- 
ing dominated the town. A visit 
through his domain with the school- 
master, a fixture of some eighteen 
years' standing, showed the several 
departments of the school to be well 
equipped for elementary and 
intermediate instruction. 

A short stay would scarcely admit 
of more than impressions of social 
life and customs. I met but two 
English-speaking people in the 
place — one the priest, the other 
a pretty daughter of our land- 
lord. 

An old-time simplicity and hospi- 
tality is found in the meagre little 
homes, and the home-spun ways of 
their occupants show a calm indif- 
ference to the fashion, customs and 
manners of the outer world. Their 
aesthetic instincts seem to find 
satisfactory expression in chromos 
of the Holy Virgm (I counted 
twelve on the walls of one small 



room) and an occasional print of 
their queen. 

The distaff, hand-loom and foot- 
stove have not all been banished to 
the garret. The Delft tile chimney- 
breast are found in some of the 
houses, and the great black- throated 
chimneys, under which you can 
stand and look up to the stars, and 
down which the snowflakes scatter. 

I should write without fidelity to 
my friends if I failed to pay a 
tribute to "Grandma Bookum" 
(Bookum is the Dutch word for a 
kind of fish). My first call on 
"Grandma" may have been inop- 
portune, but it was none the less 
welcome. On a morning ramble I 
was attracted by a sign written in 
Dutch, with red chalk, on the house 
beside the door, "New paling for 
sale." Curiosity led me down a 
rickety pair of stairs through a 
narrow alley to the open door. The 
old lady was busily engaged with a 
sputtering fish, which she was 
toasting on a shovel over a turf-fire. 
A very mysterious dialogue fol- 
lowed. She looked me over, and 
upon learning that I was a friend of 
her artist acquaintances, all barriers 
were removed and I was at once 
made welcome. I probably acted 
like a vulture, but I certainly did 
not deprive her of any of her break- 



DUTCH 



INDIVID U A L I T Y 



667 




HUMAN NATURE — AND THE CLATTER OF SABOTS " 



fast, though I did feast my eyes. 
There were duds enough about the 
place for private theatricals and 
"grandma" would have been a star 
before the most critical audience. 
Behind two old doors which are 
built into the wall of this little 
dining - kitchen - parlor - bedroom 
are stored the headgear of cen- 
turies, besides refreshments — such 
as buttons, ruffs, crockery, yarns, 
salt, nails and tea. By pro- 
fession, Grandma is a fishdealer. 
The market is back of her house 
and over it there is usually a halo 
of smoke and smell. The place is 
usually illuminated by a pair of 
shiny brass scales, and a face 
radiant with goodness, stamped 
with the history of eighty years. 
Grandma has implicit faith in 
human nature and is as entertaining 
as ever was Mr. Peggotty. 

A tour of inspection through the 
shops of the town can be made in 
about five minutes. The principal 
commodities to be found therein 
are pipes, tobacco, peat, fire-pots, 
and sabots. There's a butcher, 
and baker and butter-ball maker. 
And, by the way, the Dutch process 
of making butter in Volendam is 
not wildly exciting. We had a 
chance to watch this at a farm- 
house just outside the village. 



They fill a barrel about half full of 
cream, put a stick in it, and a boy 
at one end of the stick; and then, 
by some magical influence, if the 
boy dosen't drop to sleep, in course 
of time the cream turns to — well, 
they call it butter. 

At this farm, the house and barn 
were under one roof. The cows 
had been turned out to pasture in 
early spring, not to return until 
compelled to by the weather. Up- 
on their departure the stable had 
been converted into living apart- 
ments for the family. Carpets, 
lace curtains and "old-blue" com- 
bined to render the place attractive; 
even the rings in the ceilings, to 
which the cows' tails are tied during 
milking time, had been made orna- 
mental. 

A horse is more of a curiosity in 
Volendam than he is in Venice. 
I was told that up to three 
years before, there were many 
people there who had never seen 
one. 

The flutter of flags in front of the 
houses one morning led me to 
inquire the cause. I learned that 
it was a sort of jubilant announce- 
ment of a betrothal. I regret that 
time did not allow of my accepting 
an invitation which I received to 
the wedding. 



668 



DUTCH 



INDIVID U A L I T Y 



If yoa want to know what the 
greatest curiosity on the face of the 
globe is, let me say that it is a two- 
weeks-old Volendam baby, dressed 
like its grandmother, in a long 
black woolen dress, a colored hand- 
kerchief over the shoalders, a white 
starched cap on its head, and 
sabots on its feet. 



As already implied, the inhabi- 
tants of Volendam have an individu- 
ality altogether their own. They 
are the same yesterday, to-day and 
forever — complacent, kind, sturdy, 
of such stock that played so inter- 
esting a part in the early days of 
America and left its imprint in 
Colonial Connecticut. 



THE OX-EYE DAISY 



BY 



DR. FREDERICK H. WILLIAMS 



Dear little flower, thy yellow eye 
Hath watched me since that day of yore, 

When first my infant gaze did spy 
Thee standing by my father's door. 

'Twas first my baby steps essayed 
To pass beyond those portals dear. 

But scarce six tott'ring steps I strayed 
And saw thee waiting, laughing near. 



The light fell on thy silver crown 

That swayed above the grasses green. 

Tumbling I fell in rapture down 
Before thy face, my daisy queen ! 

I bent thee with one chubby hand, 

O'er which v/as turned thy golden eye, 

Ruthless, I broke thy living strand 
And bore thee home triumphantly. 



Ah! still I see the mother's smile 

That drew me back athrough the door, 

Those lips that kissed my cheeks the while 
Shine from thy face forever more. 



DUTCH 



HARACTER 



ITS INFLUENCE ON AMERICAN LIFE — ITS TEACHINGS 
OF THRIFT AND FRUGALITY — ITS PRACTICAL THEOL- 
OGY FROM THE COMMON LIFE OF THE COMMON PEOPLE 



BY 

DR. MELANCTHON W. JACOBUS 

HARTFORD THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Dr. Jacobus is one of Connecticut's most distinguished scholars, and as a member of the faculty of the Hartford 
Theological Seminary, founded in 1834, has gained a position as a leader of critical thought. His teachings are 
doing much toward a wider adaptation of Christian principles in everyday life ; he is a theologian with a practical 
and applicable creed. In a recent assembly of the members of the Connecticut Society of Colonial Wars, Dr. Jacobus 
spoke briefly as a representative of the Holland Society. He has granted Thb Connecticut M/gazinr permission 
for publication of the address— Editor 



WHEN one realizes that the 
Dutch discovered the river 
on whose banks we are 
gathered, almost a quarter 
of a century before Mr. Hooker, with 
his faithful congregation, pushed their 
way through the ninety miles of track- 
less forest to this place, and before 
the Massachusetts Colony, from which 
they came was thought of, and when, 
further, one considers that of the ter- 
ritory which the Dutch has thus peace- 
fully and honestly acquired along this 
river they were gradually dispossessed 
by these same Massachusetts men, 
promptly if without consent, and ef- 
fectively if without payment, it is not 
unnatural for one who has been so 
courteously asked to represent the 
Holland Society, to feel that whatever 
unpleasantness may have existed in 
this region between his forbears and 
yours, it was not such as was in any 
way responsible for the Colonial 
Wars. 

There are several ways to leave a 
place when one has to go, but the 
Dutchman left these places that he 
had once possessed peacefully at least, 
if not altogether silently, and as he 
looked back upon his ventures appar- 



ently had no other consciousness re- 
garding them than that which the 
Irishman had of the drubbing he had 
got from his friend, when he said that 
the only thing wanting to make it a 
success to himself was the success it 
was to the other fellow. 

In fact, it is a matter of somewhat 
large surprise that, with all the pio- 
neer hardihood and commercial ag- 
gressiveness of the Dutch in their 
American settlements, and with all the 
advantage which the long estabHsh- 
ment of these settlements had given 
them, their virtual surrender to the 
English was accomplished without 
anything more than a blustering pro- 
test on their part, and the English rule 
and government accepted with nothing 
beyond the pessimism of a grumbling 
content. 

The historians, to be sure, would 
have us understand that this is to be 
attributed partly to the enervation oi 
a long security of possession, and part- 
ly to the accident of unpreparedness 
against a large force. Doubtless this 
is true; but the history of the Dutch- 
man since that time, the history of his 
church, the history of his school, the 
historv of his letters and life, has 



670 



DUTCH 



CHARACTER 



shown such an exclusiveness from all 
the development which has been going 
on around him that we are forced to 
say, as far as the impressing of him- 
self upon that development is concern- 
ed he has missed his opportunity. 

And I am afraid this throws light 
upon recent events in other parts of 
the world, in which the Dutchman 
has been deeply concerned. I know 
his grand struggle of three hundred 
years ago for liberty and independence 
— a struggle so much like our own. 
You can read about the resemblance in 
the book which is said to be the first 
book ever printed in Hartford, a book 
written by a Hollander in the English 
language, showing how similar were 
these two revolts. That revolt of his 
across the sea was practically the first 
blow which kept Spain restricted in 
her American possessions, and deter- 
mined ultimately the civilization of 
this land of ours to be Germanic and 
not Latin. It is consequently possible 
for me to say that in some ways the 
year 1609 was more significant to this 
country's destiny than the year 1620. 
I know further the deep sympathy of 
the Dutchman with the struggle of 
our own forefathers. Popularly, if 
not officially, it was ahead of the sym- 
pathy of France. Generous it was 
with supplies and stores through the 
West Indian channels, and with mil- 
lions of money in the darkest hour of 
our night. It was reckless even to the 
bringing of England to a declaration 
of war against his country for her help 
of us. His was the first country to 
salute our flag and the second to rec- 
ognize our independence, the medals 
commemorating which event were un- 
earthed just a few years ago in the 
Museum at the Hague. 

Now of all this the noble fight in 
South Africa may be said to have been 
the natural and logical result ; and yet 
behind that desperate struggle lie long 
years of just this same exclusiveness 
from the moving swing of civilization 
round about him which the Dutchman 
has shown in this land of ours. Long 
ago he should have adjusted himself 



to it and influenced it for the common 
weal; but he did not, and what has 
come upon him is simply what might 
have been expected to come. It seems, 
in fact, as though what he says about 
himself today were true. "We have 
made a great struggle for liberty. We 
have Hved a great history in freedom 
and independence. We are quite con- 
tent with the past, and have no partic- 
ular ambitions for the future." 

Nov/, of course, this is something 
about my people that, if it has to be 
said, I greatly prefer to say myself, 
rather than have anyone else say it: 
and yet I do not know but I have just 
enough of the Colonial Connecticut 
blood in my own veins — that blood of 
the constitution, if not of the nutmeg 
variety, that impelled forbears of mine 
to move away from New Haven Col- 
ony for the sake of civil freedom — 
just enough of this to make me dare 
to say it for the truth which it seems 
to press upon us, namely, that a peo- 
ple's struggle for liberty is not over 
with the conflict of the battlefield. 
The shock of war may be a great thing 
to endure, and all sorts of glorious 
honors may be due those who stand it, 
and through it teach the world again 
the old lesson of liberty. But the 
strain of peace is almost as great as 
the shock of war, and we come to 
reckon v/ith — whether we crown or 
not, those peoples who so impress 
themselves upon the movement of the 
events of peace as to create the char- 
acteristics of the civilization and the 
spirit of the age in which they live. 
They may or may not have had their 
struggle for liberty ; it really matters 
little. But they must have had their 
struggle with liberty and made it cap- 
tive to their own ideas. 

Such struggle apparently the Dutch- 
man did not have. We turn over the 
pages of Irving's Knickerbocker His- 
tory and dwell with pleasure on the 
delightful pictures he gives us of those 
three Dutch governors whose names 
he uses — Wouter Van Twiller, of 
capacious stomach and diminutive 
legs, whose ideas were so large he 



DUTCH 



CHARACTER 



671 



could not turn them over in his head, 
who ate four meals a day, smoked his 
pipe eight hours, and slept the rest of 
the time; Wilhelmus Kieft, of fiery 
soul and flaming genius, who sought 
to annihilate the foes of New Nether- 
land by official proclamation; Peter 
Stuyvesant, that honest, bluff, strong- 
minded, but warm-hearted old soldier, 
who knew how a community ought to 
be governed, and governed it accord- 
ingly. But unfortunately the reality 
behind these pictures bears no resem- 
blance to the pictures themselves, and 
does not thrill us when we face it. 
For Van Twiller was an adventurer 
of such outrageous proportions that 
he had to be recalled from his position, 
and Kieft a tyrant of such deep dye 
that the country could not stand him, 
and Stuyvesant a man of vanity and 
ostentatious display. These are hard- 
ly the things from which our civiliza- 
tion has been made. 

To be sure, we may say the Dutch- 
man has taught us to be thrifty, to es- 
tablish shipping, to build railroads, 
and, as some one has said, to import 
Dutchmen and export duchesses ; but 
with all the fortunes that have been 
amassed by Dutchmen here, there has 
not been that distribution of wealth 
that has put its impress on the great 
development of this country's life. 

As far as money is concerned, its 
colleges, such as Rutgers, and its sem- 
inaries, such as New Brunswick, might 
have been made magnificent education- 
al institutions, equipped for all the 
work of this century in which we live, 
but no Dutch fortune has ever been 
given to them. 

As far as endowment is concerned, 
the Collegiate churches of New York 
might have done great things for the 
city in which they are placed. But 
however the money came to them, it 
brought with it no spirit of impressive 
and aggressive work. It is other 
churches rather which have laid hold 
of the city problems and touched with 
healing hand the city sores. 



Also, we might say, the Dutchman 
has taught us to be religious, to value 
theology for what it teaches us about 
God, and to take its teaching into life. 
He has certainly taught us a tremen- 
dous theology, a theology that was in 
no sense a borrowed one, but one that 
was born out of his own national life 
and was part of his own personal liv- 
ing — a theology that was not a doc- 
trinal theology such as it was in Ger- 
many, but a practical theology^ be- 
cause it was a political one that swung 
around the problem of his country's 
life — a theology that was not manip- 
ulated by a single man or by a single 
set of men, as it was elsewhere, but 
one that welled up from the common 
life of the common people, unmanip- 
ulated by anything under heaven save 
the hearts and consciences of the com- 
mon folk. 

All this is true; but it is also true 
that with all the free field that such 
theology has had in this land of ours, 
the spirit of confessional conservatism 
which it has come to assume is not 
that which has marked the great ad- 
vances that doctrinal thinking has 
made among us. 

I hold no brief for a radical free- 
dom of religious ideas, but I am free 
to say that the best conservatism is 
that which has been constructive in its 
life, and the truest confessionalism is 
that which has been evangelistic in its 
service, and the record of Dutch the- 
ology here has not moved in these di- 
rections. 

At both these points of wealth and 
doctrine the Dutchman made his 
struggle long ago and won his fight : 
but the task of the great outworking 
of what he won — I will not say that 
he has lost its opportunity, but I will 
say it is yet before him. 

May he be yet successful in its ac- 
complishment, for after all he has giv- 
en us great things without which wo 
would be far worse off today than wo 
care to think. 



THE RIVER OF DREAMS 



BY 

LOUIS RANSOM 



I stand by the beautiful river of dreams 

That wanders in currents of silver and gold, 

And greens with its laving, luxuriant streams 

A past, which without them, were leaden and cold. 

Just as the sunset was kissing the day, 

A shallop unmoored from the dreamlands of June, 
And as summer floats down on the bosom of May, 

Or hearts drift the tide of a sorrowing tune, 

Close by the shore where I'm standing it bears. 

Like a pall on the sand lies the night of her sail, 

A line cast to landward encircles our cares 

And moors the dim craft like a web-tangled veil. 

The skipper is weird as the vessel he keeps, 

His eyes cloud with dreams of the realms they explore, 
With a voice like the heart of a mother who weeps, 

He speaks to the lingering dreamers ashore : 

' Who will sail down the river of years that have fled ? 
Sad wrecks of the yesterdays touch on our bow, 
Joys long forgotten and vows that were said. 
But not a breath, not a vestige of now. 

' Here are words from a prattle which ne'er grew to speech, 

Shoes marred with creeping and crinkled b}'- wear, 
White arms that chilled in a passionate reach, 

Worn gems with inscriptions and circlets of hair. 

• The froth of dead hopes and the hopers beside. 

Tears dropped on the brow of the dead and adored. 

The orange bloom wreath of a luna year bride. 
Float on with the eddies or gather aboard. 

' Dim from the gloaming which gathers around. 
Long vanished faces look deep in our eyes. 

Then saddened by visions of loves that are found. 
Melt back in the blue of ethereal skies." 

The lines are cast off — the shallop bears on 

In silence hushed as a memory dream. 
Her canvas filled softly with sighs for the gone, 

Drifts on 'mid a wraith-cloud of angels abeam. 

As I gaze she groves dim in the distance and shade, 
The sun barely kindles her slim pennant now, 

And her sails but the wing of an angel that spread 
To gather the sundust which gilded her brow. 

Soft, through the dusk, lulls the lapping of waves. 

So like the spent strains that old harmonies leave. 

Yet murmuring heartbreaks the yesterdays gave. 
They're crooning a lullaby tender as eve. 



'■ mn i n i w iiiiii nmui i i i 'mmu 



rmTTTTTTTrrTTTrrrtTTTTr 



Trrmrrxnrt 



HEREDITY 




A PHILOSOPHICAL ideal 
of American life, based 
on induction from suc- 
cessful American lives, 
nowhere exists today. Amer- 
ican life has no plan and it has 
no master. 

The Dutch are a strong and 
pure bred race. Like others 
from low countries and Teutonic 
stock, they are well nourished, 
intelligent from attrition with 
all, like Venice, Greece, and 
the Mediterranean countries ; 
linguists, like all sailor people ; 
hearty, like all that breathe the 
sea air. From the soil they 
have learned patience ; not hav- 
ing grandeur of mountains or 
great rivers for inspiration, 
they have never reached to 
the heights of the purely intel- 
lectual and spiritual. They 
have produced verisimilitude in 
painting because they have had 
the patience to observe; pa- 
tience to master technique; 
all sailors and men cribbed, 
cabined and confined will carve 
in utter detail. Seafaring men 
on long voyages many times 
produce remarkable specimens 
of carving. The Hollander has 
had these characteristics in- 




LO V 



674 



H 



bred for centuries ; he has held to the 
same functions in life. 

The American at large has begun, 
not perfected, a new life. Not until 
we found a new science and diffuse its 
truths, can we begin the building of a 
typical American race mentally keen, 
physically strong, and on an equality 
of opportunity, — and that science is 
Heredity. There should be an en- 
dowed chair in every university, nota- 
bly in every woman's college, in this 
country, in which may be pursued sci- 
entific investigations into the relation- 
ship of blood and brain. England has 
her system of breeding some men; 
here must be wrought out a system 
for breeding all men. There is no ele- 
ment that has a greater influence in 
the making of good citizenship and 
the attainment of ideal government 
than that of breeding. Find the best 
blood, give it means to blend and we 
build a nation. I care not what the 
nationality may be, if it is to attain its 
greatest usefulness in the world, it can 
do so only through the cultivation and 
perfection of its stock. 

It is true that one strain of Ameri- 
can life has persisted and held its own 
for ten generations. That is the Hol- 
land Dutch. There are no Dutch but 
Holland Dutch, but as the fashion has 
taken the common people to call Ger- 
mans, Dutch, I will make sure as well 
as remind by saying Holland Dutch, 
The Holland Dutch is a specialized 
strain as was the Israelite ; it is spec- 
ialized to sail and trade. It is not a 
model for the whole United States but 
for New York City, New Amsterdam. 
I cannot better delimit the Dutch than 
is done in my historical and descriptive 
sketch, ''Scenes in Middlesex County," 
W. H. Parish Pub. Co., Chicago, 1892, 
edition de luxe, page 3 : "The Dutch 
and English live in about equal lati- 
tudes ; but the Dutch are an aquatic 
and almost an amphibious race ; they 
build their houses from below the 
water level like beavers, and even do 
their haying by water. Hence the 
Dutch discoverers and explorers had a 
quick eye for rivers and harbors. The 



first Dutchman that set foot on Man- 
hattan Island, or rather, sighted it 
over his starboard bow, saw New 
York's greatness as clearly as we see 
it today. They have taken his harbor 
and city away from him, but Hudson 
stamped his name forever on the run- 
ning waters of his river." 

True it is that the Englishman took 
the nominal rule of New Amsterdam 
away from the Hollander, but little 
good did it do him, for the commercial 
rule was retained by the Dutch. 

The Hollander lives by the sea. He 
is a swimmer, a sailor, a fisherman, 
a fish seller, a navigator, a marine, an 
admiral. He does not breed and sleep 
in the water, but he puts the water out 
and sleeps in its bed. He is the boy 
that holds his finger in the dyke, 
the cold live-long night, lest the water 
get back into the bed, and he is Van 
Tromp, sv/eeping the English Channel 
with a broom at his mizzen top-mast- 
head. He is a sailor, farming, and 
brings home his hay on a sloop ; his 
barn is on a wharf. He is a sailor, 
grinding, the wind that has blown him 
round the world turns his mill-stones 
on their spindle. He is a forester ; but 
his is a forest of masts, and the piny 
smell is condensed to tar. He swarms 
out on the spars with legs firm and 
trousers loose, and as his legs grow 
big, his trousers grow faster than his 
legs ; still loose. He has an easy roll- 
ing gait, and it is not often that the 
ship's deck flies up in his face. He 
brings home a few stones to fence out 
the water, and convoys a little earth to 
fill inside. He does not raise six thou- 
sand acres of corn in a field, but a tu- 
lip in a cranny. His corn is to eat and 
not for seed; his tulip for seed, and 
not an eaten root. On a long voyage, 
with endless patience, he carves a saint 
in the forecastle, and on shore he i^ 
forever and a day mixing pigments, 
and painting interiors where he has no 
landscape. His daughter looks heaven- 
ly to him after a three years' voyage, 
and, proportioned to a ceiling like a 
ship's between -decks, he paints her as 
a Madonna of the tribe of Benjamin. 



// E 



R 



I 



675 



He sails where priests are scarce, and 
when the water last comes in, he gives 
himself extreme unction ; on shore, he 
says his own prayers. He goes to God 
alone at last, and so he goes each day. 
He hews an ornamental garden out of 
firs and box as he would frame a ship. 
A garden where Nature was let loose 
would look to him three sheets in the 
wind, and he would ask if "the ship's 
husband was drunk when he did it" 
The salt air gives him a big stomach 
for food, and the salt sea fills it. He 
tends the soil and the cows as neatly 
and as closely as he tends the ship ; 
with him this makes the best of farm- 
ing. In Holland the soil is alluvial ; 
immensely rich and immensely deep, 
with no stones. The stones on one 
New England farm would be a prince- 
ly fortune in Holland. 

Holland has little landscape, little 
mountain and rushing river to call the 
soul to imaginative religion. Well did 
the Dutch resolve to keep out the 
Spaniards and hold on to what little 
they had ! The sailor, however, is a 
practical Christian when he is a 
Christian at all. Here the tempest- 
tossed religionists of England found 
sailor hearts for sympathy and a har- 
bor to refit their worn souls ; 
"Within are waters sweet and the 
abode of nymphs. 

Where the salt weaves no longer 
toss the wearied ships. 

Nor need the anchor hold them 
with its crook-jawed fluke," 

The Hollander spits his commands 
in the teeth of the wind, but in trade 
and diplomacy conceals his thoughts 
in m.any languages. William of 
Orange, who knew most languages 
and all hearts, the sole diplomatist, and 
almost the sole general that brought 
Protestantism through, — at the Battle 
of the Boyne was told that Walker, 
made Bishop for defending Derry, 
was shot dead at the head of his 
troops. "What took him there?" said 
Silent William, who, it is said, could 
keep still in fifteen languages. If 
General Wood should be killed at the 
head of our armies. President Roose- 



velt, himself, could hardly deliver a 
shorter funeral eulogy. 

Dutch character is seldom brilliant. 
Their mentality does not scintil ate,but 
it is sound and substantial. If Wou- 
ter Van Twiller was one-third wise, 
two-thirds foolish ; if then he smoked 
one-third of the time, and smoked the 
right third ; and if he drank another 
third of the time, and drank the right 
third, — he has some right to a repu- 
tation for wisdom two-thirds of the 
time. 

Any one who, like the writer, has 
lived for years in Manhattan, and has 
met elsewhere the scions of the New 
York Dutch, has seen the character 
reproduced even to this day with an 
allowance for modification not greater 
than that for the English. There is a 
practicality about the Dutch New 
Yorker; he is little visionary, in re- 
form or religion. He is well-fed, ur- 
bane, cosmopolitan, receptive to all 
the arts ; little productive in them. 
Take away stock- jobbing and politics 
and he would again be New York. 
Degenerates from the Puritans and re- 
generates from the Celts hold up Saint 
Nicholas on the street, and even in 
City Hall square, but he fills his chil- 
dren's stockings still as in the old 
Dutch days. It is not alone the har- 
bor nor the river, nor the site that has 
made New York the entrepot of na- 
tions in things dutiable and things not 
dutiable. The Dutchman still draws 
from every sea ; he knows the cargo 
under every sail. The aggregations 
which civilization's tools have made 
in other lands, have left Holland small 
and not first in power ; but if all the 
worlds of all the heavens shall ever 
meet, the Holland blood will be first, 
and most, at home. If ever the plan- 
ets shall be connected by rail, the \'an 
Der Bilts will absorb and consolidate 
the system. If ever the road to heaven 
cease to be straight and narrow, 
Chauncey De Pew will collect the gate 
fees. If ever all the nations shall feast 
together, each to hear in his own 
tongue, Theodore L. Cuyler will ask 
the blessing. 



676 



// 



R 



Thus is the New Amsterdam Hol- 
lander still the floor-walker at the Na- 
tion's Entry-Portal, as little changed 
as the times permit. But the Yankee, 
that Brahmin of all the ages, going on 
to the other three points of the com- 
pass, destined in soul and thought to 
ascend the heavenly heights from the 
tops of the Berkshires, the White 
Mountains, the Rockies, has lost his 
cult. 

To the observant American, no life 
other than his own, is more interesting 
than is the English, or it may be, the 
British. Long ago the model of this 
other life was settled, more by exigen- 
cies and circumstances than by 
thought; and with a little variation, 
such as that caused by arc-lights in 
place of link-boys, the old model per- 
sists. The chief fault found with this 
old model, is the apparent inequality 
of men. Whether our new country, 
when packed will show any less in- 
equality, is, hereto, a speculation. 
Many who were high, made them- 
selves humble, coming here, that all 
might be Christianly equal. We came 
here to get rid of Kaisers, and lo! we 
have reared many Vanderbilts. 

The English have a model of life, and 
the model persists. The Duke knows 
what he wants, — and has it ; the nav- 
vy would have the same if he could 
get it; sometimes, in generations, he 
does have it. The Englishman with 
any hope, banks on his own heredity ; 
he banks on the heredity he marries ; 
and when he discounts the future, he 
does not expect to sacrifice a large 
premium, with two good names on his 
note. Near a generation past, the 
Universal American or United States- 
er arrived where he could possess a 
cabinet organ ; he looked to the Prom- 
ised Land, now reached, wherein he 
has a piano. Can he, mounting on the 
top of that piano, as a Mount Pisgah, 
see a time approaching, when he can 
afford two good grandfathers in the 
family ; one for himself and one for 
his wife? Surely everyone desires 
good children; and has not Oliver 
Wendell Plolmes, a poet indeed, but a 



poet curbed by physic, big pills, — 
ambrosia modulated by castor oil, — 
said that to build a good man you 
must begin at his grandfather? Just 
as there was some chance that the Uni- 
versal United Stateser, with cabinet 
organ discarded, piano possessed, 
might hope to acquire a grandfather, 
along came the trust magnate and said 
"move on" ; leave some of your torn 
roots in the ground ; put some to with- 
er in the sun ; live by my wharf, my 
four-tracked railroad, my river-fall, my 
coal mine. Live in a flat while I sail 
in a yacht; you take the four-deck 
dwelling and I the four-deck sailing; 
we will both abandon the land, that I 
may command the water ; make your 
daughter a foreigner in a slum that 
I may make my daughter a foreigner 
at Monte Carlo; make your daughter, 
a clean soul, in dirty clothes, that I 
may make my daughter a dirty soul in 
clean clothes. 

In America we now see men as 
trees walking ; by and by we shall learn 
to root the shoot, plant it out, gather 
the fruit. When Americans learn the 
value of a good ancestry, then will 
America become a really great na- 
tion. I do not intend to expound the 
different theories of heredity and de- 
scent, nor the contentions which sup- 
port them; of these theories two of 
the most recent and most popularized 
are the Neo-Darwinian and the Neo- 
Lamarckian. Neither shall I make in- 
quiries concerning freedom of choice, 
— the doctrine of Free-will on the one 
hand, and, on the other, of Necessity, 
or Determinism, as it is called in its 
modern, softened, scientific phrase ; al- 
though, if one's ancestry wholly con- 
trols his destiny, it is pretty evident 
that his freedom of choice must be 
nil, and the reverse. 

When we mention a good ancestry, 
we do not necessarily imply a noted 
ancestry. Benedict Arnold was a man 
of note, but not, perhaps, on the whole, 
a man of value. Practical observation 
seems to show that good character and 
good judgment often constitute a pla- 
teau along which, like a cable under 



H 



D 



677 



sea, a family may run for several gen- 
erations, until some exceptional 
chance, some lucky marriage, some 
very long life, some near-by call, gives 
an opportunity for distinction. Read- 
ing the army promotions, or assign- 
ments, in the London Times or The 
Army and Navy Journal, we are sur- 
prised to see how the Grant family are 
fond of soldiering. And as they do 
not belong to the titled British fami- 
lies, the Cecils, the Russells, the Sey- 
mours and the Howards, we may con- 
clude that they "get there" on their 
tastes and qualifications. Where "pull," 
or family, or fashion, or clamor, or 
fads, prevail, so much the less can the 
value of ancestry be weighed. The 
scales for weighing human merit, are 
themselves but human. Then again 
where there is no steady class, and 
few steady persons, who is to mark the 
good people well- or ill-descended? 

In judging of horses, we find many 
that can travel the 16 miles from Mid- 
dletown to Hartford and back, in a 
day. The ease with which the horse 
does it, and his capacity to do it again 
the next day or even the same day, de- 
termines his real value. It is fre- 
quently said that the Americans of to- 
day are taking the pace that kills. 
This much is true: when a man has 
"distinguished" himself, there is of- 
ten little left of him, or of his family. 
He has melted all his heirlooms into 
a fool's crown! Life upon the land, 
investments in land, income from land, 
seem to conduce to family value and 
permanence. Among the places where 
Alfred Tennyson wrote his name reli- 
ably and honorably, one was a large 
market-garden wagon. Had he at- 
tempted this in America, his income 
from his poems would have been swal- 
lowed by his outgo on his cabbages, 
as Pharaoh's lean kine swallowed the 
fat. Men get distinction in America, 
somewhat as the negro directed to put 
on a tight coat: "Fust get one hand 
in, then both hands, then gib a general 
conwulsion." 

As every eminent man (with the 
non-eminent men) of today had, in 



1635, eight generations ago, 256 an- 
cestors, it is usual, if vital statistics 
have been kept, to find some eminent 
ancestor for every eminent man. But 
to find a man of real value today who 
traces back to blood of real value in 
1635, showing the same characteris- 
tics, may not be so common. Unlike a 
seat in the country, the first attempt 
of a man who has gained a seat in 
Congress, is to show that he takes it 
not by purchase, but by descent. If 
he ever had a distinguished ancestor, 
now it will be heralded. His ances- 
tors, as it were, do not own him till he 
proves his quality. 

Beyond ability of character and of 
judgment, there is another kind, — 
the ability of energy and enthusiasm. 
It is more truly of this ability that Ed- 
ward Atkinson speaks when he says : 
"From shirt sleeves to shirt sleeves, it 
is but three generations." The head- 
strong pleasure-seeker drinks up what 
he has ; the headstrong son works and 
saves; the headstrong grandson plans 
and accumulates ; the headstrong, 
rich, and idle, great-grandson, spends 
and scatters. There may be a smart- 
ness, yet very little character or ability 
in the whole round. 

'Tt is not rank, nor wealth, nor state, 
But the get up and get that makes 
men great." 

Of the universities that Andrew 
Carnegie has endowed, il. may be no- 
ticed that few have invited him to lay 
out the curriculum. To become pro- 
fessors and librarians, he has pushed 
a great many pawns into the king- 
row ; but how many valuable pieces 
has he swept from the board, and these 
pieces are all human. 

These then, in our times, are some 
of the difficulties in estimating the 
value of a good ancestry : that the 
trumpeted may not be the valuable ; 
that the valuable may not have but 
4-10 per cent, of the good blood which 
is heralded ; and that if a man has 
good and valuable blood, the times 
may not utilize it or even develop it. 
To those who know the sea of chances 



678 



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on which the man of public talents 
embarks, — even the sea of mis- 
chances, if he be honest, 
"It seems a story from the land of 

spirits, 
If any man obtain that which he 

merits, 

Or any merit that which he ob- 
tains." 
The present confusion, however, of 
merit and demerit, in giving promi- 
nence to men on the stage, the confu- 
sion of estimates, the confounding of 
a little heredity for a good deal, — af- 
ter all do not necessarily invalidate the 
accredited maxim, "Blood will tell." 
A man of sterling qualities, in 1635, 
might very likely choose a wife of 
sterling qualities, and live in a com- 
munity of sterling quality, and there 
his children marry. In Turkey, Cyrus 
Hamlin found the men, as well as the 
stone, from certain localities, quite 
uniform. In certain portions of Old 
Saybrook, or of Hebron, he would 
have found the same. With miscella- 
neous movings and marriages, that 
a man is not like his 1-256 part ances- 
tor, proves rather than disproves, the 
principles of heredity. Yet real qual- 
ity implies the ability to choose qual- 
ity. It is thought, too, that races im- 
prove in the fact that the good quali- 
ties of each parent are apt to be trans- 
mitted, or even educated in. In many 
senses, man is the creature capable of 
being twice-born. There is a phrase, 
also, often in the mouths of heredity- 
observers in the lower orders of ani- 
mals ; the phrase, "prepotency" ; the 
tendency of strong quality to assert it- 
self most strongly in the offspring. 
Several royal houses have shown this 
capacity of producing able sons from 
the most varied series of mothers. Of 
these, one is the Hohenzollerns, of 
which race is the Prince Henry, who 
rode with Roosevelt in the rain. In a 
steadily-bred race, there is believed to 
arise a power to control the quality of 
descendants, which may be roughly 
phrased, "It takes as long to unwind 
characteristics, as it took to wind them 
in." 



It is now conceded that all inquiry, 
thought, development, science, educa- 
tion, must proceed, and, so far as ef- 
fectual and valuable, has proceeded, 
from the simple to the complex, the in- 
organic to the plant, the plant to the 
animal, the animal to man ; the physi- 
cal man to the mental, the mental man 
to the spiritual. So has true learning 
grown, since from Lord Bacon it start- 
ed to grow. "You don't know life yet 
and how can you know death?" says 
Confucius, as quoted by Ambassador 
Wu Ting Fang. It has been said by a 
Yale professor of Science, that the 
next step forward in the understand- 
ing of human psychology, must be the 
study of comparative psychology, — 
the psychology of animals. 

Of all inquirers, the Jersey breeders 
have had, and do have, the best oppor- 
tunity to observe the effects of heredity. 
For hundreds of years no new animal 
has been admitted among that race, 
neither in the island of Jersey, nor 
elsewhere. The American Registry 
office is an imposing building at 8 
West 17th street, New York City; 
prices of single animals have been 
$5,000, $10,000, $20,000. The Jersey 
breeders say: "Like produces like, or 
the likeness of some ancestor," and by 
providing a set of almost endless an- 
cestors of great repute, they assure 
their customers that the next genera- 
tion cannot go amiss, whatever ances- 
tor it may "breed back to." Cross- 
questions, in my hearing, however, 
compelled the owner of the Jersey, 
Mary Anne of St. Lambert, No. 9770, 
A. J. C. C, to admit that after his high 
feeding had forced her to make 867 
pounds 14% ounces of butter in one 
year, — about three times a fair yield, 
she never brought a child that lived 
more than a few weeks. Environment 
had forever nullified heredity; one of 
her young before this misuse, would 
have been one of the best; one of her 
young after this misuse, one of the 
worst of animals to buy! Too rich 
and exerciseless living will destroy any 
heredity under heaven! In Wall 
street, worthless stock is sold by infla- 



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679 



tion; in Jerseys, good stock has in 
some cases been ruined by inflation to 
sell it; real silver turned into a "gold 
brick," the common people's views of 
heredity warped besides, whenever 
they may have bought a good heredity, 
which had been nullified by a bad en- 
vironment. 

The fact is, that like Longfellow's 
^'Old clock on the stairs," with its 
'Torever, Never, Never, Forever," so 
the great clock of Time ticks on to- 
ward Eternity, with its "Heredity, — 
Environment, — Environment, — 
Heredity," and the clock stops that 
leaves out either tick, — as the pulse 
stops that leaves out beats. The en- 
vironment gradually lifts the quality 
from a lower plane; the heredity holds 
the gain ; that is the most that the most 
ardent scientist claims. Indeed the 
Neo-Lamarckians claim, and give a 
physical explanation, that heredity is 
not of the parent but of the race ; that 
offspring ever fall away from the ac- 
quired qualities of the parent, and be- 
gin on the racial dead-level where he 
began. For this contention, they 
would adduce the total lack, at times, 
in offspring, of parental chief-values ; 
the dissimilarity of full brothers, and 
even, at times, of twins. 

One of the stupidest things about 
our colleges, is that they have chairs 
of showing how to thin and cut down 
trees, which Yankee farmers are 
adepts in, as all the elements and re- 
sults are right before their eyes ; and 
have no chairs of Human Heredity, 
Breeding, Regimen, Environment and 
Training, any accurate conclusions as 
to which, would involve body jour- 
neys to the most separate parts of the 
world, and mind journeys back to the 
most remote ages. The simple expla- 
nation seems to be that the most of our 
modern learning is a copy of European 
fads. The Europeans have "foresters" 
of noble birth, to oversee the poor 
peasant choppers, — and so must we. 
The Europeans do not have college 
chairs to develop in every one human, 
a royal manhood, and so must not we ; 
they stop the people at the good sol- 



dier's level, and so must we. The 
kings and the kaisers, the sultans and 
the emperors, do not concede that all 
men are, or should be, born free and 
equal, — given the ascertained condi- 
tions of manhood ; and so we should 
not try to ascertain these conditions. 
With a leading college doing all it can 
to build men down to a condition of 
servants, and thus having made its 
own city the worst seat, in the juris- 
diction of corruption in politics, why 
should it poke into theories whereby 
men might be built up into the condi- 
tion of kings? 

The most promising experiment in 
New England, to test on a large scale, 
the vital principles of heredity, in re- 
corded cattle, with individual known 
heredities for ten generations back, 
and a possibility of twenty-five mature 
generations, in one human lifetime, to 
observe going forward; this vital ex- 
periment fell through, when fully un- 
der way and demonstrating its possi- 
biHties, — because a leading college 
refused to buy the milk, of double nu- 
tritive value, at the common price. 
There was everything in it for science, 
but nothing to exploit the college. Had 
the herd-keeper been poking into Ger- 
man books, he would have been hailed 
with acclaim ; but he actually degraded 
his scholarly attainments by really 
knowing cattle ; he left off his blaster 
of Arts red hood, when going into the 
field to inspect his Jersey sires ; and 
all shepherds are an abomination to the 
perfumed Egyptians. 

But that herd-keeper learned some 
things that colleges do not teach. He 
saw a mother that had produced her 
every child with no white to show, 
when crossed with a sire line-bred (in- 
breeding, strictly speaking, means the 
union of a descendant and an ances- 
tor ; line-breeding, the union of the de- 
scendants of a common ancestor") ten 
times, anywhere three to seven gene- 
rations down from a certain peculiarly 
marked Jersey, reproduce, exactly, in 
place, shape and proportion, the white 
markings of that ten-fold ancestress. 
He learned that there is such a thing 



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as prepotency ; a controlling power, in 
descent, not geometrically measure- 
able. By gentleness from the first day 
of infancy, he produced a Jersey sire 
of unequalled friendliness; friendly 
for ten years ; and he saw that friend- 
liness, — that acquired quality, trans- 
mitted to hundreds of cattle, through- 
out a community, and it can yet be 
seen, half-way between Meriden and 
Middletown, in the fifth generation. 
Thousands and millions of dollars will 
yet be spent, in books, in lectures, in 
discussions, to determine ''whether ac- 
quired characteristics are inherited?" 

Having discussed, somewhat, the 
general principles of heredity, the con- 
ditions under which they operate and 
may be observed in the United States, 
we turn to some few interesting, strik- 
ing and illustrative samples of hered- 
ity in man. 

First, may be mentioned twin young 
ladies of about twenty-five years of 
age, of New England birth and resi- 
dence. While both are of lithe and 
graceful form, the brunette is much 
the taller, quite athletic, enjoys fifteen- 
mile walks, loves to go abroad in the 
world, knows what has passed in this, 
and other, ages and countries; grad- 
uated from a college, a normal school, 
assumed a teacher's place, was pro- 
moted to a high school. The blonde, 
showing no lack of appreciation of the 
preceding qualifications, is yet a home 
lover, and a home maker, knows the 
household's ways, is attentive to 
guests, mirrors back each kindly deed 
and thought, embodies social tact. 
Should the two chance to live as bach- 
elor maids, it is not difficult to guess 
which will visit the world, bring in 
the news and income, and which will 
put these to the best and wisest use 
inside. Except their undeviating at- 
tachment, there is nothing to show 
that these two are sisters, even. The 
difference between them it would be 
very difficult to explain, on any one- 
stage theory of heredity, where there 
is not even a difference of sex. With 
human beings, there is not the possi- 
bility that might occur with animals, 



— that one being the stronger, or the 
favorite, might have obtained different 
treatment from the other. Nor does 
anything appear to indicate that one 
inherits from one parent or his family, 
and the other from her parent or her 
family ! 

Per contra, the writer recently at- 
tended an anniversary to hear a young 
man sing, who, being of deep and un- 
feigned religious character, had vol- 
untarily devoted himself for mission 
work in farther China. His courteous, 
but strong and striking profile, was 
different from that of any of his rela- 
tives of the half-blood. It was found 
to be an exact copy of a silhouette of 
his grandfather, who at the same pe- 
riod of life left promising business 
prospects for the simple life of a 
Christian minister. 

Resemblance to an ancestor more 
remote than parents, the reader knows 
as atavism. Could a pint basin have 
been carried down the varying paths 
trod by a man's ancestors ; should each 
ancestor have cut from his coat and 
dropped into it, a button characterizing 
himself, a fac simile; should a blind 
man draw out a button to characterize 
the descendant, the inheritance would 
often result as now it does. A work- 
ing man once came to the writer and 
said: "I did not know, when I mar- 
ried, that my wife's children would be 
like her father and brothers." Finding 
that his boys would not work in the 
city, he bought a farm and moved upon 
it to compel them to do so ; the boys 
married some of the neighbors' daugh- 
ters and brought him a third genera- 
tion to support. His wife was esti- 
mable and had trained them to be in- 
dustrious and frugal. Sometimes 
along the most estimable of family 
lines, there appears a brood of children 
for which there is no explanation. 
Two or three of them may be incap- 
able of writing or even of counting, 
yet may show ability in daily affairs 
and general ability in their children. 
The most noble historic name in a cer- 
tain city is the most degraded by the 
persons that hold it. 



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On the way toward Providence, the 
writer recently marked a man of clear 
and honest eye, as worth speaking to, 
— and found him a descendant of 
Miles Standish. On returning, I 
marked another man, of apparent 
value and solid character. Conversa- 
tion confirmed the estimate, and he 
proved to be a descendant of Elder 
William Brewster. This country con- 
tains a phalanx of reliable Brewster 
descendants, and in seeking a name for 
a markedly correct character, in her 
book, "The Portion of Labor," Miss 
Mary E. Wilkins naturally selected 
that of "Mrs. Zelotes Brewster." It 
was significant that the only men 
whose quality attracted should be de- 
scendants of Standish or of Brewster. 

The Meigs blood of Middletown, 
from Prof. Josiah Meigs, is some- 
what noticeable for breadth of taste 
and of appreciation. Of this family 
was the mother of Yale's President, 
Noah Porter, and his sisters of Farm- 
ington. Of all men in the world, any- 
thing having a good quality, might go 
into Noah Porter's presence, and have 
it appreciated. On a summer vacation, 
President Porter, with a party, was to 
take a ten-mile afternoon walk, and 
sleep in a mountain-top cabin, so as to 
see the sun rise. On the start-out, a 
big Newfoundland dog, who had 
found an appreciative companion in 
President Porter, joined the caravan, 
but was told that he was not wanted. 
"Let him go ; let him go," said Presi- 
dent Porter, in his quick way; "He'll 
enjoy it as much as any of us." In the 
night, the camping party heard from 
President Porter: "G'way, Jack; 
g'way, g'way, g'way !" The dog, with 
keen appreciation of character, had se- 
lected President Porter to tent with. 
Those who have seen the friendly 
sheep surround descendants of the 
Meigs family in Middletown, will best 
appreciate this story. 

In another case, the writer had had 
an almost life-long knowledge of one 
of Connecticut's twenty-five foremost 
citizens. But he had not seen his fam- 
ily name in any Connecticut, or other, 



history. "This man," I said, "must 
have sprung up in a generation, and 
shows that no ancestry is necessary to 
make a foremost man." Turning over 
in a library, however, the list-book of 
the Society of Colonial Wars, 

Among the names that those great 

wars had blessed, 
Lo, this man's honest name led all the 

rest; 

for he was descended from eight 
sharers in the Colonial Wars, and in 
three of his lines through governors 
of Connecticut. 

In the November-December number 
of the Connecticut Magazine, it is re- 
called that three grandchildren of Rog- 
er Sherman, through his second wife, 
Rebecca Prescott, of Danvers, Mass., 
were William M. Evarts, U. S. Secre- 
tary of State; George F. Hoar, U. S. 
Senator, and Roger S. Baldwin, U. S. 
Senator and Governor of Connecticut. 
It is impossible to separate questions 
of human heredity from those of 
breeding, training, regimen, and en- 
vironment. If acquired characteristics 
are transmitted, then Roger Sherman 
was a promising parent, when he mar- 
ried Rebecca Prescott, at 18 years of 
age or a little more. In such cases, 
the mother is the vigorous printing 
press, the father the clear-cut type. 

It is my experience, that for giving 
an animal a kind and friendly charac- 
ter (his heredity making him suscepti- 
ble) the first three months is absolute- 
ily indispensable, and nothing later can 
replace it. In that three months, a 
young Jersey will even play jokes ; do 
things because they are funny. It is 
then that he forms his opinion of this 
world and of us, his neighbors, which, 
if unfavorable, all later experience can- 
not redeem. It is hard to expect to 
change the character of a child when 
that character has been formed for the 
first twelve years. But in these years 
nine-tenths the influence is from the 
mother rather than the father. As 
half the heredity, too, averages fron? 
the mother, it is easy to see how it may 
occur that valuable men have valuable 



6S2 



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mothers; the mother has a much 
greater proportion of influence. There 
is some reason, also, to think that in- 
heritance in more cases runs from the 
mother or her family, to the sons, and 
from the father, or his family, to the 
daughters, than from a parent to the 
same sex. 

The sooner we find out what has 
been the most valuable part of our 
population, in our golden age (of char- 
acter) ; where it can be found most 
unspoiled, today; what is the best en- 
vironment for its continuance ; how 
that environment can be secured; the 
better it is for our State and nation. 
One of the most serious questions is, 
if the dwindling early stock be drafted 
away from labor, and will not stay 
and broaden numerically, under condi- 
tions of labor, then whether the nine 
laborers out of ten voters, being of 
later stock, can be made equal in char- 
acter to men formed under earlier con- 
ditions. If they are docile citizens, 
while in the minority, will they be kind 
and intelligent masters when in the 
majority? It was Birdofredum Saw- 
in's complaint, that Pomp, after com- 
pelling him to "throw away his pistils 
and his gun," did not give the kind- 
ness which he had received. 

So discontinuous, faulty and var- 
iant, is the present American environ- 
ment, that it becomes difficult to tell 
how heredity has counted or to make 
it count at all. The able Englishman 
usually starts from a country home 
where his mind, character and body 
have been built. If not, his nation re- 
wards him with a country home, where 
his children's minds, characters, and 
bodies will be built, and custom and 
public opinion, at all reasonable times, 
will see to it that they stay in it. The 
able American comes, oftenest, from, 
or from near, the woods. He marries 
the daughter of a worn-out city stock, 
and rears children to be the pets of a 
city parish. There is nothing for the 
boys to do, to harden their sinews, and 
everything for them to enjoy, to sof- 
ten them. In youth, they are taught 
that pleasure is the business of this 



world, and later, they can never learn 
that the business of this world should 
be a pleasure. They do not seem to 
realize that a horse will never become 
a race horse, while tied in a stall ; he 
must be trained on a track. A piano 
will not continue that manhood which 
was built by an axe. 

God has given men an average good 
environment, and those who try to 
improve upon it dodge success. The 
sons of Anthony of Bourbon and 
Jeanne d'Albret, king and queen of 
Navarre, show what is heredity with- 
out environment and what is heredity 
with environment. Through the lux- 
ury of the French city, the earlier chil- 
dren were destroyed from the face of 
the earth. But the youngest son was 
retained by his grandfather, the old 
king of Navarre, and turned loose 
to run bareheaded and barefooted, with 
the children of the peasantry, in the 
mountains around Pau. There result- 
ed the strong and lusty Henry of Na- 
varre, of Macaulay's ballad of Iv'ry. 
Henry IV of France, and his natural 
manliness not only conquered his ene- 
mies but sympathized with and won 
the hearts of his people. His state- 
craft, when all the kings were met, 
was "That every man in France should 
have a chicken in his pot for Sunday." 

Abundant illustration of the same 
folly and failure in a dependence on 
money and heredity, without manly 
surroundings, for rearing noble chil- 
dren, might be cited from Connecti- 
cut ; — but such parents are punished 
too much in results, without impaling 
them publicly upon a pen-point. The 
clear, broad, judicial minds of Justice 
Brewer, lately scarred while burning 
brush on his farm, and of Chief Jus- 
tice Alton B. Parker on his 90-acre 
farm at Esopus on the Hudson testify 
that when you find a man in mind he 
has not been reared a carpet-knight in 
body. 

As stated, however, the conditions 
of life in the United States, have not 
favored the permanency of family 
character. Investments in real estate, 
such as should build character as well 



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683 



as income, for generations are hedged 
against by our Constitution. Neither 
land, nor property can be entailed. 
Except in favored localities, those who 
have held on to land, have been land- 
poor. The corporation has sprung up, 
unexpectedly, whereby a thousand 
idiots, spendthrifts and plungers, can 
have their property preserved by re- 
taining on salary one man of ability. 
Warren Hastings, who set all Britain 
agog, would be but one corporation 
lawyer today. Some South Sea bub- 
ble is blown by every broker from his 
evening pipe, and reaches every law- 
yer once a week. Property in stocks 
does not give the environment to its 
inheritors of that in the shape of acres, 
landscapes, rivers. 

The endogenous infant today is fill- 
ed up as with a bicycle pump, instead 
of being built onto like a pasture white 
oak. The ideal, character-forcing con- 
ditions of Roger Sherman and his 
family, exist neither at Biltmore, nor 
in the Tenderloin. By an artificial 
lathe, the hickory from a forest may 
be turned into an axehelve, but not the 
hickory from a cellar ; it is powder- 
posted. It may look like an axehelve 
to a Doctor of Divinity, but not to a 
Doctor of axehelves. Today, save the 
lack of ponies, an American college, 
from the distance, looks like a hazy 
Indian mixture of foot-ball, base-ball, 
and colored cloaks or blankets. The 
exercise is of the Indian and not the 
Yankee kind. King Philip would feel 
at home but not Miles Standish. 
Fancy Ralph Waldo Emerson, con- 
ceded our greatest American mind, 
backing the spending of a quarter mil- 
lion dollars on a foot-ball match and 



attending it in a parti-colored Heidel- 
berg degree cloak! 

Scattered through the woods and 
hill-towns of Connecticut, is much of 
the best old blood of its history; the 
Porters, the Evartses, the Footes. 
These men have axe-built bodies, hill- 
built complexions and circulations, 
home-built hearts, book-built brains 
and tastes, farm-built judgments. If 
Connecticut is ever again to come to 
the front for right and sense, and op- 
portunity for all God's children, there 
is no trumpet to form the line of bat- 
tle, like the recall to old times and old 
lineage. The best of the new looks to 
the best of the old. 

As a few conclusions: Heredity is 
worth knowing of if it be not flaunted 
and vaunted. If we value our ances- 
tors' character, we should learn the 
conditions which created it and apply 
those conditions in youth. It is hard 
to do this alone. A leading man in a 
large city, said: "I did not bring up 
m}^ child ; a dozen neighbors' children 
brought it up." Public sentiment 
should stand behind the condi- 
tions of rearing real men. Boat 
races, ball games and gymnasiums did 
not create the first George Washing- 
ton, — but we live to learn. A good 
lineage may be a great encourage- 
ment in cases of temptation or adver- 
sity. But to find one line to some 
strong man is no great achievement ; 
it is not necessary to croak from a 
frog pond how we were once a lake. 
The length of our ancestry is best 
shown by the breadth of our s>Tnpa- 
thy ; by throwing on our compeers the 
shade and not the shadow of our for- 
bears. 



American Heredity is a science now in the embryo, and in outlining its possibilities there is probably no more 
distinguished authority than Hon, Lovell Hall of Middletown, Conn., who misht be entitled our Wsx "talent- 
ometer." Mr. Hall is a man who knows men from many experiences with them. As a lawyer he has studied human 
nature in its most intricate phases; he creditably defended the murder case against Tilton E. Doolittle. In his student 
days at Yale he took the Yale Lit. medal, a Townsend, a high oration, a Linonia presidency. He entered politics and 
made a sheriff and a governor. He knows life by continual contact with it and has a breadth of sympathy for all 
humanity. While a close student of the sciences he has stood many days in the forests and ripped logs with a fifty- 
four inch saw; he has bred Jerseys whose sires looked up to him as a friend and walked with him horn in hand; he 
knows horses and their hereditary instincts by being a rider of them. He has stood in the engine cab; on the box car 
top, and experienced something of the sailor's life at the helm. He has written ballads, sonnets, theological and scien- 
tific criticisms, political platforms. He has been a coroner over physicians and prosecuting agent over police. He 
stands for the State's best traditions, and moves with an underlying philosophy. Besides Law. he is now engaged 
upon a new Theology, which is made fast to the Apostles' Creed, but will reach out to cver>' cult. Sprung from at least 
eight families of the settlers of 1620-50, Mr, Hall's line has been anchored in old Middletown for 250 years— Eoitor 



LONGEVITY AND THE MODERN DIETARIAN 



FOOD PRODUCTS OF OUR FOREFATHERS AND THE 

ATTAINMENT OF VENERABLE AGE THEIR LIVES 

AN ARGUMENT AGAINST THEORIES OF TODAY — REC- 
OLLECTIONS OF A VILLAGE WHERE MEN GROW OLD 



BY 



F. G. MARKHAM 



Mr. Markham develops an interesting discussion in aevology or the science of prolonging life. Whether or not 
there is an age limit set by nature is a matter of disputation. Eminent naturalists place a natural age limit at loo 
years, while others believe it to be 120. Scientists state that man does not live out, on an average, more than one- 
third of his natural span, and is cheated in part by folly and impotence out of two-thirds of his existence. Professor 
Shaler, of Harvard, argues that man lost in longevity when he assumed an upright position and converted his fore- 
legs and fore-feet into arms and hands. He states that an upright position makes a greater demand upon the heart, 
and that the pulse rate is increased. Dr. David A, Gorton recently stated that nature, or the unconscious forces have the 
greater part to do in its solution, and that the problem of health and long life is not altogether within man's grasp. 
" I think that to a large degree its solution belongs to the domain of conscious evolution," he says. "It rests with him 
to discover and destroy the enemies that prey on human health and life ; and to discover and enforce the hygienic 
requirements of the race at every epoch of life from infancy to old age. Thus in the fullness of time when the rush 
of conquest of man is over, and when unconscious evolution shall have fulfilled its respective mission, man will have 
unfolded a new science— that of aevology— and shall be enabled thereby to complete his age limit, barring accidents, to 
150 years." Mr. Markham does not argue the problem but tells an interesting story of conditions in East Hampton,. 
Connecticut, a village where men grow old — Editor 



THE manner of life of our fore- 
fathers is a story of much in- 
terest. Having told of their 
homes and labors, I will now 
recall briefly the food products and 
customs of sixty years ago. Hog 
products were the principal articles of 
meat food for at least nine months in 
the year. Not much was wasted of 
his whole carcass. The hams and 
shoulders pickled and smoked; the 
sides for salted pork; inside fat for 
lard; the ribs and chines for roasting 
and steaks ; all the bits of fat and lean, 
not otherwise used, were for sausage ; 
the intestinal cases for sausage covers ; 
the snout, feet and ears, and even tail 
for souse. There was not much of the 
Jew about our ancestors. They did 
eat the pig — all of him — and said 
he was good. Their ideas did not co- 
incide with modern dietarians. They 
said pig meat was nutritious and 
wholesome, and as far as longevity is 
concerned, seemed to have the best of 
the argument. Sometimes a farmer 



could spare an ox or cow. The animal 
was fatted and a portion consumed 
fresh and the remainder salted and 
smoked. Often, however, the "beef^ 
was driven alive to the nearest market 
and turned into cash. Chickens, tur- 
keys and geese were used to some ex- 
tent, but they too, could be readily 
marketed for cash or groceries in ex- 
change. In July a lamb would be kill- 
ed and it was indeed good meat. Two 
of the quarters could be loaned, to be 
returned when they killed a lamb. In 
fact, loaning ribs of pork and fresh 
beef and lamb lengthened out the fresh 
meat season and was a boon. Rye 
bread or rye and Indian and Johnny 
cake, baked Indian or corn meal and 
hasty puddings, composed the princi- 
pal bread stuff. If possible, some 
wheat or white flour was in the house 
for distinguished company or for the 
visit of the clergyman. Baked beans, 
bean porridge and corn and beans, 
commonly called succotash, helped 
make a variety. All sorts of greens 



LONGEVITY AND THE MODERN DIETARIAN 



685 



were freely used. Boiled cabbage, 
dandelion, cowslip, yellow dock, plan- 
tain and milk weed constituted the 
"greens." 

A liberal dose of vinegar or pepper 
sauce was poured over his greens and 
mustard covered his boiled pork, beef 
and ham. His ideas differed widely 
from our modern professors. Diet au- 
thorities now claim that vinegar, pep- 
per and mustard are sauces of the 
Devil. But our forefathers said they 
were good, wholesome and a great aid 
to digestion. An empty pork barrel 
was considered almost a disgrace. To 
prevent such a calamity, salt codfish 
was a resort, and in the late spring, 
people living within a few miles of 
Connecticut river, would visit some 
fish place and procure from twenty to 
fifty shad. These cost from six to 
twenty cents apiece, and were pickled 
for future use. These were really fine 
eating, but the householder would 
scarcely believe it. The food was not 
quite reputable. When he started af- 
ter shad it was before daylight, that 
his neighbors might not know the ob- 
ject of his journey. Of course he said 
it was that the first run in the morning 
might be secured. My grandmother 
has often told me, that in her day, 
when her husband "went for shad" he 
was compelled to buy a certain amount 
of salmon, that fish being plentiful in 
the Connecticut in those days. What 
a change the whirligig of time has pro- 
duced. Then only the poor must eat 
shad and salmon and now only the 
rich may do so. 

Our good fathers and mothers had 
a generous thirst. Not so much for 
water or tea and coffee, but for some- 
thing more effective and stimulating. 
Of course water and tea and coffee 
were used to some extent, but cider, 
of their own make, not rectified or 
drugged, right out of their own well- 
seasoned barrels, pure and as they be- 
lieved wholesome and healthful, was 
the general beverage. From six to 
thirty barrels of this drink made a 
year's supply. Cider was used for 
breakfast, for dinner, for supper, be- 



tween meals and before going to bed. 
Sometimes on the latter occasion red 
pepper and cider was heated and the 
dose was supposed to keep off chills 
and make sound sleep. "Stills" were 
erected at intervals throughout the 
country. Here was distilled that pure 
but potent liquor called cider brandy. 
The farmer could furnish a certain 
number of barrels of cider and receive 
in return a fixed number of gallons 
of brandy. A mixture of cider brandy 
and molasses was considered an almost 
sovereign remedy for colds and chills. 
It was a fiery tipple and occasionally 
the drinker would become "half seas 
over" and inclined to be quarrelsome 
and ugly. It usually took at least two 
gallons of Santa Cruz rum to carry 
the farmer and his help through hay- 
ing and it was the beverage sold over 
the bars, at taverns, by the glass. Our 
fathers had a pronounced dislike for 
foreign wines and brandies. They 
knew of extensive adulteration before 
leaving the home market, and had a 
shrewd opinion that they were still 
further rectified on this shore. An old 
doggerel of fifty years ago well ex- 
presses this sentiment. 

"Your Logwood wine is very fine, 
I think they call it Port, Sir. 
You know it by this certain sign, 
Its roughness in the throat, Sir." 

Our forefathers had poor ideas 
about the names of diseases. They 
had never heard about microbes and 
bacteria and trichinae in pork. Doubt- 
less they were all there, then as now : 
but one can readily see what great hor- 
rors they escaped by knowing nothing 
about these terrible animals. They 
never heard of those old Greek names, 
pneumonia and diphtheria, as applied 
to certain diseases. Lung fever and 
putrid sore throat were well known, 
but old fashioned doctors did not feel 
it necessary to apply the more high 
sounding names. Those good simple 
folk knew all about t^-phus and ty- 
phoid fevers, but if they had been told 
about enteric fever, an idiotic expres- 
sion would have spread over tlie face, 



686 



LONGEVITY AND THE MODERN DIETARIAN 



and, like the sailor, would have ex- 
claimed simply, Anan! Kidney trou- 
ble was known, but do tell us what is 
Bright's disease ? It must be confess- 
ed that if our modern M. D.s were as 
successful in curing diseases as they 
are in giving new names, what a grate- 
ful lot of patients they would have. 

Perhaps extreme longevity is no- 
where better illustrated than in the 
straggling but picturesque village of 
East Hampton, Connecticut. The 
writer believes there is not another 
place of its size in the United States 
where such great age has been ob- 
tained by its inhabitants as can be 
proved by an intimate acquaintance 
with the people of this village. It is 
my birthplace and I know, or have 
known personally all the people men- 
tioned below. Sixty years ago there 
were only a few hundred inhabitants 
scattered over ten or twelve miles of 
territory. Today it is quite a good 
sized village with many men of more 
than the average ability and managing 
large business affairs. In this little 
community then, I have had as ac- 
quaintances over sixty persons between 
80 and 90 and over thirty between 90 
and 100 and at least two that passed 
the century mark. Mr. John W. B. 
Smith I knew at the age of 93 
years ; nearly all his faculties un- 
impaired. I well remember him 
seated on his piazza reading the Hart- 
ford Courant and doing so without the 
aid of eye glasses. Mrs. Minorris 
Watrous at 96 still did fine em- 
broidery work. There are a number 
of people still living there over 90. 
Some other old persons that have died 
since my remembrance are Nathaniel 
C. Smith, for many years Town Clerk 
for the Town of Chatham, and brother 
of John W. B. Smith, 93 ; John Mark- 
ham, 96; his sister-in-law, Hannah 
Markham, 92; Isaac Bevin, 97; Ste- 
phen Clark, 98; William Clark, 99; 
Patrick Derby, 99; a Mrs. Loomis, 
who died a little more than a year ago, 
loi, and old black Betty, who was cer- 
tainly 120 and probably nearer 128. 
Her exact age could never be ascer- 



tained, but sixty years ago people 
who knew her then as a very old wo- 
man, knew also that she was at the 
time of her death between the ages 
mentioned above. I remember the old 
woman very well. She lived by her- 
self in a little red house, and used to 
do washing and scrubbing almost to 
the end of life. Betty was an invet- 
erate attendant at church and was 
there for two sessions and often for 
three. She was a member in good 
standing and very devout. In the old 
church was a high railed pew, near the 
pulpit, and was called the "nigger" 
pew. There Aunt Betty sat and wor- 
shipped. At noon she took a seat near 
the church and partook of her noon- 
day lunch, then drawing a black old 
cutty had her quiet smoke. The af- 
ternoon service found her entirely 
ready for business at the usual place. 
Boys sometimes poked fun at the old 
woman, but if her heavy hand could 
reach them they were glad to cry quits. 
Betty had a fondness for strong wat- 
ers and occasionally became really and 
truly drunk. Her good brothers and 
sisters in the Lord however always 
overlooked this little peccadillo. 

Another eccentric character was a 
near neighbor of mine, who lived near- 
ly half a mile from any highway. Her 
home was on my way to school, that 
is across lots. Her grandsons were 
near my own age, and we were com- 
panions to and from school ; thus I 
saw the old lady nearly every day. 
Unfortunately she never had a hus- 
band, but, fortunately, did have a 
daughter, who developed into a very 
amiable, good woman, and this daugh- 
ter married a most excellent man. 
These had a generous family of ten 
children. Grandmother was really the 
head of the family. She cooked and 
washed, knit and spun, made and 
mended clothes. Her son-in-law was 
employed in another town and was 
only home over Sunday. So she milk- 
ed and churned, dug the garden, hoed 
and gathered the crop. I never saw 
her swing the scythe, but she did rake 
and pitch hay like a man. 



LONGEVITY AND THE MODERN DIETARIAN 



687 



And then what a tea drinker ! Her 
average daily allowance was two 
quarts of strong tea with no season- 
ing. Live embers were kept drawn 
around the "Hob" and the old black 
tea pot was kept boiling constantly. 
It was drank for breakfast, dinner, 
supper, and many times between 
meals — drank it boiling hot right out 
of the "nozzle." One could scarcely 
believe it, but I have seen her so take 
her tea many times. She used to say 
her mouth and throat, say nothing of 
the stomach, were as insensible as iron, 
and that no inconvenience was felt by 
using this scalding beverage. Then, 
too, what a snuff-taker. Her indulgent 
son-in-law bought snuff, not by the 
ounce or pound, but by the "bladder." 
These bladders contained from four to 
six pounds. When fairly awake in 
the morning she took a pinch and the 
nose was kept loaded till bed time. 
Those boys have often said that 
"Gran" arose in the night and re- 
charged the organ. The old lady was 
not much on style, but she was very 
devout, and it was a bad Sunday in- 
deed that she was not present at 
church for two sessions and some- 
times three. On Sacramental Sunday 
this member of the church was not ab- 
sent. Those irreverent boys used to 



say that after Aunt Lucy had partaken 
of the cup, very soon after it had to be 
replenished. 

Listening to our modern teachers 
this woman ought to have been full of 
all manner of diseases ; but she wasn't. 
She ought to have died young ; but she 
didn't. It was only a few years ago 
that she passed away, aged 95 years. 
No sickness ; no disease. For only a 
few days did she take to the bed ; with- 
out pain she left us, quietly, peacefully, 
as a tired child goes to sleep. 

Various reasons have been present- 
ed to account for the wonderful lon- 
gevity reached by the inhabitants of 
this village. Some ascribe it to the 
high elevation above tide water, where 
the winds are free and sometimes 
fierce, so that malaria and fever germs 
are driven away. That may account 
for it partially but not wholly. We 
must remember the physical labor they 
endured; the constant hardening of 
the muscles of every organ, made them 
strong and enabled them to eat coarse 
hearty food with impunity. Out in 
the free pure air with the sunshine, 
disease could get no foothold, and they 
died, not so much from sickness, as 
because they had outlived their useful- 
ness and so God took them. 



THE FIRST GRAND JURY IN AMERICA MET AT BOSTON. MASSACHU- 
SETTS, ON SEPTEMBER i, 1635, AND PRESENTED ONE HUNDRED 
OFFENCES. THE FIRST INSURANCE OFFICE IN NEW ENGLAND WAS 
OPENED AT BOSTON IN 1724 



PASTORAL 

BY . 

JOHN H. GUERNSEY 



Home from the field went a weaiy old man, 
Dusty and tired as a man could be, 
For the way was long where the furrows ran. 
And the sun was hot on the face of tan, 
And hot on the backs of three. 

And his patient oxen were tired as he. 

As, all day long till the sun went down. 

They had heard the command of "Haw " and " Gee," 

And longingly looked at the shade of the tree 

That spread as the " bout" went 'round. 

Now the pointed shade of the whitewood tree, 
That grew near by on the fallow plain, 
(The shade where the oxen longed to be, 
When the sun grew hot as the weary three 
Went 'round and 'round again ;) 

Drew out till it lay like a fisherman's net, 
Across the long field with the point on the hill. 
And it lingered in glory alone until met 
By the mantle of night, when a song of regret 
Was heard from a lone whip-poor-will. 

So the long summer day with its wearisome strain. 
Came at last to an end like the shade of the tree, 
And the oxen well knew as the long iron chain 
Ran out through the ring, it meant freedom again 
From the plow, and the yoke, and the " Gee." 

And away from the field up the path on the hill, 

Where the shade of the whitewood was last to depart. 

Then down through the valley and past the old mill, J 

Where the miller grew rich with the "toll " for a " till " — 

The "toll " of an honest old heart. ^ 

Then along near the pines in a turn of the street, 
Where the cool waters wait in the course of the stream, 
Expectant and eager the tired laggard feet 
Now hasten unbid to a banquet as sweet 
As the wine of the gods in a dream ! 

And the mirrored face in the fernery stream 1 ' 

With the soft, patient eyes, so large and round, .' ^ 

Came to bid good-night to the weary team, 

And their warm lips met in the willing theme, • • 

While the wave with a kiss was crowned ! 



1 




riioto \i\ K. 
VIEW FROM THE GROUNDS OF MR. M. B. RICHARDSON 



IN THE CONNECTICUT HIGHLANDS 

LIME ROCK, THE FAIR VILLAGE AMONG THE HILLS 

WHERE JOHN KERNICKERBACKER, DUTCHMAN, 

EARLY ERECTED HIS HOME AT THE MOUTH OF 
THE SALMON FELL-KILL HISTORICAL ARTICLE 



BY 



REV. R. H. GESNER 



Rev. R. H. Gesner, the writer of this article, is a grandson of Dr. Abraham Gesner, the inventor of kerosene 
oil, and a son of the late A. H. Gesner, a distinguished clergyman of the Episcopal church. Mr. Gesurr was grada- 
ated from St. Stephen's College with honors in 1883, and from the General Theological Seminary in New York io 
1886, receiving the degree of B.D. for high rank in the following year. He has been rector of several imporUnt par- 
ishes in New York State, but for the past nine years has been in Connecticut. He came from the venerable parish of 
West Haven in 1899 to the Rectorship of Trinity Church, Lime Rock. Mr. Gesner has for some years been a writer 
on the Staff of the New York Churchman and the Church Standard of Philadelphia and has contributed verse regu- 
larly for the Boston Evening Transcript. He has a well deserved reputation as public speaker and preacher— Editor 



BEAUTIFUL as are the villages 
of famous old Litchfield, none 
excel in loveliness of situa- 
tion, salubrity of climate and 
delightful air of thrift and neatness, 
the assemblage of comfortable homes 
and tasteful public buildings that form 
the village of Lime Rock. The major 
part of the town extends along the 
tongue of land that shoots out from 
the precipitous sides of a rocky range 



of hills that fringe the southern edge 
of the town of Salisbury. A mile 
away the Housatonic flows peacefully 
through broad meadows on its tortu- 
ous course to the Sound. Coming 
tlown through a gap in the range of 
hills, the Salmon hVll-Kill. formed by 
the confluence of throe smaller 
streams, the chief ot which rises on 
distant Riga, furnishes water power 
to the old mill at the upper end of the 



690 



JN THE COXNECTICUT HIGHLANDS 




to \,\ K. T. 8tj<:l(l 

TOMBSTONE MARKING THE GRAVE 
MR. JOHN KERNICKERBACKER 
THE FIRST SE'JTLKR IX LTMF 



OF 



ROCK 



villciL^c, aiul ^lirlinc^ rlrnvn thrrm^h the 
vale past the shops, finds peace for its 
iron-stained waters on the bosom oi 



the Housatonic. Three miles to the 
northward, over steep Xorton Hill^ 
Hes Lakeville, and four miles and a 
half to the northeast the churches of 
Salisbury Center lift their spires 
against the blue slopes of the Tagh- 
kanic range. 

Small as the village of Lime Rock 
is, comprising perhaps some seven 
hundred souls, it is in many respects 
an historic local it v. The earliest set- 
tler in this part of the town of Salis- 
bury, was Thomas Lamb, ''a shrewd 
and hardy speculator, Indian interpre- 
ter and Jack of all trades." Lamb 
owned what is no\\' known as the 
Davis mine and brought from it in 
1734 the ore which supplied his forge 
at Lime Rock under what is now 
known as Forge mountain where now 
stands the great blast furnace whose 
ever-glowing chimney belches flame 
against the blackness of the night. On 
this spot in later years Canfield and 
Robbins manufactured from the Salis- 
bur\' ores wrought iron for the rifle 
and musket barrels which were made 
at the United States armories in Har- 
])er's Ferry anrl Springfield. 




IMiolo l.y K. T. Sliel'l'.n 

AN ELM-SHADED VILLAGE STREET SHOWING RESIDENCES OF lilE LATE WILLIAM H. 
BARNUM AND THE LATE LEONARD RICHARDSON ON THE LEFT 



II 



LIME ROCK— VILLAGE AMONG THE HILLS 



The other name most closely asso- 
ciated with this part of the town of 
Salisbury, which in early days went 
by the name of ''the Hollow," is that 
of John Kernickerbacker, as his name 
is spelled on his tombstone. He was 
one of the Dutch settlers who for the 
most part, took up their abode in Wea- 
togue, the northeastern part of Salis- 
bury, about 1720. This man settled 
near the mouth of the Salmon Fell- 
Kill and the old homestead stood on 
the site of the residence of Mr. John 
L. Owen. The old house was pulled 



This mortal body mouldering Ijack to 

dust 
Shall rise again to mingle with the 

just, 
And Death, the conqueror, n(j more 

enslave 
While honest virtue triumphs o'er the 

grave. 
A wit's a feather and a chief's a rod ; 
An honest man's the noblest work of 

God. 
Many years ago the few remains of 
the original settlers who were buried 
in the graveyard in the upper village 




I'lioio l.y K. T. 

GREENHOUSES ON THE GROUNDS OF THE I, A IE WIIIJAM li. KARNUM 



down to make room for the more mod- 
of its present owner. 



ern 



dwelling 



Kernickerbacker owned a large tract 
of land hereabout and gave the land 
for the beautiful God's acre in which, 
oddly enough, his body was the first 
to repose. The old slate stone may be 
seen in a prominent place in the well- 
kept cemetery. It bears in clearly de- 
fined characters the following inscrij)- 
tion : 

Here lies the body of 
Mr. John Kernickerbacker, 

Who departed this life 
Nov. loth, 1786, AE. 76. 



were carefully removed and now rest 
in this beautiful spot, surrounded by 
an evergreen hedge, and whore it bor- 
ders the highway encompassed with a 
well-laid stone wall. In the years that 
have gone by, it has been greatly en- 
larged, as tlie silent dwellers, one by 
one, have come to take up their long 
abode in its environs. Many linger 
lure (Ml pleasant afternoons, and in 
spring time the village folk loiter 
along the graveled walks, tending the 
plots that are their special care or 
conversing quietly as they drink in the 
bracing- air and enio\ the distant vista 



692 



IN THE CONNECTICUT HIGHIANDS 




LIME ROCK— VILLAGE AMONG THE HILLS 



^^93 




ol.s K.T. Sl.tMoi. 

SCENE FROM NORTON HILL OVERLOOKING THE UPPER VILLAGE, SHOWING THE 
BLAST FURNACE AT THE LEFT 



of the Canaan hills that, like the De- 
lectable mountains, lure one's thoughts 
to higher realities. 

It was in 1820 that Milo Barnum, 
the founder of the present Barnum, 
Richardson Company, came to Lime 
Rock. He had come originally from 
Dover, N. Y., but previous to his com- 
ing here had lived in Sharon. At first 
he engaged in keeping the little inn 
in the village, but before long entered 
upon the business of a merchant in 
the general store. His industry soon 
gave him opportunity to enter upon 
the iron business which has since de- 
veloped into such large proportions. 
When Milo Barnum drove into Lime 
Rock there were but few houses in the 
place, and most of them were in what 
is now known as the "upper village," 
near the furnace. In earlv times this 
was the real settlement. Here lived 
in colonial days the Johnson family 
occupying an immense house which 
stood on the spot near where an old 
barn now stands on the left as one fol- 
lows the road toward Salisbury, b^ir- 
ther along this road in what is now 



the Belcher place, a large red brick 
house, lived Col. Xathaniel Buell, of 
Revolutionary fame, and the Robbins 
family, still having representatives in 
the town, lived near the forge and fur- 
nace. One of the most substantial 
houses in the Hollow was that in 
which Milo Barnum afterwards lived, 
just east of the bridge which crosses 
Salmon Fell-Kill in the heart of the 
village. For many \ears it was used 
as a tenant house, but recently it was 
pulled down and removed. The an- 
tique fireplace, so richly suggestive of 
comfort, the solid frame and massive 
timbers, were ample witness that there 
were giants in those days when groat 
timber trees were plentiful and people 
dejXMuled i^i huge open hearthstones 
for genial warmth and comfortable 
lodging during the prolonged winters. 
Some few \ears after entering rpon 
business in Lime Rock. Milo r»arnuni 
associated with himself his son-in-law. 
Leonard Richardson, ami a few years 
afterward, his son, William H. Bar- 
nuuL 



694 



IN THE CONNECTICUT HIGHLANDS 




RED MOUNTAIN THE HIGHEST ELEVATION IN LIME ROCK 



Photo by K. T. sheldoa 



LIME ROCK— VILLAGE AMONG THE HILLS 



695 




TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



Photo l.y K. T. Slirl.lon 



These enterprising men soon began 
to place the iron business upon that 
soHd and permanent foundation wliich 
it has ever since maintained. The 
Barnum, Richardson Company, now 
known throughout the country as the 
only manufacturers of the famous 
Salisbury iron, have an enviable name 
among the great industries of our na- 
tion. It may with candor and honesty 
be said that their reputation and pros- 
perity is largely the result of the 
strong mutual interest which both the 
employers and the employes feel in 
the business, and of the good feeling 
and kindliness of spirit, which, per- 
vading both the members of the firm 
and those who have long been asso- 
ciated with it, have in the hard times 
served to weld hearts together instead 
of severing them. William H. Bar- 
num, who afterwards attained nation- 
al distinction as Congressman and 
Senator from this State, and as man- 
ager of the campaign which resulted 
in the election of Cleveland in 1884 be- 
came even better known, as a young 
man drove his team with loads of iron 
to Poughkeepsie and by actual exper- 
ience knew hard work and could sym- 



pathize with the toiler. In the hard 
times of the "seventies," this company 
kept its men at work, enabling them 
to keep the wolf from the door, when 
other great companies felt obliged to 
shut down their works. It is such 
men as these who have made the name 
of Connecticut and New England hon- 
orable and our nation the peer of the 
older England beyond the sea. 

Along the pleasant elm-fringed ave- 
nue which appropriately goes by the 
name of Elm street, one notes the 
smooth and grassy lawns, well-trim- 
med hedges and cleanly borders. The 
citizens of Lime Rock pride themselves 
on having the neatest and cleanliest 
country streets in the State. Coming 
into the town, passing the Brazie house 
(perhaps the oldest in the village), 
which stands on the crest ^-^i tlie hill, 
one sees the white shafts of the village 
cemetery at his right, and far across 
the valley to the left old Sharon moun- 
tain smiles protectingly down, domi- 
nating all the landscape. On that side 
of the valley through which flows the 
turbid Salmon bVli-Kill, is Nature in 
all her j-jrimitive grandeur : on this side 
the simple an <^\ man beautifying his 



696 



IN THE CONNECTICUT HIGHLANDS 




THE VILLAGE CEMETERY 



Photo by K. T. Sheldon. 



home and surroundings. In the angle 
of the roads opposite the place where 
the "forefathers of the hamlet sleep," 
stands Trinity Episcopal church, a 
beautiful building of fawn-colored 
firestone of which a city might well be 



proud. It is veritably a monument to 
the zeal and labors of those saintly 
Christian women, Mrs. Charlotte A. 
Barnum and Mrs. Lucy Ann Richard- 
son, whose names will ever be cher- 
ished in Lime Rock. These thought- 




(0 by K T. Sheldon. 



HEPHZIVALLA RESIDENCE OF MR. C. W. BARNUM 



LI ATE ROCK— VILLAGE AMONG THE HILLS 



697 



ful women, seeing the need of a 
church in the community, because the 
mother church of St. John in Sahs- 
bury was so far away, bent their ener- 
gies toward securing funds for the 
erection of a church which should be 
the home of the people and the center 
of the religious life of the community. 
As a result of their labors, in 1870 
Trinity church was erected and has 
since grown into one of the strongest 
distinctively rural parishes in Connec- 
ticut. Within the past few years it 
has been beautifully redecorated with- 
in. Hard wood floors have been laid 
and many costly and appropriate mem- 
orials have been given. Among these 
may be mentioned the superb eagle 
lectern given in memory of Senator 
and Mrs. Barnum, the eagle on which 
was carved from life ; the memorial 
altar of -quartered oak, the substantial 
commemoration of Mrs. Lucy Ann 
Richardson ; the vases and font cover, 
which keep in mind Helen Gilbert, the 
little grand-daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
C. W. Barnum. The most recent gift 
to the church is a magnificent pulpit 
of brass and oak, most chaste and sim- 
ple in design, in memory of Mrs. 



Lucy Caroline Richardson Harwood, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. M. B. Rich- 
ardson and wife of Mr. Robert Winch 
Harwood of Natick, ^lass. The af- 
ternoon sun, shining through the nu- 
merous memorial windows on the del- 
icately tinted walls enhances the beau- 
ty and quiet dignity of this house of 
God, which stirs the soul to worship- 
ful mood and brings back to recollec- 
tion the good lives of those whose 
names will ever be remembered here, 
as their virtues and labors are recalled. 

Any town might well be proud of 
the public-spirited citizens who reside 
in the comfortable homes along Elm 
street. In succession stand the resi- 
dences of Mr. N. A. :\IcXeil, Mr. 
Charles W. Barnum and Mr. M. B. 
Richardson, interspersed with cosy 
cottages, venerable homesteads and 
stuccoed farm houses, many of which 
have borne the weather brunt of the 
flying years. 

In the heart of Lime Rock are lo- 
cated the car wheel and gray iron 
founderies, and adjacent thereto the 
machine shop. The old inn, greatly 
changed since the early days of the 
centurv, and now known as the Rockv 




nioto»«\ K. T. Sh«M>n 
THE CASINO — WHERE THE SOCIAL GATHERINGS OF THE VIM AGE ARE HEI.D 



698 



I A' THE COXNECTICUT HIGHLANDS 




'EDGEWOOD 



RESIDENCE OF MR. M 



Photo by K. T. Sheldon 
RICHARDSON 



Dell Hotel, stands facing the general 
offices of the Barnum, Richardson 
Company. Just across the bridge are 
the old homesteads of William H. Bar- 
num and Leonard Richardson, em- 
bowered among the elms that arch the 
street, in whose well-kept bounds 
stand the fine greenhouses whose flow- 
ers these many years have carried 
fragrance and cheer into homes of 
sickness and sorrow. 

The little ]^Iethodist chapel, a quaint 
old building once used as a union 
meeting house, stands on the river 
bank opposite. Here the road rises, 
going up the hill toward White Hol- 
low and Sharon, and just at its crest 
stands the home of I\Ir. Richard X. 
Barnum. This pretty house was for 
many years the residence of ]\Ir. Por- 
ter S. Burrall, treasurer of the Bar- 
num, Richardson Company. Beyond, 
at the left, lie the pleasant farm lands, 
meadow, pasture land and woodland, 
through which Pierce brook pursues 
its course : at the right Red moun- 
tain lifts its forest clad head, remind- 
ing one of a crouching lion as its dark 
outlines stretch athwart, the glowing 
sunset over its mane. The fertile and 



productive farms of ^Ir. James L. 
Richardson and Mr. Gibson Gillette 
extend beneath the mountain's brow. 

Retracing steps to the bridge we 
may follow Riverside Drive through 
the dark pine-fringed gorge in which 
sleeps the quiet pond whose waters 
turn today, as they have for close upon 
a hundred years, the mill wheel in the 
old grist mill. As we emerge w^e come 
into "the upper village." Straight 
ahead lie the steep slopes of Norton 
Plill ; to the right the creek descends 
by old Thomas Lamb's natural dam, 
above which Forge mountain rears its 
jagged crest. In the intervals are the 
tidy, pleasant homes of many citizens. 
Xear the furnace the old red brick 
building with quaint bell tower, was 
once the office and store of Canfield 
and Robbins, and later, until its more 
commodious office was built, the jNIc 
Xeil and Co.'s fire insurance agency, 
which does an extensive business in 
this region, had its abode here. 

Lime Rock is a busy little village, 
and as one stands in front of the gen- 
eral offices of the company; the burr 
and buzz of machinery ; the hurrying 
of workmen ; the clink, clink of the 



LIME ROCK— VILLAGE AMONG THE HILLS 



699 




oc 



IX THE COXXECTICUT HIGHLANDS 




LIME ROCK— VILLAGE AMOXG THE HILLS 



701 




FOXHURST 



■rz5:e£x:z 



N. BARNUM 



hea^y car wheels as they are rolled 
into the wagons: the chirk, chirk of 
tlie pohsher : impress the fact that this 
is the home of one of America's great- 
est industries. It is an interesting 
fact that a large proportion of the ore 
taken from the mines of the company, 
after being smelted into pig iron, finds 
its way into the manufacture of car 
w heels^ of which the factory here has 
a capacity- of eightv- per day. 




PW(v> bv K. T. Sk«}^K-« 

THE METHODIST CHAPEL 



One ver\- marked feature of the 
comjnunirv- is the good feeling preA-ail- 
insT amonsT all classes. Manv of the 
workmen have spent the greater part 
of their lives in the place, and it is a 
common saWng. that "Lime Rock is a 
good place for a poor man to live." 
In a small community a degree of fel- 
lowship and friendliness can be attain- 
ed which is not possible in a larger 
place. ^loreover, thougrh as in ever>- 
\-illage there are representatives of 
many Christian creeds, all live in amity 
and good will, cordially co-operating 
in the entertainments which are held 
in the artistic Casino which crowns the 
southern hill crest above the shops. 
The Casino is fitted with all conven- 
iences for culinar>- and social pur- 
poses, ha\*ing drawing rooms and din- 
ing rooms down stairs, and a large 
hall with stage and drop curtain on 
the second fioor. 

The past few years have brouirht u> 
citV dwellers a revelation of the beau- 
tv of their own land and of the channs 
of a region lying but a few hours from 
:hoir doors. The excelling graiu'c :- 
of the higtilands of Connecticut. : ^ r 
glory and wealth of natural beaiu\ of 
forest, field, stream and Tuountain. can 



702 



IN THE CONNECTICUT HIGHLANDS 




LIME ROCK— VILLAGE AMONG THE HILLS 



703 




RESIDENCE OF MR. N. 



MCNEIL 



be no better illustrated than in the 
glorious scenery of this corner of the 
State. A stranger coming into this 
locality is always impressed by the 
beauty of his surroundings. The ser- 
rated range of hills to the north, the 
bold Barack-Matiff to the east, the 
distant Canaan mountain far to the 
northeast, the wide valley overlooked 
by Sharon's wooded peak, and Red 
mountain peering out from the oppo- 



site side, — are all striking features in 
the varied scene. Though no battle- 
field or historic ruins attract the anti- 
quarian, yet the beautiful locality by 
the Salmon Fell-Kill umst over linger 
in the memory of the casual pilgrim 
or the short-tarrying pleasure seeker, 
for the grace and charm of fair Na- 
ture weaves a mystic web of enchant- 
ment over the oft-recurring vision i^f 
tlie fair village amoue" tlie hills. 




Photo l<y K. T. ShrKioii 



$ 



^SSJI 




THE INDIAN'S GREETING TO THE WHITE MAN 



His heart is the heart of the bravest of men, 
True-hearted, Dutch-hearted, strong ; 

It beats for his God, and it beats for the sod 
That his God helps him keep from the wrong. 

(series of articles on early dutch traders) 



The 

Kore= 

Rtjtnner 



THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN 

INVASION OF THE INDIAN's HOMELAND 

PREPARING THE WAY FOR CIVILIZATION 

BY 

CLARA EMERSON-BICKFORD 



IN the imagery of history I can see 
the smoke curling from the 
camp fire in the valley, and fol- 
lowing the narrow path through 
the glen I come to an opening on the 
bank of the river, where th e dark shad- 
ows reflect the density of the flowing 
waters. There stands in the red glow 
of the burning log a figure erect, strong- 
limbed and bronzed by the conflicts 
with nature. His tawny brow is 
penciled with the rugged lines of 
storm-beaten character, and he stands 
like one ready and eager to meet 
fate face to face. Bending over her 
labor, with a child strapped to her 
shoulders, and her limbs covered by 
the leathern hide of a recent hunt, a 
woman faithfully performs the duties 
of a mother of a great race. As the 
flickering blaze dies low the man of 
red strikes light with the flint rock 
and hews into deadly shape the 
arrow head of stone — his law, his 
God, his all-powerful judiciary that 
settles all disputations between right 
and wrong. Never has history 
painted a more pathetic picture than 
in its story of the first American, and 
his uneven conquest with brute 
creation. 

Whatever may have been the fail- 
ures of the Dutch, they at least treated 
the aboriginal Americans honorably. 
With less piety, but greater sincerity 
of sympathy, the Dutch entered the 
Indian's homeland and prepared the 
way for the hand of progress, which 
in later years became as brutal and 
relentless as savagery itself. 



"The Dutch settlers," says one 
writer, '< habitually treated the 
Indians 'as men with rights of life, 
liberty and property like their own; 
they purchased what they wanted 
fairly and with the consent of the 
owners.' There were, it is true, 
bloody wars between Dutch and 
Indians, but as a rule they were due 
to the mistaken policy of the com- 
pany and to the individual crimes of 
its directors, and such policy was 
opposed to the general sentiments of 
the Dutch Colonists." 

"The practice of the Dutch 
throughout their occupation .... 
was opposed to acts of spoliation," 
says the historian, "but the savage 
mind was incapable of grasping the 
international code of ethics. On the 
questions of discovery and coloniza- 
tion according to this code, it was 
held that discovery of an unknown 
country, provided its inhabitants 
were savages and heathen, created 
a flawless title of possession in favor 
of the discoverers. . . . The colonists 
adopted the expedient of paying to 
the Indians a nominal price for their 
lands, but this appears to have been 
an error in judgment, since either 
the charter of discovery and occupa- 
tion by foreign ])owers was invalid, 
or the transaction was merely a 
measure of timid precaution, which 
from inadequacy of the price paid 
would in modern days bring the 
party of the first part under tlie pen- 
alties of the civil code." 



BEGINNING OF TRADE IN AMERICA 



EXPORTATIONS OF SKINS AND FURS TO 
MARKETS OF OLD WORLD BY THE DUTCH 



BY 



MacGREGOR fiske 



IT was a commercial spirit that 
brought the first white men to 
Connecticut; the same adven- 
turous spirit that sent their 
descendants to California two hun- 
dred and thirty -five years later. 
While the incentive of 1849 was gold, 
the incentive in 16 14 was animal 
hides and marketable skins. When 
Adrain Block and Cornelius Hen- 
dricksen constructed a little sailing 
vessel at the trading post in Manhat- 
tan and turned its bow toward the 
Sound, it was as great an event to 
the pioneers on the Hudson as the 
sailing of the first expedition to the 
polar regions. So meager was the 
understanding of the journey into the 
unknown waters that the hard)^ and 
courageous seamen were equally 
expectant of floating over a placid 
lake into a lost paradise, or plunging 
into a cataract that led to the boiling 
chasm of inferno. 

Fortunately the voyage of the 
" Unrest" was most restful, and the 
two adventurers followed the Sound, 
exploring the rivers emptying into it, 
and sailed up the Connecticut to its 
falls. With apparent realization of 
the importance of their discoveries, 
names were given to the most con- 
spicuous points, and the site of New 
Haven was called " Rodenburgh " or 
the Red Hills, and the great river 
was named Fresh because of the 
strong downward current at its 
mouth, while the name of one of the 



adventurers was applied to Block 
Island. 

So favorable was the report of the 
voyage that a company was formed in 
Holland to develop the newly discov- 
ered territory. A stockade was erected 
in 1623 on the point of the Fresh river 
now occupied by the city of Hartford, 
and in 1633 a fort known as "Good 
Hope," or the "House of Hope," 
was completed, commanding the 
navigation of the river, conducting a 
flourishing trade with New Amster- 
dam and Holland, and controlled by 
the Dutch West India Company. 
An extensive fur trade was begun 
and cargoes of costly skins were 
shipped to the markets of the older 
civilization. The good ship "Arena," 
of Amsterdam, left port with a 
precious load consisting of 7426 skins 
of bears, 853 of otter, 81 of mink, 36 
of wildcat and 34 of rat. 

Trade with the Indians was also 
encouraged and territorial acquisi- 
tions made by shrewd bargaining. 
From the Pequots "a flat called 
Luckiage (or Black Earth), one 
league down from the river, a third 
of a league wide to the highland, and 
beyond the kill upwards to a little 
stream," was purchased for " piece 
of duffel 27 ells long, 6 axes, 6 ket- 
tles, 18 knives, sword blade, pair of 
shears, some toys and a musket." 
This was the beginning of Hartford, 
the capital city of Connecticut, a 
state which today stands in the fore- 
front of all progressive movements. 



EMIGRATION FROM THE OLD WORLD 



MANY OF MOST SUBSTANTIAL DUTCH FAMILIES 
ATTRACTED BY OPPORTUNITIES IN AMERICA 



BY 



ROBINSON TRAVERS. 



THE beauties of the new Con- 
necticut lands and the riches 
of its forests and streams soon 
became a matter of common 
knowledge in Holland. Emigration 
from the old world began slowly but 
many of the most substantial old 
Dutch families were attracted by the 
opportunities of the western hemi- 
sphere, and the Good Hope settle- 
ment became not only a commercial 
but a social center. There was 
Gysbert Opdyck, a native of Wesel 
in the borough of Guelderland, 
a man of learning, who for thirty 
years was an officer of the Dutch 
West India Company. He was 
appointed commissary of the Fort of 
Good Hope in 1639 and reappointed 
by Governor Stuyvesant in 1647. 
In 1643 he married Catherine, 
daughter of Richard Smith, an 
Englishman of position and wealth 
in Narragansett. A frequent guest 
at the House of Hope was Govert 
Loockerman, a man of superior 
education, who accumulated great 
wealth as a trader. He had two 
daughters, Maritje and Janet, the 
latter being remarkable in her pro- 
ficiency in the Indian languages and 
acting as interpreter for Governor 
Stuyvesant at the treaty of 1664. 
The Provoosts were one of the early 
families in Good Hope. They were 
Huguenots driven at the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew from France into 
Holland. David Provoost came to 
this country in 1638 and took charge 
of the fort in 1642. His wife, 
Margaret Gilles, was of French 
descent and four children were born 



to them during the five years of 
his service. Another Huguenot was 
Johannes de LaMontagne, owner of 
a farm of two hundred acres in 
Harlem, and at one time commissary 
here. 

Casper Varleth, a prosperous 
merchant, came to Good Hope in 
1633. In his family were in later 
years his wife, a son and four 
daughters. Their home was typical 
of the Dutch customs and manners 
of the times. An inventory of his 
estate in 1662 says of the Varleth 
home, "the rooms were, one large 
one on the ground floor and a hall 
or entry; two upper chambers and 
a ' garrot ' ; a kitchen and buttery. 
There was a bed in the lower room, 
table, chairs, a 'close skreen,' a case 
of drawers, tongs, fire pan, a num- 
ber of painted boxes, a Dutch 
Bible, two pairs of scales and three or 
four large chests. ... A good 
carpet of broadcloth with a green 
'quishion box.' There was a green 
carpet in the hall chamber, a settle 
two lattice and two turned chairs 
and two chests or trunks. . . 
Yellow curtains and wrought val 
ances were mentioned. 
There were pictures, books and a 
looking glass. ... In the chests 
were tape, silk, maps, fine thread 
and writing paper. ... In the 
barn were eight loads of hay, two 
cattle, two steers, two cows, a calf 
and pig. Two mares and their colts 
were at pasture." 

This brief summary is typical of 
the good breeding and domesticity of 
earlv Dutch traders in Connecticut. 



DUTCH 



ENDOWMENT 



HOLLAND INSTILLED THE SPIRIT OF COMMERCIALISM 

INTO AMERICAN LIFE INCREASED OUR MATERIAL 

WEALTH RATHER THAN OUR SPIRITUAL OR INTELLECTUAL 



BY 



H. LOUISE PARKER 



THE American wilderness with 
its strange savage inhabi- 
tants failed for many years 
to create more than geo- 
graphic interest on the European 
continent. Old Rome in its decay, 
Greece in its decline, Egypt in the 
lethargy of medieval civilization, 
found nothing whatever to again 
arouse them in the discovery of a 
new world destined to surpass their 
highest realizations and stand the 
peer of nations. In England it was 
a formative period when internal 
strifes perplexed. Adventurers, 
sociologists and even socialists of the 
times, seeking an opportunity to 
break the monarchal bondage, gave 
the land some investigation and 
studied the possibilities of its becom- 
ing the long-looked-for Utopia. 
Communists, desirous of equalizing 
the social conditions in life and wor- 
shipping God with a simple, common 
faith, sacrificed their positions and 
belongings at home and struggled 
against the hardships of a new world 
for conscience sake. 

Commercial Holland, with good 
Dutch foresight, realized the possi- 
bility that unknown regions of wild 
beasts and wild men might be a 
treasure-land. It was, however, 
with little idea of its real significance 
that Hendrick Hudson, a mysterious 
adventurer, sailed under the flag of 
Holland intent upon the discovery of 
a commercial passage to China other 
and shorter than the Cape of Good 



Hope route. This strange, eccentric 
individual, Hudson, remained in the 
public eye but four years and in that 
time became known as one of the 
world's greatest navigators. Abso- 
lutely nothing is known of his per- 
sonal history before April 19, 1607, 
or after June 21, 161 1. 

It was in 1609 that the storms 
blew the hardy seaman into the bay 
off the island later known as Man- 
hattan. After going 150 miles up 
the river, surveying its course and 
treating with the Indians, the navi- 
gator became satisfied that its waters 
would not lead to the South Sea or 
China. Whatever may have been 
his disappointment, his failure may 
be termed the most successful failure 
in history, and it created for Holland 
a valid right of discovery to the most 
important territory on the new con- 
tinent. Able to perceive fortune in 
apparent misfortune, the Dutch im- 
mediately established their trading 
posts and inculcated the spirit of 
commercialism, which has grown to 
tremendous proportions, and made 
made this vast country the material 
power which it is today. 

The instinct which brought the 
Dutch to the new America was not 
that of humanitarianism, or indivi- 
dualism or socialism, neither was it 
a religious motive ; it was pure com- 
mercialism. They were opportun- 
ists and seized the advantages offered 
in a vast expanse of new lands. 
They came not to co-operate with 



DUTCH 



ENDOWMENT 



709 



the colonists and natives but to 
barter with them. They took little 
interest in the organization of stable 
government or in the establishment 
of a permanent educational system; 
their purpose was not to build a 
great nation but simply to live easy 
and prosperous lives. They were 
epicures, not diplomats; they were 
hosts, not benefactors; theirs was 
hospitality, not philanthropy. Per- 
sonal aggrandizement concerned 
them more than the political inter- 
ests of the colony; in fact most of 
them intended to reap emoluments 
and return to their mother country. 
In these days of trusts it may be 
of interest to note that the Dutch 



were monopolists, and through char- 
ters obtained control of certain por- 
tions of the seas. Of such was the 
West India Company, a great organ- 
ization for commerce, not for col- 
onization ; and of such were the men 
who came to America through its 
agency. They were the pioneers in 
American trade and commerce. The 
spirit of commercialism instilled by 
the Dutch still exists and is an im- 
portant factor in the upbuilding of 
our greatest business institutions. 
The Dutch endowment has not been 
intellectual, neither has it been 
spiritual, but it has been supremely 
material. 



THE SKY LINE 



A NEW ENGLAND LANDSCAPE 

BY 
HORACE HOTCHKISS HOLLEY 

Like the brow of vengeful giant prostrate 
The barren hills glare up into the sky ; 
And in the rocks grave fear is written deep, 
Shared by the mountains, forests, and by man. 
The setting sun its shadow throws far down 
Upon the valley laborer beneath ; 
He felt it harsh who died for liberty, 
Whose bony face was shaped for martyr's end. 
In silence marched that band who first made homes 
Beside the echoing caverns of its hills; 

Courageous men who feared the God whom they would love- 
New England's Hebrew God beyond the sky's cold line. 



THE BREADTH OF GOD'S THOUGHT 



BY 
CORA M. CRATTY 

God's thought for his creature was boundless Right 
When He feathered the wild bird's wing; 
That its soul might revel, in the azure light, 
And sing as it soared of love's great might, 
With never a thought that its wing was bright. 
God's thought for his creature was boundless flight 
When He feathered the wild bird's wing. 



LANTERNS 
I N 

EARLY 
AMERICA 




♦Plate I 



LANTERNS MENTIONED BUT ONCE IN THE BIBLE LANTERNS 

USED IN CHINA 5OOO YEARS BEFORE CHRIST BEGINNING 

OF STREET LIGHTING IN AMERICA — SERIES CONTINUED 

BY 

C. A. QUINCY NORTON 

REGULAR CORRESPONDENT OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AT WASHINGTON, D, C. 



LANTERNS are mentioned but 
once in the Bible : "Judas then, 
having received a band of men 
and officers from the chief 
priests and Pharisees, cometh thither 
with lanterns and torches and weap- 
ons." — (John xviii: jj The Hebrew 
people were well acquainted with the 
lantern. Without doubt the forms in 
use by them during the time of Jesus 
were survivals of those common in 
Egypt during the captivity of their 
ancestors. On the walls of a tomb, 
in which lay the mummy of a former 
ruler of an early Egyptian dynasty, 
has been found a beautiful fresco, rep- 
resenting two soldiers, one of whom 
carries a lantern suspended from a 



long staff, or jointed reed. In general 
shape it is not unlike the, so-called, 
perforated lanterns, Fig. 2, Plate I, 
common in the i6th and 17th cen- 
turies, both in England and America. 
It appears to be a light frame of wire 
surrounding a paper cylinder, evident- 
ly constructed in the same manner as 
the early Chinese lanterns of oil paper. 
So far as research has determined this 
is the earliest representation of a real 
lantern that has yet been discovered. 
Nothing that would answer for a lan- 
tern has been found in the ruins of 
any of the more ancient cities of 
Assyria. 

The famous Latin epigrammatic 
poet. Martial, 80 A. D., refers to the 



*Tin lantern of 1776 on left— Perforated lantern of 1665 in center— Tin lantern from steamer "Oliver Ellsworth,' 
1829, on right 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



711 




Plate II 

SOME HISTORIC DARK LANTERNS 

Night watchman's dark lantern of i6qo on left— Wood 
frame street lantern from Boston, in 1780, hanging 
above^Dark lantern from Old Capitol Prison at Wash- 
ington, 1865, in center— Coach lantern, 1829, on right 

lantern, and mentioned that bladders 
as well as horn were used for sides. 
Several of the early Greek poets speak 
of the lantern. Accounts uniformly 
agree that ■ the Cynic philosopher 
Diogenes used a lantern in his search 
for an honest man. An ancient Ro- 
man writer states that the best and 
most transparent horn lanterns were 
brought from Carthage. He also 
states that, "when a wealthy man went 
out at night, a slave, who was called 
the lanternariiis or servus praeliicens, 
would walk before his master bearing 
a lantern to light the way." 

Two bronze lanterns have been 
found, one in the ruins of Hercula- 
ueum and one at Pompeii. They are 
cylindrical in form, and were supplied 
with bronze lamps, each of which was 
provided with a bronze extinguisher. 
Plates of translucent horn formed the 
sides, and were in a remarkable state 



of preservation when found. A bar- 
handle attached by chains to the lan- 
tern afforded a means of supporting 
them in the hand. A sliding door or 
panel gave access to the lamps within. 

The use of lanterns in China dates 
back beyond authentic history. It is 
said that some of the sacred books of 
this hoary empire mention the use of 
paper lanterns in the great temples 
five thousand years B. C. On the 15th 
day of the first month of the new year 
is held in China what is known as the 
''Feast of Lanterns." The streets in 
the principal cities and larger towns 
are literally lined with paper lanterns 
of every conceivable size and shape, 
all most brilliantly colored and other- 
wise richly ornamented. The houses 
also are decorated with hundreds of 
gaudy lanterns, which are hung from 
every point. Some of the beautiful 
lanterns used on this national festivity 
are often very valuable, and frequently 
rank as real works of art, being mag- 
nificently painted and lavishly gilded, 
with frames of wood and bronze artis- 
tically carved and skillfully worked, 
and frequently richly enamelled. Many 
are of great size, frequently being from 
twenty to thirty feet in diameter. 
They are sometimes constructed so 
that a company of visiting friends may 
be entertained inside the great globes. 
Many are covered with rich silk on 
which is painted in vivid colors huge 
flowers and elegantly plumed birds of 
gigantic size. The effect of a great 
city brilliantly illuminated with many 
thousands of these beautiful lanterns 
of all sizes and shapes, hung from 
bamboo poles along the narrow streets, 
and from the low houses, and among 
the leafy trees, is picturc.sque in the 
extreme. 

Chinese tradition says that the 
"Feast of Lanterns" had its origin in 
the following pleasant incident. An 
onlv daughter oi a famous and power- 
ful mandarin while walking on the 
edge of a pond, on her father's estate, 
had the misfortune to fall into the 
water, and was sui^i^^sed to be drown- 
ed. Her father with all his neiq-hb^rs 



712 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



went with lanterns to look for his be- 
loved child. Happily she was found 
and rescued from her dangerous posi- 
tion, and restored to her father. To 
celebrate the recovery of his daughter 
the grateful parent held a festival an- 
nually on the spot where she was 
found, and as lanterns played such an 
important part in her recovery, he had 
the whole park brilliantly illuminated. 
This grew into the ''Feast of Lan- 
terns," and in time became a national 
festival. 

From an incorrect understanding of 
the etymology of the word, the old 
and popular English spelling of lan- 
tern was lanthorn, in allusion, without 
doubt, to the use of thin plates of 
horn that often formed the sides of old 
time lanterns. The Latin word is lan- 
terna. In Greek the word is lampter, 
which is literally torch or a light, from 
lampein, to shine. 

Some wood engravings illustrating 
historical scenes in the latter part of 
the 1 6th century, picture lanterns, 
both for the street and to be carried by 
hand. An old French print dated 1525 
has an iron framed lantern hanging 
over the front door of a house, a cus- 
tom common in early colonial days in 
this country. Another ancient en- 
graving of 1686 shows the Place Des 
Victoires, Paris, in which are six large 
marble columns on the capitals of 
which are large bronze lanterns. Each 
lantern was supplied with four can- 
dles. Evidently the panels are trans- 
lucent plates of horn. 

In 141 6 the Lord Mayor of London, 
Sir Henry Barton, issued the follow- 
ing : "Ordained, that lanterns with 
lights bee hanged out on Winter even- 
ings, betwixt Hallontide and Candle- 
masse." Shakespeare speaks of the 
lantern many times in his dramas, fre- 
quently using the word as an adjective. 
In Queen Anne's time, from about 
1720, street lighting with lanterns had 
become very common in London. 
Ralph Thoresby, an English antiquary 
of note, wrote in his diary in 171 2: 
"All the way, quite through Hyde 
Park to the Queen's Palace at Ken- 



sington, lanterns were placed for il- 
luminating the road in dark nights."" 

The City of Paris was not lighted 
until 1524, and then to a very limited 
degree, and only with Falots or cres- 
sets, which were filled with pitch and 
other combustible materials and light- 
ed on dark nights. These were placed 
on the corners of a few of the more 
commonly used streets. As late as 
1662 the provisions for street lighting 
were so imperfect that the authorities 
granted an Italian Abbe the exclusive 
right to furnish men and boys to bear 
links and lanterns, who should at a 
reasonable cost furnish light to con- 
duct coaches and foot passengers 
through the dark streets. 

A great lantern, twenty-six inches 
in diameter, with panels of thin plates 
of horn set in a light frame of wood^ 
and arranged for eight candles within, 
and supported on a stout staff or pole, 
was formerly carried before the Wor- 
shipful Mayor of Chichester, Eng- 
land, in 1660, on state occasions at 
night. It was familiarly known as 
the "Moon." An old chronicler writes : 
"It is yet remembered by the older 
inhabitants, how on winter nights this 
great satellite was wont to await at the 
entrance of the choir the close of the 







J. 


1 


'I'm 
•1 

i 1 


1 s^k fSf 




Ua 


sJX 


k ■ 




^ 



Plate III 

BEGINNING OF STREET LIGHTING 

These were kept supplied with pine knots by the night 
watchmen and are the first evidence of street lighting in 
America 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



713 




Plate IV 

HUNG IN HANCOCK MANSION 

On Beacon Hill, Boston, in 1774— Most beautiful hexa- 
gon lantern of the times 

evening service at the Cathedral, and 
how it accompanied the Worshipful 
Mayor through the nave and along the 
dark cloister, w^hen the Mayor yvent 
to call on the Bishop." The Moon was 
surmounted by a large arched crown. 
There was a companion luminary des- 
ignated as the "Sun," which was of 
somewhat more stately dimensions, 
and more powerful radiance. This 
was used only when a new Mayor was 
conducted into office, or when the an- 
cient city was visited by royalty. 

At Folketone, England, in the old 
town hall, is a curious lantern of great 
size but not globular in form. This 
was used in escorting the chief munici- 
pal officer of that ancient town on state 



occasions. Like the "]^Ioon" at Chi- 
chester, this also had horn plates set 
in a wood frame, and was borne aloft 
supported on a stout staff. As late as 
1750, it is recorded, that Lord ]\Iidle- 
ton of Pepperharrow, Surrey, Eng- 
land, had a large ''Moon" lantern that 
was carried by a man on horseback 
whenever his Lordship went abroad 
after dark. It was also common to 
display similar large lanterns, but per- 
haps not of such huge dimensions^ 
during market times in the cities and 
towns, and they were frequently used 
in some parts of England to designate 
the residence of the leading man of the 
town. In one instance it is recorded 
that the curate had hung before his 
door in Salisbury a great lantern that 
was always kept burning late on dark 
nights. 

An old English print contemporary 
in publication with the historic gun- 
powder plot of Guy Eawkes in 1604. 
represents him at the very moment of 
discovery in the cellar under the House 
of Parliament, and shows the arch 
conspirator with a small dark lantern 
in his hand. This is almost identical 
in form with the small tin lantern with 
a mica front, Eig. i, Plate II, which 
is a pattern that was common through- 
out the New England colonies during 
the 17th and i8th centuries. This 
was called a watchman's lantern, and 
was in use by night watchmen in the 
cities and larger towns. Among some 
collectors and dealers in antiques, the 
so-called perforated tin lanterns, Eig. 
2, Plate I, which is also known as the 
''Punched Lantern," is frequently cal- 
led the "Guy Eawkes" lantern, under 
the impression that the light used by 
this conspirator was of this form. 
Nothing could be further from the 
fact than this unsupported assumption. 
Guy Eawkes was undoubtedly a fanat- 
ical zealot, but even at this late day we 
should be hardly justified in thinking 
him stupid enough to take such an 
open light into a small enclosure where 
there were a number of barrels of gun- 
jwwder already ]^re]~)ared to blow up 
Jiis hated enemies, for he must have 



714 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



realized that in so doing he was en- 
dangering his ov/n Hfe, which such a 
cowardly would-be assassin would 
shrink from doing. If we are to ac- 
cept the proof of the old print, referred 
to above, we may safely conclude that 
this misguided bigot without question 
used on this occasion a small, closed, 
so-called, dark lantern, one in which 
the light could be quickly hidden, and 
the lantern itself easily slipped into the 
pocket of the great coat. 

The vStreets of ancient Boston were 
not regularly lighted until 1774, al- 
though for a number of years before 
this date there were many_ private lan- 
terns either over the front doors of the 
larger houses, or near the gates open- 
ing on the main streets. A few of the 
more pretentious stores also maintain- 
ed lanterns in front of their doors dur- 
ing the winter months. There was as 
early as 1695 several large, iron cres- 
sets, or fire baskets, Plate III, on the 
corners of some of the most frequented 
streets. These were kept supplied 
Avith pine knots by the night watch- 
uian, and by their flickering, smoky 
light assisted this official in the dis- 
charge of his duties. Beacon Hill was 
so named because of the fact that dur- 
ing the early years of Boston's settle- 
ment, a beacon was kept ready to be 
fired to alarm the people of the neigh- 
boring towns on the approach of hos- 
tile Indians or other foes. 

In 1772 a number of public meetings 
were held in Boston at which action 
Avas taken in regard to furnishing 
lights for the streets of the town. The 
final result was that a committee was 
appointed, of which Honorable John 
Hancock was one, to secure from Eng- 
land three or four hundred street lan- 
terns, or as the records say: 'Tamps 
suitable for pro])erly lighting ye streets 
and lanes of this town." These were 
paid for by ])rivate subscription. 

The lamps, or lanterns, had been or- 
dered from England, and as the fol- 
lowing extract from a letter written 
rJecember 19th, 1773, by John An- 
drews, a citizen of Boston, indicates, 
had come to grief through shipwreck. 



In this letter wTitten to a correspon- 
dent evidently acquainted with the 
shipping of the port of Boston, he 
says: 'T forgot to acquaint you last 
evening that Loring, a brig belonging 
to Clark, is on shore at ye back of 
Cape Cod, drove thither by a storm 
last Fryday week. Its unlucky that 
the Loring has ye lamps on board for 
our streets. I am sorry if they are 
lost, as we shall be depriv'd of their 
benefit this winter in consequence of 




Plate V 

GROUND GLASS WHALE-OIL LAMP 

Owned by "My Lord Timothy Dexter," at Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, 1840 

it." It appears that the brig Loring 
was a "tea-ship," having on board a 
large number of chests of tea, and in 
addition some general freight, among 
which were the lamps ordered by the 
committee from the manufacturers in 
England. At least the metal parts of 
the lamps, or lanterns, must have been 
saved from the stranded ship, for the 
following record, taken from the diary 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



715 



g£ Thomas Newell of Boston, shows 
that he was employed to repair the 
lanterns recovered from the wrecked 
brig less than a month after her dis- 
aster. "Jamiary 8, (1774) Began to 
make the tops (sides?) of ye glass 
lamps for this town." 

Under the date of March 2, 1774, 
this same careful recorder writes in 
his diary : "A number of lamps in 
town were lighted this evening for the 
first time. Two responsible persons 
from each ward have been appointed 
to decide, with the approval of the gen- 
eral committee, upon the most fitting 
locations in which to place the new 
lanterns." No description of these 
lamps has been found in any of the 
ancient records of Boston. The pre- 
sumption is that they were small, tin 
framed lanterns, and that they were 
suspended from iron cranes that were 
secured to buildings on the corners of 
the most frequented thoroughfares. 

The Massachiisetts Gazette of Mar. 
3, 1774, says: "Last evening two or 
three hundred lamps, fixed in several 
streets and lanes of this town, were 
lighted. They will be of great utility 
to this metropolis." The Boston Nezvs 
Letter of March 3, 1774, also says: 
"The City had 200 or 300 street lamps 
lighted last night." From a careful 
reading of the historical notes relating 
to matters that detailed events of this 
period in Boston, it is evident that 
these street lanterns were distributed 
over an area of perhaps not more than 
a mile in either direction from the 
old State House. 

The unique, wood-framed lantern, 
Fig. 2, Plate IT, for years prior to 
1780 hung before the door of a law- 
yer's office in an old building that 
stood near the corner of School and 
Washington streets, Boston. The 
light was a tallow candle, and remains 
of its melted glory are still evident in 
the corners of the old luminary. The 
entry or front hall of all large colonial 
houses was always made attractive and 
inviting. It was generally long and 
broad, with a gracefully winding flight 
of wide stairs leading to the floor 




Plate VI 

FROM OLD COLONIAL HOUSE 
AT PORTLAND 

Ground glass iiall lantern used in Maine in 1820 

above. Always one, and sometimes 
two or more beautiful lanterns were 
suspended from the ceiling. Besides 
these there were frequently mural 
sconces, or ''prongs" with three or 
more branches for candles that were 
])laced along the walls. The large en- 
try lanterns were fitted with rich color- 
ed cathedral glass panels set in bronze 
or gilt frames. 

The elegant hexagon lantern. Plate 
IV, formerly hung in the Hancock 
INIansion on Beacon Hill, P^oston. 
The six glass panels are finely colored. 



7i6 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



The frame is of rich design, and was 
finished in what was known as fire gilt, 
having the appearance of bright gold. 
Tradition says that there were three 
of these beautiful lanterns that hung 
in the great central hall of the Hancock 
^lansion, while a third was at the head 
of the stairs on the second floor, facing 
"]\Iadam's room." 

The great house of "My Lord Tim- 
othy Dexter," an eccentric character 
of Newburyport, Mass., during the 




Plate VII 

FROM OLD TAVERN AT PROVIDENCE 
Ground glass hall lantern used in Rhode Island in 1837 



early 19th century, was said to be re- 
splendent with many lamps and lan- 
terns. The graceful, ground glass 
lantern, Plate V, was one of four that 
are said to have hung in the dining- 
room of his fine residence. This is 
provided with a glass whale-oil lamp. 
It had, when complete, a shield, or 
smoke-arrester, suspended above the 
globe. Plate VI, is a ground glass 
lantern of elegant design that formerly 
graced the entry of an old-time Port- 
land, Me., house. It is said to have 
been imported, and is evidently of 
English make of about 1780. Plate 
VII is also a ground glass lantern 
from the parlor of an old tavern in 
Providence, R. I. Prior to 1770, can- 
dles were burned in nearly all of this 
class of lanterns. Specially shaped 
lamps for lanterns burning whale-oil 
were not common in this country be- 
fore 1774. When these small lamps 
were introduced, they were generally 
of copper, tin or glass, and were fitted 
with two burners, or wick supports. 
John Brown, the hero of Ossawato- 
mie, and the distinguished champion 
of liberty, was born at Torrington, 
Conn., in May, 1800. The old house 
in which the future hero first saw the 
light is still standing, and has been 
purchased by an association which has 
been formed for the purpose of pre- 
serving the venerable homestead. 
Some years ago the writer visited the 
old house, which w^as at that time in a 
dilapidated condition. In the kitchen 
is a great stone oven near the immense 
fireplace. The oven was almost wholly 
filled with ashes and fragments of 
broken stone, the accumulation of 
years. Eagerly searching for some 
relic, as a memento of our visit to this 
historic old place, we explored the 
great oven. After removing much 
rubbish, and great quantities of broken 
stone, we had the good fortune to dis- 
cover the large tin, hand lantern, Plate 
Vin, which had evidently lain impris- 
oned for many years, as the condition 
of the oven clearly indicated that it 
had not been used for a long time. 
The engraving gives a front view, 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



717 



consequently the great handle attached 
to the back is not shown. As will be 
seen the lantern was arranged for three 
candles. In shape it is half round. A 
square of glass in front is held in place 
by fitting into grooves. The two rows 
of apertures, one at the top and one at 
the bottom, were for the admission of 
air and the escape of smoke and heat. 
This lantern is not only unique in form 
for a hand utensil of this nature, but 
has a value as an interesting relic, no 
doubt contemporary with the boyhood 
of the grand old champion of human 




Plate VIII 

FROM JOHN brown's BIRTHPLACE 

Tin hand lantern found in Torrington, Connecticut — In 
use about 1800 

liberty, who gave his life for the cause 
he espoused with such abandonment. 
Charles Dickens, in his American 
notes, humorously recounts his exper- 
ience on a steamboat trip on the Con- 
necticut river from Springfield to 
Hartford, February 2d, 1842. In 
speaking of the small river steamer, he 
says : "It certainly was not called a 
small steamboat without reason. I 
omitted to ask the question, but I 
should think it must have been of 
about a half pony power. . . ... 



The cabin was fitted with common 
sash-windows like an ordinary dwel- 
ling house. These windows had bright 
red curtains, too, hung on slack strings 

across the lower panes I 

am afraid to tell how many feet short 
this vessel was, or how many feet nar- 
row, to apply the words length and 
width to such measurement would be 
a contradiction in terms. But I may 
state that we all kept in the middle of 
the deck, lest the boat should unex- 
pectedly tip over, and the machinery 
by some surprising process of conden- 
sation work, between it and the keel, 
the whole forming a warm sandwich 
about three feet thick." This minia- 
ture steamer made daily trips between 
Springfield and Hartford for some 
time prior to 1843, passing through 
the canal at Windsor Locks. The boat 
was partly burned the next year after 
Dickens' memorable voyage on her. 
The tall, round glass lantern. Fig. i, 
Plate IX, formerly stood on a shelf 
in the little cabin of this boat and was 
held in place by a strip of brass se- 
cured to the wall. The glass cylinder 
is very thick so that no protecting 
wires were needed about it. The top 
and bottom, as well as the two-burner 
whale-oil lamp within, were tin. It is 
interesting to note that Dickens says 
that he left Hartford by railroad for 
New Haven, and reached there in three 
hours, but makes no comment on the 
slowness of the train. 

Whether the wood cut shown in the 
advertisement, Plate X, is a correct 
picture of the steamer Oliver Ells- 
worth or not, the writer has no means 
at his command of determining. ''The 
Nezv England Rcviczv," printed at 
Hartford in 1829, from which this no- 
tice was taken, also has an advertise- 
ment of "A New Line for New York," 
and the steamboat shown in this rival 
line is identical with that displayed in 
the Oliver Ellsworth's notice. It is 
safe to assume^ therefore, that the 
boat here pictured is one of a class 
rather than an exact representation of 
the Hartford boat. However, Dickens* 
description of the steamer New York, 



7i8 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



Avhich he took from New Haven, very 
graphically describes a boat that would 
very closely correspond with the one 
shown in this advertisement. The 
steamer Oliver Ellsworth was among 
the first, if not the very first, to make 
regular trips between Hartford and 
Xew York. If the reader will follow 
Dickens' description of the New Ha- 
ven boat, he will readily see that the 
large tin lantern, Fig. 3, Plate I, would 
not have been out of place as a part of 
the furnishing in the gentlemen's cab- 
in. This lantern actually hung in the 



copper. There is a tradition among 
the older employes of the Treasury, or 
was in 1861, that one gross of these 
lanterns was imported from England 
in 1845 for ^'^^ ^^se of government 
watchmen. Fig. 3, Plate IX, is a 
heavy tin lantern, known as a Maga- 
zine Safety lantern. A large, thick 
glass bull's eye is fitted to a projecting 
tube, which is attached to a swinging 
door or panel of the lantern. A broad 
wick lard-oil copper lamp is fitted in- 
side. The bail attached to the top is 
brass. This lantern was used on the. 



A 






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i^_^ 




t# 


f 




iJl 




^H M J^B Wmm. .. --- 


f) 




'^11 


1 ^ . wm '.-m 


W^t- 




M:.:::: : 


h , ■ ■■■''lililiii^ 


m 



Plate IX 



LIGHTED CHARLES DICKENS JOURNEY 



Cabin lantern on left was used on river steamer on which Charles Dickens sailed from Springfield to Hartford, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1842— Watchman's lantern in center was used in Treasury Department at Washington in i860— Safety maga« 
zine lantern on right is from U. S. S. " Hartford," 1864 



gentlemen's cabin on the Oliver Ells- 
worth in 1829. The inside of the lan- 
tern is silver plated, and the whale-oil 
lamp is copper. A heavy plate glass 
is secured in a frame that swings on 
hinges, thus affording access to the 
lam]) within. 

The small glass lantern, Fig. 2, 
Plate [X, was before i860 used by 
watchmen in the United States Treas- 
ury building at Washington, D. C. It 
has a D-shaped handle, not shown in 
the engraving. The metal parts are 



old historic U. S. S. Hartford during 
the war of 1861-5. 

The perforated, 'Tunched" lantern, 
Fig. 2, Plate I, was in common use 
both in P2ngland and this country for 
more than two hundred years, prior 
to 1800. It is of tin, and is thickly 
perforated with holes so made that the 
projecting edges, surrounding the per- 
forations, are outward. Often de- 
signs, such as stars, crescents, scrolls 
and interlacing lines, are figured by 
punching the holes in the tin so that an 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 



719 



effect of ornamentation is given. The 
candle that was burned inside would 
reflect its feeble light through the 

,v7'/v i '\ r^ * \r iJM:. 






I- 



'l'lZ!S^ 



rpd\ nM\ ; i. , i 1 -'Mil. J '■ < 
« M • ; .' i . , ■ , 

•<,.-..- < 1 < If -i. 



t r-. v ill ho rci i'nc: 



t H ' . - .*';--,. ' ' 

<•!-{ \- H >i' J- '.^' 

ir> 1 ' ', \. ' ' \'- "- . "* '' , 

Plate X-« 

THE FIRST RIVER STEAMERS 

Oliver Ellsworth " is believed to have been first to 
lake regular trips between Hartford and New York 





/#. 


4 

A','/ 






t' \, 




;;;:;„. 


.'. \m 


,,- h.,-,, Mm' • 





^H COACH FROM HARTFORD TO F.OSTON 
^^Bt'hotographed notice from Hartford Newspaper in 1829 

■ 



numerous small apertures, thus afford- 
ing a light that was more diffused than 
brilliant. Only candles were used in 
these lanterns. 

The small dark lantern, Fig. 3, Plate 
II, was used by the night guard at the 
old Capital Prison, Washington, D. C.,. 
while Captain Wirz, the Confederate 
officer formerly in charge of Ander- 
sonville prison, was confined there. It 
was used by the death-watch the night 
before the notorious Wirz was exe- 
cuted. 

When we recall the fact that Prof. 
Morse did not perfect his telegraph 
system until 1844, it seems rather re- 
markable that we should find in a 
Hartford paper of 1829 the following 
head-line to a stage notice, Plate X. 
Evidently the word "Telegraph" is 
here used as indicative of the dispatch 
or speed which the 'Tost Coach," or. 
as the legend on the door of the car- 
riage says, "Post Chaise," was sup- 
posed to make in its journey to and 
from Boston and Hartford. Fig. 4. 
Plate II, is a small inside coach lan- 
tern, and was used in one of the 
coaches that formed a part of the 
"New Line Telegraph" between Hart- 
ford and Boston in 1829. It is really 
a small lantern with three glass sides, 
having a small, single-burner whale-oil 
lamp. There is a polished concave 
reflector back of the lamp. At night 
the lantern was secured over the rear 
seat inside the coach. It was the rule 
of the road at that time that when 
ladies were traveling by coach to re- 
serve the rear seat for their use. In 
the picture it will be noticed that two 
ladies are occupying this seat, while on 
the front seat ride two gentlemen, one 
of whom from his dress appears to be 
a militarv officer. 

On the 27th of June, 1863, the I'. S. 
Revenue Cutter Caleb Cushing, lying 
at anchor in the harbor of Portland. 
Me., was boarded by an officer and 
five men. acting under a commission 
from the Confederate Xavy Depart- 
ment. Most of the cutter's crew were 
ashore with the captain, leaving but 
four men and a vounqf officer in charsfe 



720 



LANTERNS IN EARLY AMERICA 




Plate XII 

FROM SHIPWRECKED MASTHEAD 

Of U. S. Revenue Cutter "Caleb Cushing," 1863, found 
"by a Cape Elizabeth fisherman the morning after the 
ship sank 



about half a mile to the north of Cape 
Elizabeth . lighthouse, where they 
quickly scattered and succeeded in es- 
caping. The cutter drifted on to the 
rocks where she filled and sank. The 
ship's lantern shown in Plate XII was 
on the Caleb Cushing at the time of 
her destruction. It was recovered the 
next morning by a Cape fisherman. 
It is a French, ruby glass, set in heavy 
copper fittings, with steel guards. It 
has a copper whale-oil lamp with a 
half circular wick. 

The first through train from New 
Haven to Springfield, Mass., in 1844, 
lacked many of the luxurious fittings 
that now contribute so much to the 
comfort of passengers on this line. 
There were no gas lamps to brilliantly 
light the small cars, but in their place 
were two lanterns with candles in each 
car. Fig. i, Plate XIII, shows one of 
these lanterns that was formerly a part 
of the fittings in one of the first cars 
used on this line. Fig. 2, same Plate, 
shows an old time conductor's lantern 
also used in the early days of railroad- 
ing in this State. It was used by the 
conductor who, by passing his arm 
through the circular base, had the use 



of both 
tickets. 



hands while collectinsf his 



-of the vessel. These were quickly 
overpowered, disarmed and placed in 
the boat which the Confederates had 
come out in, and the oars being re- 
moved the boat was set adrift. The 
-cutter was immediately gotten under 
way, and with a light head wind at- 
tempted to sail out of the harbor. The 
keeper of the bug-light on the break- 
water, who witnessed the affair, at 
•once sent word to the Custom House 
at Portland. In less than an hour the 
Boston steamer, with a small company 
of U. S. Regulars, and a six-pound 
field gun from Fort Preble on board, 
was in hot pursuit of the runaway 
■cutter. When the rebel crew dis- 
covered that they were pursued, they 
attempted to work the vessel in shore, 
but failing in this they blew her up, 
and took to the small boat, and landed 




Plate XIII 

FIRST RAILROAD LANTERNS USED 

On first through train from New Haven to Springfield, 
in 1844— Candles were used for illumination 



THOROUGHFARES IN EARLY REPUBLIC CON 
TROLLED BY CORPORATIONS 



ROADS OPENED BY CHARTERED COMPANIES, OWNER- 
SHIP REVERTING TO STATE WHEN NET EARNINGS 

EXCEEDED TWELVE PER CENT TOLL GATES AND RATES 

FIXED BY LAW STORY OF OLD TURNPIKE DAYS 



BY 

H. C. WARREN 

AUTHOR OF "CLEARING THE TRAIL FOR CIVILIZATION" 

The idea of building roads or public thoroughfares seems to have originated with the Romans, the oldest and 
most celebrated being the Appian Way, which was commenced in 312 b. c. In the second or third centuries a num- 
ber of Roman roads were built in England, but not until the nineteenth century was there a systematic method of 
construction. Roads in England were given to private companies to repair, and toll was allowed 10 be collected 
about 1350. Parishes were made responsible for the maintenance of the roads in 1553, but the burden proved to be 
too heavy. The earliest roads of the United States were Indian trails through mountain passes and along the river 
banks. Mr. Warren tells of the early building of thoroughfares in New England, recalling many entertaining anec- 
dotes. He develops the interesting knowledge that the old turnpikes were business propositions resembling some 
modern trusts— Editor 



OF all the great currents of in- 
land New England trade 
during the early part of the 
last century the turnpike be- 
tween Hartford and Albany was the 
most typical. Forming, with the Con- 
necticut river, the shortest and easiest 
route from the Hudson to the Eastern 
seaboard, this highway was more trav- 
eled than any other road leading over 
the mountain barrier between New 
York and New England ; it also pass- 
ed through a thinly settled region 
where, in striking contrast to its busy 
commercial life, primitive customs ob- 
tained and remained in force to a late 
day. Long after the iron horse had 
brought the river communities in 
touch with the seaport cities, long af- 
ter the Boston and Albany system had 
subdued the provincial incongruities 
of Berkshire and Hoosac, the old 
turnpike remained the chief line of 
travel for the simple folk of south- 
western Massachusetts and north- 
western Connecticut, and some of its 
offshoots are today their only outlet 
to market and railway. Along its 



whole route speech and custom still 
preserve reminders of prosperous 
stage coach days. Many of the way- 
side taverns still stand, tenanted by 
the children of those who built and 
conducted them, to whose store of 
household relics and fund of reminis- 
cence the interested query of the anti- 
quarian is an open sesame. Stories 
still are told of tavern dances, of tap- 
room jokes, of teamsters' frolics. Tra- 
ditions still are extant of famous coach 
drivers, of itinerant peddlers, of head- 
less highway ghosts. 

The completed turnpike lay in three 
states, and, like the railway systems of 
recent years, was an amalgamation of 
shorter roads. It superseded an older 
highway which passed out of exist- 
ence a century ago. The Old North 
Road is completely obliterated alike 
from the land and from the memory 
of its inhabitants. Yet for forty years 
it served as the main link between the 
eastern and western colonies. Over 
it passed the nucleus of the force 
which took Crown Point and Ticonde- 
roga, the plan of which expedition 



722 



THOROUGHFARES IN EARLY REPUBLIC 



originated in the Colonial Assembly at 
Hartford; in reverse direction, so at 
least tradition asserts, came a remnant 
of Burgoyne's captured army; and it 
formed the outlet for the then famous 
iron mines of Canaan and Salisbury. 

The Connecticut valley, from North- 
ampton to Middletown, is walled in on 
its western side by a range of trap 
which, with its offshoots, extends to 
the Sound where it terminates in the 
precipitous East and West Rocks that 
overlook New Haven. Its eastern 
slope is gentle and comparatively easy 
of access ; the western side is abrupt 
and remains to the present time much 
as it was in the old colony days, a 
waste of tangled forest and frowning 
cliff. Over this barrier lies a fertile 
valley paralleling its entire length and 
watered by the Quinnipiac and the 
Farmington ; beyond are the granite 
highlands of Litchfield and Berkshire 
and the narrow Housatonic valley 
which is separated from the Hudson 
by the Taconic and the Hoosac ranges. 
In the ninety-seven miles of its length 
the turnpike presented almost every 
problem of engineering. Steep hill- 
sides were to be scaled, causeways had 
to be laid across wide meadows sub- 
ject to periodical inundation, rivers 
were to be bridged, and cuttings had 
to be made on steep slopes along the 
narrow courses of turbulent mountain 
streams. 

These difficulties, together with the 
scantiness of the region's population 
and the unsettled condition of politi- 
cal affairs, deferred the construction 
of the turnpike until the beginning of 
the last century. The eastern portion 
was chartered in 1798 and was built 
soon afterward. In May of that year 
the General Assembly resolved that 
"George Humphreys of Simsbury and 
his associates — be, and are hereby 
constituted a company for establishing 
and keeping in repair a turnpike road 
from the west line of the city of Hart- 
ford through the towns of Farmington 
and Simsbury to Eldad Shepard's 
present dwelling house in the town of 
New Hartford." The minimum capi- 



tal was fixed at $8,000, with liberty to 
extend the capitalization as necessary, 
and provision was also made that the 
ownership of the road should revert 
to the State when its net earnings ex- 
ceeded twelve per cent. It is an inter- 
esting commentary upon the unsophis- 
ticated financiering of the time that 
the stock was never watered. For a 
period in its history the road was so 
prosperous that its directors were con- 
fronted with the choice of losing it al- 
together or of spending more than 
was considered necessary upon re- 
pairs. They chose the latter course. 
The idea of doubling their stock, sell- 
ing it, and pocketing the proceeds 
seems never to have occurred to them. 

The minimum distance between toll 
gates was fixed by law at ten miles 
and the rates prescribed in the same 
manner afford a good clue to the trav- 
eling customs of the time. The high- 
est charge was twenty-five cents, which 
admitted "a four-wheeled pleasure 
carriage and horses" ; the lowest was 
the one cent which farmers and drov- 
ers paid for the passage of "each 
sheep or swine." Loaded carts and 
sleighs were charged double the empty 
ones, a man and horse paid four cents, 
while the futility of charging foot pas- 
sengers was recognized by allowing 
them to pass free. The free list also 
included farmers and others living 
within a mile, persons going to mill on 
horseback, and persons attending 
church, funerals or town meeting. 

With the exception of the wooded 
top of Talcott mountain this first sec- 
tion of the road passed through a com- 
paratively open country. From its 
western terminus at New Hartford 
stretched a forest known to the sturdy 
pioneers who had settled within its 
limits as the Great Green Woods. In 
the October session of the same year 
in which the Talcott Mountain Com- 
pany was formed, these people sought 
and obtained a charter for the contin- 
uation of the turnpike through this 
region. The layout was intended to 
follow that of the Old North Road 
which by this time had become known 



CONTROLLED BY CORPORATIONS 



723 



I 



as the Green Woods Road and which 
led to the Massachusetts Une at Shef- 
field. Warned by previous delinquen- 
cies of the absentee township proprie- 
tors who, as the actual settlers often 
complained to the General Assembly, 
had failed "to keep the road in good 
repare/' the State Solons provided that 
"if, at any time, it shall be made to ap- 
pear to the satisfaction of said Court 
of Litchfield County that said road is 
not of repair, and they shall so ad- 
judge, thereupon said toll shall cease 
and determine until said Court shall 
have satisfactory proof, and shall ad- 
judge that said road shall be sufficient- 
ly repaired, when said toll shall again 
commence." Tolls of the same 
amount as those granted the Talcott 
Mountain Company were established 
with the same provision of reversion 
to the State. At a later period altera- 
tions in the levels were made and au- 
thority was given for a slight increase 
of toll wherewith to defray the cost. 
No sooner had work upon the ex- 
tended line begun than its builders 
were confronted by the unexpected 
competition of a rival road. In the 
Connecticut C our ant of September 16, 
1799, the following notice appears: 

To the Public. 
All persons desiring to encourage a 
Turn Pike Road from New Hartford 
to Massachusetts line up Farmington 
river are requested to meet at Mr. 
John Burr's tavern in Colebrook on 
the fourth Monday of Sept. inst., at 
12 o'clock on said day to concert meas- 
ures, to carry said object into effect. 
As this route will open a passage to 
the County of Berkshire and the State 
of Vermont at least twelve miles near- 
er than the present established turn- 
pike [through a level valley], and as 
there is no doubt that it will be imme- 
diately carried through the State of 
Massachusetts, it is presumed that a 
sufficient number will appear to pro- 
mote so necessary an undertaking. 

The result of the meeting was the 
incorporation of the Farmington Riv- 
■er Turnpike Company within a year 



of the Greenwoods Company. The 
new route was more direct and con- 
venient and for some years it remained 
the thoroughfare between Hartford 
and Albany. The southeast trend of 
this part of the Farmington valley 
made the towns it watered commercial 
tributaries of Hartford although lo- 
cated in Massachusetts. So natural 
did this adaptation of commerce to 
topographical necessities appear that a 
quarter of a century clasped before 
Massachusetts made any attempt to 
conserve to her own advantage the 
trade of this thrifty region. In 1825 
was chartered the Pontoosuc turnpike 
leading from Springfield to Pittsfield ; 
but the road was not completed until 
1830 and was soon supplanted by the 
"Western" railroad which ultimately 
became a part of the Boston and Al- 
bany system. With this change 
through traffic, unsupported by local 
patronage, became unprofitable in this 
section and the stage route was finally 
abandoned for the more southerly 
course through Winsted, Norfolk, Ca- 
naan, Sheffield, and Egremont from 
which town it rejoined the Albany 
road. The turnpike and the railroad 
have both forsaken the upper Farm- 
ington valley, but it still remains one 
of the sections served by the stage 
coach. From New Hartford a short 
line runs to Riverton. From Winsted 
a longer route leads to Sandisfield, 
while Otis is reached from a station 
on the north. 

Unlike the Old North Road the two 
turnpikes which superseded it were 
kept in good repair. Crooked ways 
were straightened, grades were re- 
duced, new bridges built. The whole 
line was divided into sections, each of 
which was placed in the hands of a 
contractor, from whom a system of 
rigid inspection exacted the highest 
grade of work. A wholesome spirit of 
rivalry between the different section 
bosses kept them constantly on the 
alert against damage by storm or trav- 
el. During heavy snow storms ox 
teams were kept at work day and night 
to keep the road clear, and at other 



724 



THOROUGHFARES IN EARLY REPUBLIC 



times gangs of laborers were constant- 
ly busy filling ruts, digging drains and 
removing stones. Landlord Wood- 
ford, living in the then important vil- 
lage of Avon, was noted for the ex- 
cellent condition of his section. "One 
time," says a hale old veteran of the 
era, "I saw Woodford hoppin' mad. 
There was a teamster's horses got 
tired goin' up the mounting and he 
had to stop every little while to let 
them rest. He kept blocking the rear 
wheel with little stuns no bigger'n 
your fist, and once when he started 
up he forgot to throw one of them 
aside. Pretty soon 'long comes Wood- 
ford runnin' up the hill like mad. 
'Stop you !' he yells. 'Block your wag- 
on and go back and throw thet stun 
out o' the way, and if you ever do it 
again I'll have you 'rested,' he says." 

To the traveler who today passes 
over Talcott mountain along the turn- 
pike the neglect to use its stone for 
road material seems very strange. 
Here was an inexhaustible quarry of 
the best macadam rock in the country 
ready to hand, and a few miles away 
in West Hartford was a stretch of 
marshy clay that gave the road author- 
ities constant trouble. During muddy 
seasons the four horses of the stage 
had to be supplemented by an addi- 
tional pair at this spot and several 
pairs of horses were kept in readiness 
to pull out mud-stalled teams. Yet 
the value of the stone for building and 
filling seems never to have been recog- 
nized. 

The palmy days of the road ex- 
tended from 1820 to 1830. Two 
events combined to cause its traffic to 
advance by leaps and bounds. The 
first was the location of factories along 
the valleys it traversed ; the second was 
the building of the canal from New 
Haven to Northampton. These 
changes affected the extreme eastern 
quarter of the road in great degree. 
To this section came a great social 
awakening. The loom and trip ham- 
mer invaded it; distinctions arose be- 
tween employer and employe ; farming 
processes were differentiated ; villages 



were built; and lastly came the influx 
of new races. 'T remember well the 
first Irishman I ever saw," says one 
who recalls these changes. 'T was a 
boy then and heard some teamsters at 
the tavern near my home telling about 
some Irishmen the canal company had 
hired. The teamsters said they had 
horns on their heads. I walked six 
miles to see them and their horns and 
when I got there and found them just 
like our folks, I tell you I was mad." 

Unlike the valleys, the hill region, 
especially that portion between the 
Farmington and the Housatonic, saw 
little change. Its people remained 
homogeneous and agriculture was its 
only industry. Gradually the innate 
jealousy of the countryman for the 
villager arose. Some of the towns 
contained within their borders repre- 
sentatives of the two eras, and the 
drifting away of population from the 
old time town centers to the newer and 
more prosperous river settlements in- 
tensified the feeling. Continuous re- 
adjustments in society, church circles 
and local government became neces- 
sary, the settlement of which led to 
bitter fights at the ballot box and in 
town meeting. The inevitable result 
of the conflict was the triumph of the 
valley people, and the condition of the 
''Hillites" was aptly described in the 
local saying that they were either too 
well off to care whether or not they 
made any more money, or they were 
too poor to get away where they could 
make it. 

Within a generation, however, the 
advent of the summer boarder has re- 
awakened the hill country from its 
lethargy and given it a prosperity that 
serves but to accentuate the difference 
between the two sections. Under the 
shadow of the abandoned old church 
on Town Hill in the town of New 
Hartford have risen the tasty summer 
homes of wealth and culture in con- 
trast to tenements of New Hartford 
village three miles away. Eight miles 
from the clang of trolley bell and hum 
of cotton mill in the busy borough of 
Winsted, are the quiet green, and the 



CONTROLLED BY CORPORATIONS 



m 



gay hotel and cottage life of Norfolk. 
The railroad has superseded the turn- 
pike, outwardly uniting many of the 
towns along the old road; but in so- 
cial conditions they are still far apart. 

Such are the considerations which 
irresistibly impress themselves upon 
the inquisitive tourist who passes over 
the line of the old turnpike today, 
and, by their very persistence arouse a 
longing for some knowledge of the 
simpler folk that once lived upon it. 
This he must seek in farm houses and 
in the old taverns which, despite the 
rough usage of half a century or more, 
still wear an unmistakable air of dis- 
tinction. 

Of these perhaps the most imposing 
is the Wadsworth Inn, three miles 
from Hartford. This once famous 
hostelry was built on land granted by 
the town of Hartford in 1686 and has 
since remained in possession of the 
same family. Set on a slight elevation 
above the road, flanked by its great 
barns and open sheds, with its broad 
piazza and wide doorway, it looks the 
picture of wayside hospitality. The 
tap-room, one of the few remaining 
in New England, remains unchanged. 
Here jolly teamsters stopped for a 
glass of New England rum or some of 
mine host's home distilled cider bran- 
dy ; travelers alighting from their own 
chaises sat and sipped the more aris- 
tocratic foreign vintage; self-import- 
ant young swells ordered suppers and 
engaged the dancing hall above for 
sleighing parties from the city. The 
distance from "Exchange Corner" in 
Hartford to New Hartford was twen- 
ty-one miles and, on the average, there 
was a tavern for every mile. Some 
of these places were the resort of the 
humbler teamsters and drovers ; others 
at the village centers or near the city 
were more aristocratic in their patron- 
age. 

All of the taverns were provided 
with a hall for public and social assem- 
blies. This room usually extended the 
entire width of the house and occupied 
the position of honor in the second 
story front. Here was the rendezvous 



for the village band; here the neigh- 
boring churches held their donation 
parties; here the younger element of 
the country folk drove for their merry- 
making and the room resounded with 
the squeak of the fiddle and the shuffle 
of dancers' feet. 

Judging from the reminiscences of 
those who still live and recall the 
scenes it would seem as if all the sup- 
pressed energy of youthful spirits was 
let loose on these occasions. Save for 
the occasional presence of the host's 
wife who was kept busy with cooking 
and serving the supper, there was nc 
chaperonage, and the conduct of the 
male portion of the assembly was often 
rude and uncouth. The young ladies 
and gentlemen wore only second best 
clothing so as to receive as little dam- 
age as possible from the playful bap- 
tism of a glass of cider or the sudden 
contact with a flying piece of butter 
or wedge of pie. At the close of some 
of these carousals the walls of the 
room would be bespattered with but- 
ter, jelly, sauce and other missiles 
which had been launched from the 
hands of the young sparks and had 
failed of their mark. Many an inno- 
cent bumpkin found himself forced to 
pay a double fee for his evening's fun 
as his share of the damage assessed by 
the irate landlord. 

Anecdotes more or less illuminative 
of this phase of its social life are still 
told along the line of the turnpike. 
At one place a party, having danced 
themselves hungry, formed in line and 
descended to the dining room only to 
find an empty table. The landlord had 
recently taken to himself a second 
helpmate whose opinion of her social 
position forbade her descending to the 
level of a public waiter, and who took 
this means of emphasizing her determ- 
ination to stick to her principles. The 
chagrined host ushered his guests into 
the pantry where they helped them- 
selves at free cost. It is related that 
he shortly afterward sold out and en- 
gaged in another business. On an- 
other occasion a donation party was in 
full swing when two sleighing parties 



726 



THOROUGHFARES IN EARLY REPUBLIC 



drove up. The newcomers ordered a 
supper and a dance. The landlord was 
at his wits' end, for a strict line of de- 
markation separated the dancing and 
donation clientele, each of whose pat- 
ronage he was anxious to retain. The 
predicament was cleared by the dan- 
cers themselves. They went upstairs, 
bought out the donation supper and 
good will at top figures, sat down to 
the table vacated by the church people 
and followed with a dance in the room 
occupied a few moments before by the 
minister and his worthy flock. "I tell 
you, that donation paid," says the good 
sister who is authority for the story. 

One of the most famous feasts in the 
history of the road is that tendered 
Governor-elect Oliver Wolcott by the 
Governor's Horse Guard. That dis- 
tinguished guest, riding in to the cap- 
itol from his Litchfield home, was met 
by his escort at the Hurlbut tavern, 
four miles west of Hartford. Here, 
by a substantial luncheon and liberal 
potations, the company fortified them- 
selves for the ceremonies of Election 
Day. 

During the busy days of the road 
the taverns did a thriving transient 
business. Every wayside house had 
stabling room for twenty-five to fifty 
horses with sleeping room for twenty 
or more travelers, and these accommo- 
dations were taxed to the utmost. At 
times the patronage overflowed into 
the adjacent farmhouses. The tapster 
and hostler were kept busy all day and 
far into the night, and extra cooks and 
waiters were often drafted into service 
from neighboring kitchens. The 
charge for lodging was 25 cents, for a 
meal 10 cents while the best New Eng- 
land and St. Croix rum retailed for 
three cents per glass. After nightfall 
the tap-room was the scene of un- 
bridled mirth and rough horse-play. 
Stories were told and songs were sung 
to the accompaniment of clinking of 
mugs and glasses. Teamsters, stage- 
drivers, hostlers, travelers, loafers 
from the country-side vied with one 
another in telling the biggest lie or the 
coarsest joke. 



"Stories about the tap-room?" an- 
swers one veteran of the day. "Well,. 
I ought to know some, seeing I was 
born and brought up in this very hotel. 
Fact is, though, the stories of those 
times don't sound very well nowadays. 
Little too reesk, you know. I do re- 
member a little occurrence, though^ 
that will bear telling. It's about an 
old teamster who was considered about 
the meanest fellow on the whole road. 
He used to draw lime from Canaan 
to Hartford. He'd usually try to hit 
this place in time for dinner but he 
never spent a cent in all the years he 
stopped. He'd onhitch his bosses and 
put 'em in the shed where we didn't 
charge nothin', and feed with his own 
oats. Then he'd come in and borrow 
a pitcher from my father, go out to 
his wagon and fill it from his own 
cider kaig, then fetch it in to warm by 
the fireplace while he et his dinner. 
One day he had to go out to see to 
one of his bosses, and another feller 
in the room turned the pitcher round 
and bet up the handle and turned it 
back again just as the teamster come 
in. The fust thing Joe did was to 
grab the pitcher for a drink an' the 
next thing was to give a yell an' let 
the pitcher fall to the floor. Course it 
broke into bits. 'Now that's too bad, 
Joe,' says my father. 'That pitcher 
was one of my weddin' presents. I'll 
hev to charge you twenty-five cents for 
that.' 'Mister Porter,' says Joe, 'if you 
make me pay for that pitcher you'll 
lose my custom.' But he had to pay 
and he never come nigh us any more." 

Despite the glory of the stage coach 
it was the freight traffic by wagon that 
supported the road. Through freight- 
ers between Albany and Boston often 
chose this southerly route as being eas- 
ier than the steeper and less traveled 
trans-mountain roads in Massachu- 
setts. A staple article of eastward ex- 
portation was Adirondack venison of 
which large quantities were sent in 
winter to the rich cities of the Con- 
necticut valley and Massachusetts 
Bay. The iron mines of Salisbury and 
Lenox, the marble and lime of upper 



CONTROLLED BY CORPORATIONS 



727 



Litchfield County all found a ready 
market in the East. In the first quar- 
ter of the century the . agricultural 
productions of the State outranked 
in value the output of all its other 
industries. During the Revolution- 
ary War Connecticut was the food- 
producing State of the Union, and 
this preponderance continued un- 
til the opening of the western lands 
and the growth of manufacturing. 
The countryside in the neighborhood 
of the turnpike shared its prosperity. 
Much of the hay raised was consumed 
along its line and the sudden cessation 
of teaming with the building of rail- 
roads gave the farming interests of 
this section a blow from which they 
have never recovered. 

It was the custom of the teamsters 
to travel in bands of ten or twenty, 
and each member was expected to 
treat the rest of the company once 
during the day. A line of wagons 
was formed by hitching each pair of 
horses to the tailboard of the wagon 
in front, while the drivers walked 
ahead to the next tavern where they 
slaked their thirst in time to emerge 
and meet the train. In busy times the 
road was a panorama of constantly 
moving wagons, carriages, horsemen, 
cattle and sheep. Two tracks were 
maintained and the privilege of tem- 
porarily using the left side was ac- 
corded only the faster moving vehi- 
cles. Herds of cattle, sheep and 
horses continually moved eastward 
from northern New York and Ver- 
mont. These were bought by people 
along the way or were taken direct to 
New Haven and shipped thence to the 
West Indies. The horses of the time 
were small, but tough and wiry. The 
favorite stage and wagon horses 
weighed between nine and ten hun- 
dred pounds. Certain farmers whose 
lands bordered on the turnpike main- 
tained strongly enclosed pastures for 
the accommodation of these four- 
footed travelers. The owner usually 
rode in a carriage at the rear of 
the drove which two or three as- 
sistants on foot kept moving. One 



drover who frequented the road be- 
tween 1820 and 1830 was aided only 
by a Newfoundland dog whose sagac- 
ity and skill as a driver made him 
celebrated along the whole route. 

The through line of mail coaches 
from Hartford to the Hudson was 
started about 1803. The coaches of 
the day were primitive affairs, but the 
spread of turnpike building over the 
whole country rapidly brought im- 
provements. The best of these con- 
veyances had three seats inside, nine 
passengers within and two with the 
driver was the full complement, but, 
like the street car of the present time, 
there was always room for one more. 
The baggage rack behind carried a 
limited amount and light articles were 
sometimes strapped upon the roof. 

The fare between Hartford and Al- 
bany was $5.00. In summer the start 
was made from either end at 2 a. m., 
and the advertisements promised to 
put the patron through ''in time to 
dine and take outgoing stages of other 
lines." Frequently, however, this was 
impossible. In late fall, during the 
winter, and in early spring the roads 
were so heavy that two and even three 
days were consumed on the trip. In 
spite of these obstacles the number of 
accidents was small. The stage body 
was hung on low leather straps of sev- 
eral thicknesses, which transformed 
the dangerous lateral swaying into a 
forward and backward rocking. The 
kingbolt was made to slip out in case 
of an overturn so that the horses 
might run on with the forward wheels 
without dragging the rest of the vehi- 
cle further. The drivers were picked 
men who knew thoroughly every turn 
and slope of their portion of the road. 
The schedule time was ten miles an 
hour and the change houses stood this 
distance apart. On approaching a sta- 
tion a horn was sounded and a new 
driver and fresh horses succeeded. To 
maintain this average pace over some 
portions of the road a breakneck speed 
down hill was required to compensate 
for slow up-hill progress. A story is 
told of a frightened passenger, who, 



728 



THOROUGHFARES IN EARLY REPUBLIC 



after a terrible jolting down the west- 
ern slope of Talcott mountain, stuck 
his head out of the window and beck- 
oned to the driver. ''My friend," he 
asked earnestly, "be you goin' down 
any further? Because if you air I'm 
goin' to get out right here. I want to 
stay on the outside of the airth a leetle 
longer." Another traveler who to re- 
lieve the horses, had toiled on foot up 
a long hill in Barkhamsted entered the 
hill-top inn and asked, hat in hand, if 
the Lord were in. "For," he explain- 
ed, "it seems to me that we've come 
high enough to find him." 

For some years after the establish- 
ment of the mails the newspapers con- 
tinued to be carried by post riders 
who also did errands and carried small 
express parcels. The growth of this 
enterprise resulted in the establish- 
ment of local stages running to the 
nearest large town. The coaches on 
these lines were covered wagons 
drawn by two horses and the time con- 
sumed on each trip varied with the 
number of passengers and the amount 
of business done. The southern part 
of the road was served by Hartford 
and Hudson ; the central part found 
its local market at Pittsfield, and the 
western end concentrated its traffic at 
Albany. The last of these lines to go 
out of business was that running from 
Winsted to Hartford. Railroads early 
intersected the line of the turnpike at 
Canaan, Winsted, New Hartford and 
Avon ; but it was not until 1871 that 
the Connecticut Western superseded 
this section. The last collection of 
tolls was made at the gate in Norfolk 
the year following. 

In the prosperous days of the road 
the toll gate was a favorite lounging 
place for the people of the immediate 
neighborhood. The collector's house 
was built so as to overarch the way 
and a door on one side of this shed 
opened to the office from which win- 
dows looked up and down the line. 
Within this room the gate keeper and 
his guests huddled around the fire- 
place in winter; in pleasant weather 
they sat on the benches outside. On 



summer evenings the young fellows 
repaired to this center to learn the do- 
ings of the great world without. Like 
the inquisitive Gauls of Caesar's time, 
"who surrounded the itinerant mer- 
chants and compelled them to tell 
what they each knew of any foreign 
place or person," the country folk of 
Massachusetts and Connecticut exact- 
ed contributions of turnpike gossip 
from every passing traveler. This in- 
formation, supplemented by the re- 
ports of the gate keeper, who in a 
politer manner garnered industriously 
during the day, constituted the staple 
news of the time and frequently antic- 
ipated that of the weekly newspaper. 
The earliest toll gates were exactly 
like a well sweep, but these were soon 
superseded by less cumbersome picket- 
ed gates, built to raise and lower in the 
same manner as the modern window 
sash. For most of the time the gates 
were raised from 9 p. m. until sunrise, 
and passage was then uninterrupted. 
During the day the constant passage 
of vehicles necessitated the continued 
presence of the gate keeper who found 
it more convenient to stand on guard 
himself than to operate the heavy 
mechanism. Occasionally an adven- 
turous hothead attempted to "run the 
gate" and then a lively scene ensued. 
Calling some member of his family to 
take his place, the keeper would mount 
and pursue the delinquent, who too 
often escaped ; but when a capture 
was made the local justice of the peace 
dealt out punishment to the full extent 
of the law. 

During the first thirty years of the 
century the emigrant wagon was a 
common sight upon the turnpike. 
The settlement of the Western Re- 
serve resulted in a large exodus from 
this corner of the State and many of 
the old families of northeastern Ohio 
are still connected by close ties of 
blood with its people. The romance 
of the new West was shared by its 
settlers and the people along the whole 
route treated them with marked kind- 
ness. Many of these pioneers were 
desperately poor. The annals of more 



CONTROLLED BY CORPORATIONS 



729 



than one well-to-do household in the 
new region run back to the time when 
its forefathers camped along the high- 
way and begged food from adjacent 
farmers who readily gave aid when 
they made their destination known. 

The peddler was perhaps the most 
picturesque feature of the road. He 
was a necessary commercial link be- 
tween the country and city and was 
accordingly welcomed everywhere. 
Some of the wealthy business men of 
the time laid the foundations of their 
prosperity in this vocation. It was 
the ambition of every pack peddler to 
become the proprietor of a wagon 
and the most successful ultimately es- 
tablished a permanent stand in the city 
whence they sent out wagons in all 
directions. In addition to the wares 
carried by the tin peddler of the pres- 
ent day a large amount of wooden 
ware and dry goods were sold and the 
lucrative nature of the business may 
be realized from the fact that they 
were generally estimated as forming 
the basis of a traffic greater than that 
of the city stores. 



Standing by the railway station at 
Winsted the traveler by the pausing 
train may see today a lumbering old 
ark bearing the inscription, "Winsted, 
Colebrook and Sandisfield." Rough 
and prosaic enough it appears to the 
careless observer ; but to him who re- 
calls the old turnpike days it is full 
of interest as being the modern survi- 
val of those times, and the imagination 
clothes it with a romance and glamor 
not its own. From it the spectator 
readily reconstructs the old stage 
coach in all its glory. The pair of 
shambling nags becomes a four-in- 
hand of spirited "Vermont chunks" ; 
the creaking wagon is a swinging, 
leather-hung coach ; the solitary pas- 
senger multiplies to a dozen ; and the 
stoop-shouldered, sedate driver him- 
self is a dashing, swearing, ranting 
young fellow with a wink for eyery 
pretty girl he meets and a string of 
strange oaths for every wagon that 
blocks the way before him. Surely 
that cloud of dust up the road was 
raised by a ten-mile-an-hour "hum- 
mer" ! Surely that is the sound of the 
bugle horn mingling with the shriek 
of the locomotive ! 



THE FIRST CARRIAGE BUILT IN AMERICA WAS TURNED OUT AT DOR- 
CHESTER, MASS., BY A MAN NAMED WHITE. IT WAS MADE FOR A 
GENTLEMAN IN BOSTON AND WAS COPIED FROM AN ENGLISH CHARIOT. 
THOUGH OF LIGHTER WEIGHT 



THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



SPAN CONTINENT WITH RAILROADS — UNITE HEM- 
ISPHERES WITH STEAMSHIP LINES LEADERS IN 

THE world's ACCOMPLISHMENTS — CONCLUSION 
OF SERIES OF ARTICLES ON LITCHFIELD COUNTY 



BY 

H. CLAY TRUMBULL, S. T. D. 

AUTHOR OF "STUDIES IN SOCIAL ORIENTAL LIFE," "FRIENDSHIP, 
THE MASTER PASSION," AND MANY OTHER VOLUMES 

Dr. Trumbull in his series of articles on Litchfield County presents a record of influence not excelled by any other 
collection of towns in the United States. The posthumous papers are now completed but the compilation of material 
on Connecticut men who have become distinguished will be continued by other writers. It is indeed remarkable that- 
this State should have produced the man who made possible the development of the West, Collis P. Huntington, and 
the man who laid open the opportunities of the South, Henry B. Plant. George W. Whistler left Stonington, Con- 
necticut, to begin the development of the great Russian Empire by constructing a railroad between St. Petersburg and 
Moscow. His son, James McNeill Whistler, accompanied his father from Stonington to Russia, where he spent his 
early life, and later became the distinguished painter. The accomplishments of Connecticut men would fill many 
volumes. Dr. Trumbull speaks only of those born in Litchfield County, and if death had not taken him he would 
now be developing the achievements of men in the other counties of the State. His writings appearing in this Maga- 
zine were revised by him especially for this publication from compilations which he had been making for many 
years— Editor 



ONE of the oldest and most ef- 
ficient boards of agriculture 
of any state in this country 
is that of Connecticut. This 
has done much to improve methods of 
cultivating and caring for the fields 
and forests and orchards and gardens 
of its own State. At the same time it 
has been a stimulus to, and an exam- 
ple for, those in other states. Its in- 
fluence has been recognized in all parts 
of the country. Peculiarly was this so 
in the earlier years of its wise work- 
ing. And this board or society has 
had its center of working in Litchfield 
County. And the secretary, who has 
for nearly two generations been its 
principal representative and director, 
is Theodore Sedgwick Gold of West 
Cornwall. His annual reports have 
for many years been widely read and 
of extensive influence. Although the 
Governor of the State is ex ofhcio 
chairman of this board, and its mem- 
bers are from every county, Mr. Gold 



has, from its earlier years, been its- 
head and front. Although nearly 
fourscore years of age, he is still fresh 
and vigorous. At the request of the 
Board, of which he was secretary, he 
has recently published an "Illustrated 
Hand-book of Connecticut Agricul- 
ture," which exhibits the field and 
methods of work of this board. In- 
cidentally, it shows how much the peo- 
ple of this country have been the gain- 
er from Litchfield County in system- 
atic and improved methods in the 
sphere of agriculture, as in the study 
of law and in the practice of foreign^ 
missionary duties. 

Dr. S. B. Woodward, a native of 
this count}^, was prominent here as a 
medical practitioner, and his excep- 
tionally successful practice in this 
county resulted in his being called to 
a larger field. He was especially skill- 
ed in the treatment of brain disorders,, 
then far less understood than now. 
In consequence he became foremost 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



73» 



in the Retreat for the Insane at Hart- 
ford, one of the earliest institutions in 
this country to be conducted on the 
most advanced and improved methods. 
Then he was called to Massachusetts 
to be one of the founders of the State 
Insane Asylum at Worcester. In that 
position he had a national prominence. 
He also founded one of the earliest 
schools for idiots, and asylum for in- 
ebriates. 

Another physician of the same fam- 
ily name in Litchfield County, Dr. Ash- 
bel Woodward, moved to Franklin, 
near Norwich, and became prominent 
as a naturalist, and as a writer on such 
subjects. 

Yet another physician specialist, or 
alienist, of this county, Dr. H. M. 
Knight, opened a home for the feeble- 
minded, which became noted widely 
because of his wise study of his spec- 
ialty, and his eminent success in the 
treatment of those under his charge. 

For generations there have been 
more or less physicians in Litchfield 
County, in Norfolk and neighboring 
towns, by the name of Welch, known 
and valued widely beyond the town of 
their residence. Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, at the present time, would not 
be willing to admit that the eminent 
member of that family who fills so 
large a place in her medical faculty is 
in any degree below the best of them. 

Vermont can be said to be in a sense 
a child of Litchfield County. Begin- 
ning with Ethan Allen and Seth War- 
ner, before Vermont had a well-defined 
existence as a separate colony, Litch- 
field County had reached northward 
across Massachusetts and shown its 
interest in a marked degree in Ver- 
mont. The early policy of Vermont 
as a state was shaped by Litchfield 
County men. Their meeting for this 
purpose was in the house of Governor 
Wolcott, where the equestrian statue 
of King George III was cared for. 
The first Governor of Vermont was 
from Litchfield County, and after that 
there came three other Governors 
from the same county, also three Unit- 
ed States Senators and one Chief Jus- 



tice. At the opening of 1902 Gover- 
nor Stickney of Vermont made an ad- 
dress in Hartford, in which he refer- 
red to the fact that Vermont was first 
known as "New Connecticut." More- 
over, of her Governors, forty-five have 
been natives of Connecticut; of her 
Supreme Court Judges twenty-one 
first saw the light in the same State, 
and, of her twenty-five United States 
Senators, eleven were Connecticut 
born. And in all Connecticut influ- 
ence on Vermont, Litchfield County 
was earliest and chief. 

Of these Nathaniel Chipman of Sal- 
isbury was an officer of the Revolu- 
tionary Army. Removing to Vermont 
he became Chief Justice of the state. 
He was appointed by George Wash- 
ington Judge of the United States 
District Court of Vermont. He was 
United States Senator. He published 
a volume of "Sketches of the Princi- 
ples of Government" and other publi- 
cations. His brother, Daniel Chip- 
man, also of Salisbury, became distin- 
guished as a lawyer. He was Profes- 
sor of Law in Middlebury College. 
He published various law books in the 
days when American works on law 
were fewer than now. He was a 
member of Congress from Vermont. 

Hon. John Pierpont of Litchfield, a 
nephew of the poet, was chief justice 
of Vermont from 1865 to his death in 
1882. 

Yet Vermont was not the only state 
to be represented by Litchfield County 
men. The Hon. Julius Rockwell of 
that county was for years a Member 
of Congress from western Massachu- 
setts. And yet farther north, Justice 
John Kilburn of Litchfield County was 
on the Court of the Queen's Bench of 
the Dominion of Canada. As show- 
ing that all emigration was not north- 
ward, it should be noticed that the 
Hon. Martin Bates, a native of Salis- 
bury succeeded the Hon. John M. 
Clayton as United States Senator from 
Delaware; and the Hon. Josiah J. 
Johnson, another native of Litchfield 
County, was United States Senator 
from Louisiana. 



732 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



Litchfield County seemed to have as 
many natives in prominent places in 
New York State as in Connecticut or 
in Vermont. The Hon. Daniel Dick- 
inson of this county was United States 
Senator from New York State at the 
time when General John A. Dix was 
the other Senator. These two ^iistin- 
guished themselves as War Demo- 
crats when the Civil War broke out. 
Senator Dickinson was commonly 
known as "Scripture Dick/' on ac- 
count of his ever readiness in the time- 
ly quotation of Bible passages when 
on the stump. An illustration of this 
was given when he was addressing a 
meeting of Republicans in Norwich, 
while Governor Buckingham was pre- 
siding. The Democrats got up a noisy 
torchlight procession, and marched by 
the hall where Dickinson was speak- 
ing. Their path led down a steep in- 
cline to the water's edge. The noise 
made it impossible to be heard. Mr. 
Dickinson, putting up his hand side- 
ways to his mouth, called out, "I'll 
wait until those devil-possessed swine 
run down that steep place into the sea. 
Then I'll go on." He kept his audi- 
ence throughout the evening. 

The Hon. Peter P. Porter of Litch- 
field County was a Member of Con- 
gress from New York City at the time 
of our troubles with Great Britain in 
1 812. He was on the committee with 
Henry Clay to consider those troubles, 
and he then drafted the Declaration of 
War. Mr. Porter afterwards was ap- 
pointed Secretary of War. 

Again, the Hon. Amasa J. Parker 
of this county was on the Supreme 
Court Bench, and at the same time 
three other Justices from this county 
were on that bench. The Hon. F. A. 
Talmadge of this county was a mem- 
ber of Congress before he had a seat 
on that bench. The Hon. Theron R. 
Strong and the Hon. Edward Rogers, 
both of Litchfield County, were Mem- 
bers of Congress from New York 
State. The competitor of Edward 
Rogers in this first contest was Vic- 
tory Birdsey, another Litchfield Coun- 
ty man. In the second election the 



election was reversed. New York 
State seemed pretty well provided with 
officers from Litchfield County. 

The Hon. Samuel B. Ruggles of 
this county did a good work in New 
York State in connection with the 
Erie Canal and the Erie Railroad, and 
the Croton Reservoir, and the parks 
and squares of New York City. Chas. 
H. Ruggles of the same county was a 
Member of Congress before he was a 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Ap- 
peals in New York State. 

R. G. Pardee of Sharon was for 
years the agent of the New York City 
Sunday-School Union. He did much 
to elevate Sunday-school work in this 
country. 

Frederic Whittlesey, a native of 
Washington in Litchfield County, was 
a Member of Congress from New 
York State. He was prominent as an 
anti-Masonic editor and leader in 
Rochester in 1828, in the days of the 
Morgan excitement. He held various 
public offices, and was a Judge of the 
Supreme Court of New York State. 
He became Professor of Law in Gen- 
essee College. 

Farther west, Ohio had her share 
from the Connecticut county. The 
Hon. W. A. Allen and the Hon. Wil- 
liam V. Peck, from this nursery of 
great men, were members of Congress 
from Ohio, and the Hon. George B. 
Holt was a Judge of the Circuit Court 
of Ohio. 

Litchfield County natives were not 
merely superior to ordinary mortals in 
the realm of intellect and education ; 
they did their share in work of the 
hands, although, at their distance from 
tidewater, one would not expect them 
to compete in heavy manufactures with 
those more favored in location. 

It has been mentioned that before 
Colonel Ethan Allen went to Ticon- 
deroga to do his important work at 
the opening of the Revolutionary War, 
he was engaged in starting an iron 
furnace and foundry in his native 
country. 

Valuable marble quarries in the up- 
per part of this county were profitably 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



733 



worked for years. In later years rich- 
er quarries in other portions of New 
England rendered these less profitable. 

In more recent times, Litchfield 
County has been known the world 
over for the manufacture of clocks for 
homes and shops, in country and city, 
in this land and in other lands. It was 
in the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury that the first wooden clocks were 
made in a village in Litchfield County. 
From this beginning the household 
clocks chiefly used throughout the 
country — wooden clocks and other 
clocks — were made here, and in places 
near by as following the example here 
set. Before he died the Litchfield 
County pioneer in this industry had it 
for his boast that he had made every 
kind of a timepiece, from a delicate 
watch to a great tower clock. And 
Litchfield County clocks were used 
widely in other lands, even Turkey, 
China and Japan. This it was that 
gave point to the sneer of John Ran- 
dolph of Roanoke in our national Con- 
gress, — that the only things New 
England gave the South were **Con- 
necticut clock peddlers and Yankee 
schoolmarms." And Litchfield Coun- 
ty has done much for all portions of 
the country to mark time and to know 
how to improve time. 

It was at Burrville, in Torrington, 
that Borden's Condensed Milk was 
first made and sent over the land. 
This was just at the beginning of our 
Civil War, and only those who served 
in that war, and could obtain only in 
this way fresh and nutritious milk in 
camp or hospital, when it was above 
price to them in their desire and need, 
can ever know what that invention 
from Litchfield County meant to those 
who were thus grateful for it. It was 
the first manufacture of its kind, and 
it marked an era in the line of preserv- 
ing fresh food in America. 

Wilson, who invented the Wheeler 
and Wilson sewing machine, which 
has proved such a boon to the busy 
workers of the world, was a Litchfield 
County man, and the first factory for 
that machine was in Watertown in 



that county. Again, a man who work- 
ed on a yet larger scale for the public 
good, Collis P. Huntington, who was 
one of the five men who organized 
the Central Pacific Railroad, and who 
also planned the California railroad 
system and the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road, was from one of the smallest 
tovv^ns of Litchfield County ; but the 
world has felt his influence. 

Junius Smith, of Plymouth in Litch- 
field County, was a son of General 
David Smith of that town, and was of 
Revolutionary stock. He was born in 
1780; he was graduated from Yale in 
1802, and the same year entered the 
Litchfield Law School. He first went 
to London as an attorney to prosecute 
a claim against the British Govern- 
ment for the capture of an American 
merchant ship. Having succeeded in 
that endeavor, he then induced Eng- 
lish capitalists to organize for the pros- 
ecution of his long-cherished plans for 
ocean steam navigation. He organ- 
ized in London the first company to 
send steamships across the ocean. The 
first steam packets built by this com- 
pany were the "British Queen," in 
which he came over in 1837, and the 
"President," the loss of which at sea, 
in 1844, was felt as such a disaster in 
England and the United States. It 
was some time later that this enter- 
prising man purchased a plantation in 
South Carolina and began the culti- 
vation of tea. In this also he was a 
pioneer. 

It is indeed remarkable that an in- 
land county of Connecticut should 
have furnished one native to plan and 
organize a company to span the conti- 
nent with the Union Pacific Railroad, 
and another native to plan and organ- 
ize an international company to cross 
the ocean with steamships. But that 
is the way with Litchfield County na- 
tives. Is there anything like it else- 
where ? 

The forges and foundries in Falls 
Village in Litchfield County not only 
supplied the United States Navy for 
many years with shot and shell, and 
heavv anchors and chain cables, but it 



734 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



trained Yankee workmen to make 
weapons of war and implements of 
peace in other communities, far and 
near. Thus OHver Ames, an iron 
manufacturer in Falls Village, was a 
"brother of the famous Oakes Ames, 
and was a member of the family prom- 
inent in the quarrying of granite in 
Quincy, Massachusetts. During the 
Civil War Oliver Ames invented and 
manufactured heavy cannon of iron 
rings welded one on another. These 
guns, with their great range and heavy 
projectiles, were quite an advance on 
the ordnance of their day. And after 
the war the same active brains and 
skilled hands were ready to "beat their 
swords into plowshares and their 
spears into pruning hooks," and to 
furnish shovels and spades and axes 
and adzes to meet the new and better 
conditions in the community. 

Oliver Wolcott, born in Windsor, 
moved to the new county of Litchfield 
about 1750. There he held important 
civil and military positions. This Oli- 
ver Wolcott was a signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, and was Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut for ten years. 

A second Oliver Wolcott, a son of 
the former and a native of Litchfield 
County, succeeded Alexander Hamil- 
ton as United States Secretary of the 
Treasury, and he was again in that 
place in the cabinets of Washington 
and Adams. He refused the proffered 
place as the head of the first United 
States bank. For ten years he, like 
his father, was .s^overnorof the State. 

Deacon Benjamin Sedgwick of 
Cornwall was the father of Theodore 
Sedgwick of Massachusetts, who was 
a member of the Continental Congress, 
and after the Revolutionary War was 
a United States Senator and a Mem- 
ber of Congress, and was speaker of 
the United States House of Represen- 
tatives. The latter was also a judge 
of the Supreme Court of Massachu- 
setts. A daughter of his was the 
prominent author. Miss Catherine M. 
Sedgwick. 

The Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, of 
Litchfield County, was for many years 



Controller of the United States Treas- 
ury. Whichever political party was in 
power, all were satisfied to have him 
as a watch-guard of the Treasury. 
The Hon. S. B. St. John, of Litchfield 
County, was superintendent of the 
banking department; John A. Collier, 
of the same county, was Controller of 
New York State, as again, at another 
time, was Gamaliel H. Barstow, of the 
same county. And New York has had 
national prominence as a financial cen- 
ter. 

A native of Woodbury who had an 
international reputation was Henry S. 
Sanford. He was educated at Wash- 
ington (now Trinity) College, and at 
the University of Heidelberg. He was 
for a time Secretary of Legation at 
Paris. Later he was minister to Bel- 
gium. He was a member of the Inter- 
national African Association, which 
founded the independent State of the 
Congo. Again, he founded Sanford, 
Florida, and he introduced in that re- 
gion the cultivation of the lemon and 
other tropical fruits. He published 
important works bearing on phases of 
international law. 

Judge Nathan Smith, also a native 
of Woodbury, was trained in the fa- 
mous law school of Judges Reeve and 
Gould. As a member of the State 
Legislature he took an active part in 
abolishing slavery in Connecticut and 
in founding the public school system 
of that State, which was in advance of 
other states. As a member of Con- 
gress he assisted in ratifying the Jay 
treaty with Great Britain. Declining 
a re-election to Congress, he went on 
the bench of the Supreme Court of 
his State. He was a leader in the fa- 
mous "Hartford Convention" which 
opposed the second war with England. 
"Peter Parley" said of him, in his 
"Recollections," that "Nathan Smith 
was regarded in Connecticut as one of 
the intellectual giants of his time." 
Gideon H. Hollister, the historian of 
Connecticut, speaks of him as "one 
whom the God of nations chartered 
to be great by the divine prerogative 
of genius." 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



735 



Nathaniel Smith, a brother of Na- 
than, born in the same town, and edu- 
cated in the same law school, was ac- 
tive in forming the new Constitution 
of the State to take the place of the 
old Charter of Charles 11. He was 
eminent in the Protestant Episcopal 
church, and one of the founders and 
incorporators of Washington (now 
Trinity) College. He was elected to 
the United States Senate and died in 
that office. 

Truman Smith of that county was a 
nephew of both Nathan and Nathaniel. 
He was several times elected to Con- 
gress. He was later a United States 
Senator. So was his ability valued 
that he was chairman of the National 
Whig Committee when General Zach- 
ary Taylor was elected president. 
President Taylor offered him a place 
in his Cabinet, but he preferred to re- 
main in the Senate. In that place his 
influence was great. Of one of his 
speeches in the Senate Daniel Webster 
said publicly that it was "one of the 
clearest and strongest demonstrations 
that I have ever heard from the mouth 
of man." After he left the Senate. 
Truman Smith was a Judge of the 
United States Court of Claims. 

Yet a third member of that distin- 
guished family to be given a seat in 
the United States Senate was the Hon. 
Perry Smith. And that the eminence 
of the family is not alone in former 
generations is evidenced by its mem- 
bers still remaining. The Rev. Dr. 
Cornelius Bishop Smith was for years 
rector of St. James' church in New 
York City. Alexander Mackay Smith, 
a younger brother of the latter, and a 
grandson of Nathan Smith, having 
held important rectorships in Boston, 
New York, and Washington, and de- 
clined the position of bishop-coadjutor 
of Kansas, is now bishop-coadjutor of 
the great diocese of Pennsylvania. 

It is a matter of interest to note how 
many Litchfield County families went 
out from that home center to have 
marked influence in other and wider 
fields. Thus with Dr. John Pierpont 
of Litchfield, whose grandson, as al- 



ready noted, is perhaps the foremost 
financier of the world today. 

The Rev. Ashbel Baldwin of the 
same county town was the first Epis- 
copal clergyman ordained in the Unit- 
ed States. He was ordained in Mid- 
dleton, in 1785, by Bishop Seabury of 
Connecticut, who was the first Ameri- 
can bishop. Mr. Baldwin's first pas- 
toral charge was St. Michael's church 
in Litchfield — the town where were 
born also Horace Bushnell, Henry 
Ward Beecher, John Pierpont and 
Charles Wadsworth. 

The Rev. Dr. Hermon G. Batterson. 
a native of this county, born of a Bap- 
tist family, became a prominent and 
useful clergyman in the Episcopal 
church. He and I were brought to 
Christ at the same time in Hartford, 
in the winter of 185 1-2. He was then 
in a jewelry establishment while I was 
a clerk in a railroad office. He became 
an Episcopal missionary in Texas. He 
and I were on the "stump" together 
for John C. Fremont in 1856. Later 
he did missionary work in Minnesota. 
He became rector of St. Clement's 
church in Philadelphia and again of 
the Church of the Annunciation in the 
same city. For a time he was rector 
of the Church of the Redeemer in New 
York City. He was the author of sev- 
eral books of hymns and carols ; also 
of a history of "The American Epis- 
copate," which had a large circulation. 

Colonel Adonijah Strong of Salis- 
bury was a lawyer of prominence in 
his generation. He had four sons, of 
whom two were clergymen and two 
were lawyers. His son, the Rev. Wil- 
liam Strong, was the father of the 
Hon. William Strong of Pennsylvania, 
— an associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. Judge 
Samuel S. Phelps, born in Litchfield, 
was the son of a Revolutionary sol- 
dier, and he saw service in the War of 
181 2. Moving to Vermont, he was 
chosen twice to the United States Sen- 
ate. His son, Edward J. Phelps, was 
Professor of Law at Yale University, 
and was appointed by President Cleve- 
land our minister to England. 



736 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



David Sherman Boardman, born in 
New Milford took very high rank 
even among Litchfield County lawyers. 
He was for some years Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of Connecticut. 
He was known as the friend of the 
poet Fitz-Greene Halleck, and of the 
poet's father. 

Elijah Boardman, a native of the 
same town as before named, was in 
mercantile pursuits instead of the law. 
But he showed such ability that he 
was, in 1821, chosen to the United 
States Senate. 

Connecticut had occasion to call men 
from Litchfield County to fill her high- 
est places of honor or responsibility. 
Several of these have been already 
named, like the second Governor Oli- 
ver Wolcott and Governor Henry But- 
ton. Governor John Cotton Smith of 
this county had a national reputation 
as president of the American Bible 
Society. Governor Origen S. Sey- 
mour had been a member of Congress, 
and later was a Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the State. Governor Alexan- 
der H. Holley, of the iron-producing 
region of the State, had a son of na- 
tional prominence as a distinguished 
engineer and metallurgist. Charles B. 
Andrews of Litchfield was Governor 
before he was Chief Justice. Gover- 
nor Abiram Chamberlain of Cole- 
brook, inaugurated in 1903, still keeps 
up the line. At least five of the Chief 
Justices of the State were from that 
rural county. 

The Hon. Seth P. Beers of Litchfield 
was a lawyer of extensive practice. 
At single terms of the court he was 
known to have as many as one hun- 
dred and fifty cases in his hands, and 
he was very thorough in his work as 
a lawyer. He was appointed Commis- 
sioner of the School Fund of the State. 
As this fund was the largest of any 
state in the Union, the position was one 
of great responsibility. Yet so well 
did he fill his office, that, with all the 
changes of political parties, he retain- 
ed his place for more than a quarter 
of a century. 



The Hon. Roger H. Mills of New 
Hartford was for years the valued 
Secretary of State ; the Hon. Abijah 
Catlin of Harwinton, was long the 
Controller of the State ; and the Hon. 
Robbins Battell of Norfolk was Con- 
troller until he declined to serve lon- 
ger. 

A brother of President Jeremiah 
Day of Yale College, also a native of 
this county, was the Hon. Thomas 
Day, who was for many years Secre- 
tary of State of Connecticut. A simple 
fact used to be told of him as showing 
the public confidence in him, and the 
general feeling that the man and the 
office belonged together. In early days 
the candidate for different State offi- 
cers were voted for separately, and not 
on one printed ballot, as now. The 
people assembled in town meeting, 
and the moderator called for votes for 
the man whom they would have as 
Governor, and so on down the list. 
The vote for one officer was announ- 
ced before the next man was voted for. 
But is was said that so identified was 
Thomas Day with the office of Secre- 
tary of State, that, in many of the 
towns, the moderator of the town 
meeting would call out on election day, 
when the time came for voting for 
Secretary of State: 

"And now, gentlemen, you will 
come forward and deposit your votes 
for the Hon. Thomas Day for Secre- 
tary of State." No one thought of an 
alternative. 

The county town of Litchfield, as 
has been mentioned, sent out Dr. Hor- 
ace Bushnell, one of the greatest think- 
ers of the century, and Henry Ward 
Beecher, one of the most eminent 
preachers of his generation ; also Dr. 
John Pierpont, a poet and preacher of 
mark in all New England. Dr. 
Charles Wadsworth, a native of that 
town, was perhaps the most popular 
and distinguished Presbyterian preach- 
er ever settled in Philadelphia. So 
widely did his reputation extend that 
he was called to San Francisco, where 
he was as popular on the Pacific Coast 
as he had been before on the Atlantic. 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF CONNECTICUT MEN 



737 



Dr. Thomas Robbins, a native of 
Norfolk, clergyman, historian, anti- 
quarian, and author, was one of the 
founders, and for years the librarian 
of the Connecticut Historical Society. 
To this he gave his valuable historical 
library. He was one of the last men 
in the State to retain the knee breeches 
as his ordinary dress. In his quaint 
appearance, as he moved among the 
many relics of early New England 
preserved in the Wadsworth Athe- 
neum, he seemed like one of the an- 
cestors returned to observe old times 
and new. 

While this sketch of Litchfield 
County was in course of preparation, 
a well-known clergyman of that coun- 
ty was buried in the town of which 
General John Sedgwick and others al- 
ready mentioned were natives. The 
Rev. Samuel Scoville, of a family 
known for generations in that county, 
was born not many miles from the 
birthplace of Henry Ward Beecher. 
After graduation from Yale, he mar- 
ried the only daughter of Mr. Beecher. 
One son of his married a daughter of 
General Armstrong, and is a teacher 
in Hampton Institute. Another son 
married my youngest daughter, and is 
a Philadelphia lawyer. Mr. Scoville's 
two daughters have been mentioned 
as carrying on a prominent young la- 
dies' seminary in Stamford, Connec- 
ticut. When he had filled several 
prominent pastorates, he was called to 
be assistant pastor of Plymouth 
church, Brooklyn, so well known as 
the pulpit of Mr. Beecher. Having 
passed away while in that position, 



he sleeps with his fathers in West 
Cornwall. 

Hart Lyman, a native of Plymouth 
in this county, was for more than 
twenty-five years of the editorial force 
of the New York Tribune, Joshua S. 
Silsbee, a native of the town of Litch- 
field, became prominent as an actor, 
although you would not expect a hill 
town of New England to furnish orna- 
ments to that profession. He made 
his first appearance on the stage in 
Natchez, Mississippi, in 1837. A few 
years later he appeared in the Walnut 
Street Theater, Philadelphia. He was 
the first comedian who introduced 
Yankee characters on the stage to an 
English audience. His opening was 
at the Adelphi Theater, in London, in 
his favorite character, "J<^"^than 
Ploughboy." The famous play, ''Our 
American Cousin," was originally 
written for him although he never 
played it. Returning to this country, 
he died in San Francisco in 1855. 
There are few departments of human 
activity in which Litchfield County has 
not had its representatives. 

This sketch of Litchfield County 
makes no claim to completeness. It 
simply suggests what rich stores of 
information are available for one who 
does attempt a complete record. It 
was said by an exceptionally well-in- 
formed historian, half a century ago, 
at the centennial celebration of Litch- 
field County, that no other county in 
the United States could furnish such a 
history. Can this statement be ques- 
tioned ? 



BETROTHAL CAKES, NOW BEING RE-INTRODUCED IN ENGLAND, ARE 
NO NEW THING HERE. WHEN JEREMIAS VAN RENSSELAER WAS 
BETROTHED TO MARIA VAN CORTLANDT, A HUGE CAKE W^AS SENT 
FROM HOLLAND TO CELEBRATE THE NOTABLE EVENT, AND IT WAS 
FIVE MONTHS IN ARRIVING. A PIECE OF THIS CAKE HANDED DOWN 
FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION WAS SAID TO HAVE BEEN IN 
EXISTENCE IN EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND TEN 



THE FIRST APOTHECARY SHOPS IN 
CONNECTICUT 



DR. ABNER JOHNSON, A DRUGGIST IN WATER- 
BURY IN 1770 HIS NEAREST COMPETITOR WAS 

IN NEW HAVEN EARLY PRESCRIPTIONS AND THE 

FAMOUS MITHRIDATE, AN ANTIDOTE FOR POISON 

BY 

Hon. FREDERICK J. KINGSBURY 

Mr. Kingsbury has made several important contributions to Connecticut historical literature. AH of his writings 
are the result of extensive investigations into untrodden fields. His researches have covered many years, during 
which he has gained a wide knowledge of the development of various phases of life in Connecticut, many times by 
official relationship with them. In the present article he entertainingly describes the use, and possibly abuse, of 
drugs in the early days of the nation — Editor 



1HAVE in my possession a vase 
of coarse, brownish-white, glazed 
ware, of EngHsh make, perhaps 
of the Lowestoft ware, but it has 
no mark. It has a coarse blue figure 
of what may be supposed to be the 
"Angel of Health," and underneath, 
contains within a scroll the word 
MITHRID, in slender capitals an inch 
in height. The vase is 7>4 inches 
high, measures 3^ inches in diameter 
across the top, 3^ inches in the neck, 
Z^i inches through the largest part, 
2% inches across the smallest part, 
near the foot, and 4 inches at the foot. 
It is what was formerly known, and 
perhaps still is in drug stores, as a 
"gallipot." 

It was the property of Dr. Abner 
Johnson, a native of Wallingford, who 
graduated at Yale in 1759, studied the- 
ology and preached several years at 
intervals in various places. Then, his 
health not being equal to the work of 
the ministry, he settled in Waterbury 
as a druggist and apothecary in 1770. 
His nearest druggist neighbor was in 
New Haven. He soon became one of 



the leading citizens of the town, hold- 
ing the offices of Town Clerk and 
Town Treasurer. 

In 1780 he asked permission from 
Legislature to transport to Boston a 
ton of wheat flour and three barrels of 
pork, to procure medicines that could 
not be otherwise obtained. Carrying 
provisions out of the State was at that 
time forbidden by law. The Legisla- 
ture remained firm and did not yield 
to the doctor's request, probably think- 
ing that he would contrive to get the 
medicines in some other way, which 
presumably he did, and that it was 
better not to open the gate. 

Dr. Johnson must have had some 
experience as a druggist, although it 
does not appear when or where he ob- 
tained it, for he distilled essential oils 
and manufactured many medicines 
which must have required chemical 
knowledge and experience in manipu- 
lation. 

One of the playthings of my child- 
hood was the remnant of the old still. 
The worm was an inch pipe made of 
soldered tin, and instead of being bent 



FIRST APOTHECARY SHOPS IN CONNECTICUT 



739 



was in straight sections, six or eight 
inches long, Hke this : 

wvwv 

This is the only part that I distinctly 
remember and I do not know precisely 
how it was attached to the boiler or 
whether it passed through the cooler 
in a perpendicular or horizontal posi- 
tion. I imagine, however, that it was 
perpendicular. 

In 1773, Dr. Johnson married Lydia 
Bunnell of Cheshire. She was indeed 
a help-meet for him, and apparently 
became quite as much of a pharmacist 
as himself, for later he developed hy- 
pochondria, and shecarriedonthebusi- 
tiess whenever he was indisposed, with 
apparently entire success. 

So much for the doctor, his wife, 
and drug shop ; now for the jar and 
its contents. 

"Mithrid," stands for Mithridates, 
and the most celebrated person of that 
name was Mithridates VI, king of 
Portus, who flourished from 135 to 
63 B. C. He was believed to have 
concocted a sovereign remedy for poi- 
sons, which were in those times among 
the most inconvenient enemies of 
kings, and by means of this remedy he 
protected himself against that particu- 
lar form of danger, until, not having 
"been in all respects as fortunate as he 
desired, he finally put an end to his 
own life by the same convenient meth- 
od which he had heretofore spent so 
much ingenuity in avoiding. Or, as 
one account has it, not being wholly 
successful, he employed a soldier to 
finish the job. 

I do not know just what sort of 
medicine Dr. Johnson kept in this 
vase, but in a copy of the Edinburg 
Dispensatory for 1794, which is co- 
temporary with the doctor. I find the 
following formula for "Mithridate." 
It distinctly says, however, that it 
gives the formula as a curiosity, "to 
show to what extent the introduction 
of a great variety of compounds had 
at one time proceeded.'* It was evi- 



dently a charge of fine shot intended 
to scatter and hit anything within 
range of either barrel. It contains 42 
ingredients. The Theriaca Andro- 
machi, which is of the same general 
character, has 61, but as it does not 
bear the name of my vase, it has no 
business here. 

MITHRIDATUM, 

five CONFECTIO DEMOCRATIS 

Mithridate, or the confection of 

Democrates. 

Take of 

Cinnamon, fourteen drachms; 

Myrrh, eleven drachms ; 

Agaric, 

Indian nard. 

Ginger, 

Saffron, 

Seeds of mithridate mustard. 

Frankincense, 

Chio turpentine, each ten drachms; 

Camel's hay, 

Costus, or in its stead Zedoary, 

Indian leaf, or in its stead, Mace, 

Stechas, 

Long pepper, 

Hartwort seeds, 

Hypocistis, 

Storax, strained, 

Opoponax, 

Galbanum, strained, 

Opobalsam, or in its stead, express- 
ed oil of nutmegs, 

Russian castor, each one ounce ; 

Foley mountain, 

Scordium, 

Carpobalsam, or in its stead, Cu- 
bebs, 

White pepper. 

Candy carrot seed. 

Bdellium,, strained, each seven 
drachms ; 

Celtic nard, 

Gentian root, 

Dittany of Crete, 

Red roses, 

Macedonian parsley seed. 

Lesser Cardamon seeds, husked. 

Sweet fennel seed. 

Gum Arabic, 

Opium, strained, each five drachms ; 

Calamus aromaticus. 



740 



FIRST APOTHECARY SHOTS IN CONNECTICUT 



Wild valerian root, 

Aniseed, 

Sagapenum, strained, each three 
drachms ; 

Meum athamanticum, 

St. John's wort, 

Acacia, or in its stead. Terra Japo- 
nica, 

BelHes of skinks, each two drachms 
and a half ; 

Clarified honey, thrice the weight of 
all the other ingredients. 

Warm the honey, and mix with it 
the opium dissolved in wine ; melt the 
storax, galbanum, turpentine, and opo- 
balsam (or expressed oil of nutmeg) 
together in another vessel, continually 
stirring them about, to prevent their 
burning; with these so melted, mix 
the hot honey, at first by spoonfuls, 
and afterwards in larger quantities at a 
time ; when the whole is grown almost 
cold, add by degrees the other spices 
reduced into powder. 

Note — As many of these ingredients are little 
known, the following description is added of those 
most rare. 

THERIACA, from "Their," a wild beast; sup- 
posed to be a remedy for the bites of snakes and 
other beasts. 

Agaric, polyporus oMcionalis, a fungus growing 
on the bark of certain trees. 

Nard, spikenard. 

Mithridate mustard, a kind of small cress. 

Camel's hay, hay made from a fragrant grass 
of the warmer regions of Asia, including several 
species of andropogon. 

Costus, an East Indian medicine, the root of 
saussurea lappa, a plant of Cashmere; the root is 
pungent and aromatic, resembling orris root. 

Zedoary, (its alternate,) is an East Indian drug 
with a flavor of camphor and a taste of ginger. 

Stechas, a small Arabian plant resembling lav- 
ender, sometimes called French lavender. 

Hypocistis, the juice of the Cytanies hypocistes, 
expressed while the plant is green; it is astringent. 

Storax, strained; this is a gummy product ob- 
tained from the bark of a tree growing in the is- 
land of Colras in the Red Sea, and is obtained by 
boiling in water. It is marked in the Dispensatory 
Liquid-ambra StyraciUua, which is the botanical 
name for our sweet gum tree, growing in Virginia, 
and sometimes as far north as Long Island. 
Whether the sweet gum has these properties I 
cannot say. 

Opoponax, the concrete gummy resinous juice 
of the Partinaca Opoponax, an umbilliferous plant 
growing spontaneously in Turkey and the East 
Indies. 

Galbanum, the concrete juice of the African 
plant, Bubon Galbanum. 

Opo Balsam, juice of the balsam tree. 

Russian Castor, castor from the Russian bea- 
ver, supposed to be the best. 

Foley Mountain, an aromatic plant with glan- 
cous leaves. 

Scordium, Tesicrium Scordium, a small hairy 
plant of bitter taste and disagreeable smell, grow- 
ing wild in some parts of England. 

Carpobalsam, fruit of the Balm of Gilead tree. 

Candy carrot, seed of the Athamante Cretensis. 



Bdellium, strained; a bitter gummy resinous 
juice, brought from the East Indies. 

Celtic nard, Valeriana Celtica. 

Dittany of Crete, a variety of Origanum, 

Sagapenum; a resinous gum brought from Alex- 
andria. 

Bellies of Skinks; skink, a species of lizard,, 
common in Asia and Africa. 



The Edinburg Dispensatory tells us 
that : 

"The Theriaca is a reformation (?) 
of the Mithridate made by Androma- 
chius, physician to Nero, and let us 
hope that he gave Nero frequent doses 
of it, although it is possible that such 
a concoction, instead of being a just 
punishment for cruelty, may have been 
an incitement to it. The Mithridate 
itself is said to have been found in the 
cabinet of Mithridates, king of Pon- 
tus. If a man took a good dose of it 
in the morning he was supposed to be 
safe from poison all the rest of that 
day. A memento of it is preserved 
in the Modern United States Dispen- 
satory (Wood & Bache, Ed. 1849, P- 
894) under the title "Confectio Opii," 
of which it says, 'this confection is in- 
tended as a substitute for those ex- 
ceedingly complex and unscientific 
preparations which were formerly 
known under the name of 'theraicum' 
and 'mithridate,' and which have been 
expelled from modern pharmacy. . . 
The preparation is a combination of 
opium with spices, which render it 
more stimulant and more grateful to 
a debilitated stomach.' " 

This preparation of Wood & Bache 
contains three ingredients. Two other 
formulas are given, one having six 
ingredients and the other four. In the 
practice of todg.y probably none of 
them are used, although the ''elixir 
proprietatis," or paregoric, which was 
such a popular medicine forty years 
ago, seems to have substantially the 
same character and to add the virtues 
of camphor, which were then, at least,, 
supposed to be considerable. 

To the modern mind there is noth- 
ing in this mixture which could fairly 
be considered either a poison or an an- 
tidote for poisons, and it is only in re- 
lation to poisons that Mithridates is 
known to the medical world, or couldn 



FIRST APOTHECARY SHOPS IN CONNECTICUT 



741 



be. It has seemed possible, though I 
confess not very probable, that there 
may have been a doctor somewhere in 
the middle ages whose name was 
Mithridates, and who invented the 
mixture which for that reason took 
his name. We find this bit of history 
in the names of certain modern medi- 
cines, such as "Dover's powders," 
'Tully's powders," 'Warner's elixir," 
and sundry others. I see that the Cen- 
tury dictionary gives Mithridates as 
its godfather, and supposes it to have 
been an antidote for poisons. The 
opium would certainly be an antidote 
for pain of any kind, but neither that 
nor any of the other ingredients seem 
specifically indicated as antidotes for 
poison. If one had a line of pharma- 
copoeias running back through the 
middle ages, it would be interesting to 
trace the history of this heterogeneous 
composite. 

Per contra, there is some negative 
evidence that the age of this mixture 
m.ay not be quite so great as intimated, 
still, like all negative evidence, it is 
not wholly satisfactory. 

On the west coast of Italy, a short 
distance south of Naples, there is a 
place called Salernum or Salerno, 
where, for a thousand years or more, 
there flourished a famous medical 
school, where was supposed to be col- 
lected all the medical wisdom of the 
world. This thousand years extended, 
roughly speaking, from 800 to 1800, 
but it was during the first two-thirds 
of this period that the school was held 
in greatest repute. 

About the year 1096, Robert, Duke 
of Normandy, and second son of Wil- 
liam of England (the Conqueror), re- 
ceived, at the seige of Jerusalem, a 
severe wound in the arm from a poi- 
soned arrow, which assumed a fistu- 
lous character. On his way home he 
stopped at Salernum to have the 
wound healed. The physicians were 
of opinion that no relief could be ob- 



tained until the poison had been elimi- 
nated by suction. The opinion seems 
to have been that whoever should suck 
the wound would run great risk of im- 
bibing the poison and Robert was un- 
willing to ask any one to make the 
sacrifice. His wife, however, was 
equal to the occasion, and while he 
was asleep she sucked the wound so 
successfully that it v/as healed. It is 
not recounted that she suffered at all 
thereby. Before he left Salernum, the 
faculty had drawn up for his use, in 
mediaeval latin poetry, a work called 
the "Code of Salernum," being full in- 
structions for the preservation of 
health under all circumstances. This 
book had a wonderful popularity, was 
translated into most of the European 
languages and was regarded as a med- 
ical vade mecum for several hundred 
years. In 1870, Dr. John Ordronaux, 
LL. D., professor of medical jurispru- 
dence in New York, published a trans- 
lation of this book in English metre 
with copious notes. In this book I 
find not a word about Mithridates, and 
under the head of "Antidotes to Poi- 
sons," only this : 

"The radish, pear, theraic, garlic, rue, 
All potent poisons will at once undo." 

But I find nothing whatever about 
any form of opium or any use of pop- 
pies. Just what is meant by the word 
"theraic," here, does not appear. From 
the connection it could hardly be this 
mixture which is given in the Dispen- 
satory. 

Several reasons might be suggested 
for the non-appearance of Mithridates. 
One is that the doctors of Salernum 
had too much sense ; another is that 
the formula was so long that it took 
too much time to write it out. How- 
ever, any one can furnish his own rea- 
son pro or con, and we can only pre- 
sent the subject as we find it. 

Moral: Let us be thankful that 
we were not born in the middle ages ! 



GREATEST REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION 
EVER RECORDED IN HISTORY 



JOHN LEDYARD, BORN IN GROTON, CONNECTICUT, IN 
1 75 1, ORIGINATOR OF IDEA FOR GOVERNMENT TO 
GAIN CONTROL OF TERRITORY BETWEEN MISSISSIPPI 

RIVER AND PACIFIC OCEAN STARTED FROM PARIS 

VIA RUSSIA WAS ARRESTED AND DIED IN EGYPT 



BY 

JUDGE L. E. MUNSON 

APPOINTED BY PRESIDENT LINCOLN AS UNITED STATES JUDGE IN MONTANA 



Jadge Munson, having attained the age limit and now retired from the bench, is devoting much of his time to< 
historical research. His long life in government service and his wide acquaintance in diplomatic circles has given 
him a fund of knowledge, which his judicial mind presents in concise form. His recent articles in The Connecticut 
Magazine, on the comparative qualities of Jefferson and Lincoln, were accepted as writings of permanent record. 
During the last few weeks he has been editing and rewriting material which he gathered some fifteen years ago in 
regard to the Louisiana Purchase. It is appropriate that at this time, when Connecticut is gaining a front position in 
the rank of states at the Louisiana Exposition, Judge Munson presents historical proof that a Connecticut man really 
originated the idea of government control of this vast territory. Mrs. John Marshall Holcombe established the fact, in 
the preceding issue of The Connecticut Magazine, that Connecticut must be given national recognition as The 
Birthplace of American Democracy. Judge Munson gives convincing evidence that Connecticut produced the origi- 
nator of the plan to open up the great territory, the purchase of which, in later years, is now being celebrated at St. 
Louis. Judge Munson states that a similar argument was at one time presented by him in the Vale Review — Editor 



THE Louisiana Purchase was the 
greatest real estate transac- 
tion ever recorded in history. 
Much historical influence 
leading up to the negotiations and ac- 
quisition of this territory was due to a 
Connecticut man, John Ledyard, born 
in Groton, in this State, in 1751. He 
entered Dartmouth College at the age 
of nineteen to prepare himself as a 
missionary among the Indians. He 
left college at the close of the first 
year, shipped as a sailor to Gibraltar, 
there enlisted as a soldier. Obtaining 
his discharge, he accompanied Captain 
Cook in his voyage to the Pacific in 
1776. He revisited Connecticut in 
1782, but neither the quiet old town of 
Groton or the State possessed attrac- 
tions for him. His restless spirit 
chafed with the love of adventure. 
He recrossed the Atlantic, and went to 
Paris to persuade a mercantile firm 
there to enter into the fur trade on the 



west coast of America, near the mouth 
of the Columbia river. 

While in Paris, in 1787, he had fre- 
quent interviews with Thomas Jeffer- 
son, one of the three Commissioners 
sent by Congress to Paris with treaty- 
making powers for commercial pur- 
poses. His conversation was upon the 
subject and desirability of this govern- 
ment acquiring possession and control 
of the territory betv/een the Missis- 
sippi river and the Pacific ocean. 

So firmly was the frontier guarded 
against incursions into it from our 
side, that Jefferson says he proposed 
to Ledyard to go by way of Kam- 
skatska, cross over in some Russian 
vessel to Nootka Sound, fall down 
into the latitude of Missouri, and then 
penetrate through to the United 
States. 

Jefferson says : "Ledyard eagerly 
seized the idea, and only asked to be 
assured of the permission of the Rus- 



THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 



743 



sian government to the undertaking." 
Jefferson interested himself in obtain- 
ing that permission, and Ledyard 
started with a passport obtained 
through Jefferson's agency for that 
purpose. 

At 200 miles from Kamskatska, 
Ledyard was pursued, overtaken, and 
arrested by an officer of the Empress, 
who had changed her mind, forbid- 
ding him to proceed. He was put into 
a close carriage, and conveyed back 
without stopping day or night, till they 
reached Poland, where he was left 
with a warning not to return, and his 
undertaking was abandoned. Cha- 
grined at the disappointment, he re- 
solved upon, and afterwards under- 
took, a journey into Egypt, but with 
health shattered by fatigue and ex- 
posure, he died at Cairo on the way, 
January 17th, 1789. 

So interested had Jefferson become 
through his interviews with Ledyard, 
as to the desirability of our govern- 
ment acquiring this territory, that in 
1792 he proposed to the American 
Philosophical Society to start a sub- 
scription and engage some competent 
persons. to explore this region by as- 
cending the Missouri river. This was 
done. Captain Lewis and a French 
botanist were selected for the under- 
taking. They started, and when they 
arrived at Louisville, Kentucky, they 
were overtaken by an order from the 
Minister of France to the French bot- 
anist, to relinquish the expedition and 
it was given up. 

But Jefferson never lost sight of the 
Star of Empire which seemed to him 
to hang over the region west of the 
Mississippi river, and his sleepless eye 
watched with jealous care all the 
movements in reference, not only to 
Spanish possessions stretching west- 
ward from the east coast of Florida 
to the Mississippi river, but also he 
had longing desires to extend our do- 
main west of the Mississippi. 

Jefferson, coming to the Presidency 
March 4th, 1801, selected Captain 
Lewis to be his private secretary. On 
the 30th of April, 1803, Jefferson, 



through his accredited agents and 
ministers, bought of the French nation 
a large farm, and his practical eye se- 
lected these two young men, Lewis 
and Clark, to look it over. His in- 
structions were very explicit, to exam- 
ine minutely into the condition, tradi- 
tions, and peculiar characteristics of 
the Indian tribes, the physical geogra- 
phy of the country, its rivers, moun- 
tains, temperature, animals, minerals, 
and vegetable products, and to make 
report of their doings and findings to 
Congress. 

A herculean task was before them ; 
but these brave men comprehended the 
magnitude of the undertaking, and 
entered upon their work with heroic 
zeal and patriotic purpose. 

Lewis was the scientific and Clark 
the military director of the expedition, 
both by fitness and common consent, 
but Lewis was senior officer, to whom 
instructions were committed, 

Capt. Merriweather Lewis was born 
in Virginia, August 17th, 1774. He 
enlisted as a volunteer in the troops 
called out to suppress the Whisky In- 
surrection in Pennsylvania in 1795, 
and became Captain in 1800. Capt. 
William Clark was born in Virginia, 
August 1st, 1770. He entered the 
army as a private, at the age of eigh- 
teen, and spent six or seven years in 
active service, engaged in a crusading 
warfare against the Indians. He was 
made Lieutenant March 7th, 1792, be- 
came Quartermaster in 1793, and serv- 
ed till 1796, when he resigned. 

One hundred years ago on the banks 
of the Mississippi river, where St. 
Louis now stands, with its mammoth 
storehouses, magnificent public build- 
ings, and half a million of inhabitants 
— then a mere trading post, with a 
little cluster of log cabins and cheap 
houses to shelter the traders from the 
heat of summer and driving winds of 
winter — was seen a party of thirty 
persons, under the direction of Lewis 
and Clark, constructing three crude 
flat-bottom boats, one of twenty-two, 
one of seven, and one of six oars, in 
which, with their supplies, they were 



744 



GREATEST REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION 



to ascend and explore the Missouri 
river, and all the vast unknown region 
drained by its waters. Truly an in- 
significant outfit for so great an under- 
taking ! 

Completing their outfit at St. Louis, 
they slipped moorings, swung their 
floating craft out into the Mississippi 
river, and pulled up stream to the 
mouth of the Missouri river, about 
twenty miles above St. Louis. 

Here they met with an obstacle not 
anticipated. The commandant of a 
Spanish post at that place, in conform- 
ity with the policy of his government, 
refused to let the expedition pass, and 
they retired to the opposite shore of 
the Mississippi river, within the un- 
questioned jurisdiction of the United 
States, and communicated the cause of 
their delay to the President at Wash- 
ington. The difficulties of communi- 
cation at that early date were so great, 
that they were obliged to go into win- 
ter quarters where they were, in sight 
of the Spanish flag that proclaimed the 
omnipotence of the Spanish govern- 
ment over all of the territory beyond. 

At the time of which we speak, the 
western boundary of the United States 
was the Mississippi river, and the 
Spanish flag floated over the territory 
west of that river from the British 
Possessions on the north to Brazil on 
the south. 

The southern boundary of the Unit- 
ed States was the 31st parallel of lati- 
tude, and the Spanish Floridas occu- 
pied all the intervening country be- 
low that line from the Atlantic coast 
to the Mississippi river, completely 
shutting off the American people from 
all communication with the Gulf. 

About forty years before this period, 
seven years of bloody war had come to 
an end in Europe, in 1762. Victory 
had perched upon the English banners 
both upon land and upon sea, in Eu- 
rope and America. Quebec had sur- 
rendered to the victorious army of 
General Wolfe in 1759, and soon after 
the French government ceded to the 
British crown all of her Canadian pos- 
sessions stretching westward from the 



waters of the St. Lawrence, acknowl- 
edging the supremacy of England over 
the Canadian Provinces. 

A few years later, November 3d, 

1762, France ceded to Spain "that por- 
tion of the Province of Louisiana ly- 
ing east of the Mississippi river and 
the City of New Orleans" ; and on the 
13th of the same month, by a separate 
transaction, ceded "the said country 
and colony of Louisiana, and the posts 
thereon depending, likewise the City 
and Island of New Orleans, to Spain," 
thereby parting with her entire Ameri- 
can dominions. 

Shortly after, Spain, February 10, 

1763, ceded to England all of her 
American possessions east of the Mis- 
sissippi river, except the town of New 
Orleans, and w^e were exposed to be 
harassed by a British army upon the 
north and south, and by her navy on 
the east. British exactions culminat- 
ed in the stirring events of the Revo- 
lution. The disasters of that war so 
ernbarassed England in the control of 
Florida, that, in 1783, the government 
ceded it back to Spain, and the Span- 
ish flag once more floated from the 
eastern coast of Florida to the Pacific. 
October ist, 1800, Spain, by a secret 
treaty, transferred the Colony or 
Province of Louisiana back to France, 
with no restrictions as to limits, but 
"with her ancient boundaries as they 
were when France in 1762 had ceded 
the province to Spain." 

October 16, 1802, tv/o years after 
the cession, Don Morales, Spanish in- 
tendant of Louisiana, issued a procla- 
mation prohibiting the further use by 
the citizens of the United States of the 
City of New Orleans as a place of de- 
posit for merchandise, and free transit 
for our ships down the river to the sea, 

December 15, 1802, President Jeffer- 
son notified Congress of the secret 
transfer of Louisiana by Spain back to 
France, and of the Spanish pronun- 
ciamento, prohibiting American citi- 
zens from using the wharves of New 
Orleans. 

Great excitement ensued throughout 
the country. Congress remonstrated 



EVER RECORDED IN HISTORY 



745 



against the manifesto, and the West- 
ern States threatened to resist the edict 
by force rather than submit to its ex- 
actions. 

January lo, 1803, James Monroe 
was appointed special Minister Pleni- 
potentiary and Envoy Extraordinary, 
and directed to proceed at once to 
Paris, to act in concert with our Min- 
isters, Livingston at Paris and Pinck- 
ney at Spain, for the purpose of ne- 
gotiating a treaty, and securing com- 
mercial privileges at New Orleans. 
Congress granted $2,000,000 for the 
purposes of this mission. 

At that time war clouds were again 
hanging thick and threatening over 
England and France. England was 
arrogant and powerful. France was 
humiliated and in want of money. 
England was preparing to seize the 
French possessions in America, which 
had two years before been ceded back 
by Spain to France, and New Orleans 
and the Mississippi river were the ob- 
jective points of attack. Twenty ships 
from the British navy were cruising in 
the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of 
the river, waiting for the conflict. 
Napoleon was alive to the situation, 
and resolved to checkmate England in 
her plan to obtain the coveted prize. 

Accordingly, on the loth of April, 
1803, Napoleon announced to two of 
his counselors, that he had determined 
to sell his American possessions to the 
United States, which had so gallantly 
defeated the EngHsh in the Revolu- 
tionary War. His startling proposi- 
tion met with opposition. The next 
day he held audience with them again, 
and when the latest dispatches were 
read, it was then and there decided 
that war with England was inevitable, 
that money was needed to carry it on, 
that they could not hold their Ameri- 
can territory against England — and 
the only alternative being an imme- 
diate sale of the country for money, 
or a seizure without it, they resolved 
to sell. 

Livingston, our Minister at Paris, 
was apprised of this proposition, but it 
so far exceeded the limits of his in- 



structions, that he could not negotiate 
without authority from Washington. 
To communicate with Washington, 
and obtain a reply, would occupy 
about three months. Such a delay 
would be hazardous to the interests 
of France and the United States. But 
the new Minister, James Monroe, was 
already on his way to Paris, and fort- 
unately arrived there April 12th, 1803. 
The proposition was submitted to him, 
and though it exceeded his instruc- 
tions, he took the responsibility of 
making the treaty, and it was signed 
April 30th, 1803. It stipulated that 
the United States should pay 80,000,- 
000 francs ; and, as part of the same 
transaction, twenty million francs 
should be applied by the United States 
at Washington, to the payment of cer- 
tain claims owed by France to Ameri- 
can citizens, if they should amount to 
that sum. The amount finally agreed 
upon was $3,738,268.98. 

The whole sum actually paid was in 
round numbers $16,000,000 — less 
than two cents for each one hundred 
acres of land conveyed. 

Never before was a treaty between 
National Powers hurried to conclusion 
so rapidly. The matter was conduct- 
ed so secretly and expeditiously, that 
the Minister of England at Paris knew 
nothing of the negotiations till after 
the treaty was signed. On learning 
that fact, he at once demanded his 
passports and left for England. 

The French Ambassador at the 
Court of St. James also took his pass- 
port and left. These two eminent 
men, between whom ties of personal 
friendship existed, on their way to 
their respective governments, met at 
Dover, amid the shadows of a great 
calamity, which each felt was soon to 
break upon the world in terrible re- 
ality. 

The events which followed need no 
description here. The clash of arms 
between these two great powers and 
their allies shook the world from cen- 
ter to circumference. Napoleon, who 
had carried the eagles of France in 
triumph through a hundred battles, 



746 



GREATEST REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION 



went down in the conflict at Waterloo, 
and the Iron Duke mounted the pedes- 
tal of fame, as the conquering hero of 
the world. The armies of England 
and her allies dictated terms of peace 
and conquest in the French Capital, 
and Napoleon, a prisoner of State, on 
the 8th of August, 1815, turned his 
face in banishment from the city and 
people he loved so well, and went into 
exile at St. Helena, to behold them 
no more forever. 

The light of his life went out May 
15, 1 82 1, and his bones rested on the 
wave-washed shores of St. Helena till 
1840, when they were brought back 
to his beloved Paris, amid triumphal 
arches, and the plaudits and peans of 
a nation devoted to his name. 

Americans who visit his tomb 
should remember that it was his act 
that gave us the title deeds to the 
greatest real estate transaction ever 
recorded. The ''Louisiana Purchase" 
was hardly second in importance to 
the Declaration of Independence, in 
the history of our government. 

Although Spain had ceded the Col- 
ony or Province of Louisiana back to 
France two years before France ceded 
it to the United States, yet France had 
never taken formal possession of any 
part of it. Not a Spanish flag had 
been lowered or a French flag raised 
anywhere, to indicate that there had 
been a change of national sovereignty 
or of national supremacy. Even at 
New Orleans, Spanish rule continued, 
and we paid tribute for the right to 
deposit our products and merchandise 
for export and import, and for the 
right of ingress and egress to the Mis- 
sissippi river, and even those rights 
had been suspended by Spain in an 
imperious, arrogant manner, without 
protest from France. Spanish rule 
had become odious to the American 
people, especially to those living in the 
Western States, and they chafed for 
deHverance from their exactions and 
prohibitions. Congress was even de- 
bating the question of removing them 
by force of arms, and of seizing New 
Orleans. A crisis would have been 



precipitated but for the cool, calculat- 
ing, far-reaching wisdom of Jefferson, 
who had plans for a peaceable acqui- 
sition, not then divulged to the public 
ear. But Jefferson could not long 
have kept the people quiet, if the trea- 
ty had not been made. Spanish re- 
strictions and geographical lines fav- 
ored an enterprise for conquest of the 
country, and the people were ripe for 
the undertaking. England was also 
about to attempt the seizure ; and Eng- 
land and America would have con- 
tended for the prize, as they after- 
wards did in the war which culminat- 
ed in victory for our forces under 
General Jackson, January 8th, 181 5, 
which saved New Orleans and the 
river from British interference. 

The treaty having arrived in this 
country July ist, 1803, President Jef- 
ferson called an extra session of Con- 
gress, which assembled October 17th, 
1803 ; and, two days after, ratified the 
treaty, clothing Jefferson with author- 
ity to enforce it. He lost no time in 
taking possession, and proclaiming: 
the sovereignty of the United States 
over it as fast as events would justify. 
The ships on the coast, carrying the 
figurehead of the British lion on their 
bows, and flying the flag of St. George 
at the mast head, ready to seize New 
Orleans and all other French Ameri- 
can territory, retreated from the Gulf 
without a shot, at the sight of the 
American flag, and New Orleans was 
ours. England has lost her oppor- 
tunity, and America gained it. 

In the meantime, the Spanish of- 
ficials at the mouth of the Missouri 
river and other points in the territory, 
had been notified that they were no 
longer needed to stand sentinel at the 
opening gateway of a country larger 
in extent than Spain and France to- 
gether, and that the United States 
had acquired possession of all the vast 
realm beyond, to provide homes for its 
rapidly increasing family. According- 
ly, Lewis and Clark now received in- 
structions to move on ; and on the 4th 
of May, 1804, armed with passports, 
from foreign ministers, and backed by 



EVER RECORDED IN HISTORY 



747 



the United States Government, they 
again started on their mission, passed 
without opposition the Spanish post, 
where the autumn before they had 
been turned back, and, bidding fare- 
well to civilization, entered the un- 
known country, to open up to the eye 
of civilization the value of the "Louis- 
iana Purchase." 

The territory covered by this "Pur- 
chase" was of vast extent and unde- 
fined proportions. Not a boundary 
line was given or referred to in the 
treaty, and the only reference to the 
locus in quo was "the Colony or Prov- 
ince of Louisiana with the same extent 
it now has in the hands of Spain, and 
that it had when France possessed it, 
and such as it should be after the 
treaties subsequently entered into be- 
tween Spain and other States." 

Could language make anything 
more ambiguous and uncertain? At 
first it was supposed that the treaty 
and cession carried all the Floridas, 
but Spain claimed the Floridas under 
conquest and cession from Great Brit- 
ain, and refused to surrender posses- 
sion, but did surrender New Orleans 
and the Province of Louisiana 
to France, November 30th, 1803, only 
twenty days before France formally 
surrendered them to the Government 
of the United States. Able statesmen 
claimed that the treaty covered Flor- 
ida and the whole of Texas -to the Rio 
Grande. But this claim was denied 
by Spain. 

The American Government claimed 
that the purchase embraced all the 
northern portion of the country bor- 
dering the British possessions from 
the Mississippi river to the Pacific 
ocean. This claim was on the strength 
of the French explorations by Mar- 
quette in 1663 on the Mississippi river 
from Canada to the Gulf followed by 
French explorations of the river and 
country under Lasalle in 1680. 

The United States also set up an 
independent claim to the Oregon coun- 
try, based, first, upon its original dis- 
covery by Captain Robert Gray, an 
American navigator, who discovered 



and sailed up the Columbia river in 
1 791, giving to the river the name of 
his ship ; secondly, upon the fact that 
a trading post had been established by 
Americans on Snake river, west of 
the mountains, and thirdly, that an- 
other trading post had been estab- 
lished at Astoria, in Oregon, by John 
Jacob Astor, who gave the town his 
own name. 

Thus the discovery of Oregon bv 
Americans had been followed up by 
actual settlements in the country. 

These claims to the Oregon country 
were denied by Spain, which contend- 
ed that all the region west of the 
mountains was Spanish territory, 
stretching from Mexico to the British 
possessions, basing their rights on 
prior discovery, and the fact that 
Spanish settlements had been made on 
the Pacific slope. 

Which of the two claims was the 
stronger and the better founded in 
national or international law, in fact 
or in presumption, we need not dis- 
cuss. The subject of the boundaries, 
and the right of national supremacy 
in the Oregon country, in Texas, and 
the complicated relations in the Span- 
ish Floridas, were matters of grave 
dispute and serious concern between 
Spain and the United States, to be 
settled either by the arbitrament of 
war or by diplomacy. General Jack- 
son, in his hot chase after the Semi- 
nole Indians, followed them with his 
army, without the orders or consent 
of his government, across our south- 
ern boundary into Florida in 181 8, 
where he burned Spanish towns, shot 
Spanish subjects upon Spanish soil, 
seized a trader at a Spanish post and 
an Englishman — court-martialed 
them, hung one upon the yard-arm of 
an English vessel of which he was an 
officer, — riddled the other with Amer- 
ican bullets as he sat upon his coffin 
with arms pinioned and eyes ban- 
daged, captured Spanish forts along 
the Gulf, and garrisoned them with 
American forces. England, Spain, 
and other foreign powers were great- 
ly exasperated over what was deemed 



748 



GREATEST REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION 



a flagrant violation of national com- 
pact and international law by Jack- 
son in this raid and murder upon for- 
eign soil. 

War with Spain was imminent, and 
England threatened retaliation for the 
miurder of her subjects upon Spanish 
soil, and was contemplating an alli- 
ance with Spain for offensive opera- 
tions against the United States. 

Bitter feelings and divided senti- 
ment among eminent statesmen in 
Congress also sprung up over the 
lawless acts of Jackson, which crys- 
tallized into political parties, that last- 
ed while Jackson lived, and lived after 
Jackson died. 

James Monroe, who secured the 
treaty with France, was then Presi- 
dent of the United States, and his 
practical wisdom did much to keep 
down the turbulent elements of politi- 
cal animosities, and guide the affairs 
of State into a channel of peaceful de- 
liverance from threatened danger. 
Knowing the absence of definite boun- 
daries, the inherent obscurities and 
patent ambiguities in the articles of 
cession which conveyed the purchase, 
Monroe regarded the matter of suf- 
ficient importance for negotiation and 
compromise. Negotiations were open- 
ed, and to secure a final adjustment 
of all difficulties between Spain and 
the United States, a treaty was form- 
ed, February 22d, 1819, and ratified 
February 22d, 1822, by which we gave 
up our claim to Texas from the Sabine 
to the Rio Grande, and Spain gave up 
Florida and abandoned all the rights 
that she had claimed to the north land, 
west of the mountains. Our release of 
Texan territory was regarded by many 
as an unnecessary surrender to Span- 
ish demands, but the settlement freed 
us from complications which Spain 
could not overlook, and our govern- 
ment could not justify. 

The acquisition of Florida not only 
added to our national domain a terri- 
tory seven times larger than Massa- 
chusetts, but gave us an unbroken line 
of sea coast from Nova Scotia on the 
north to the Sabine Pass on the south. 



with no foreign waters washing our 
shores, and no unfriendly settlements 
to embarrass our commerce. 

Thus a full settlement of our boun- 
dary lines and border difficulties was 
effected. The soil of Florida, moist- 
ened by Spanish and English blood 
spilled by Jackson, peacefully passed 
under the flag of the United States, 
and Spanish grievances were ended. 

England, learning the turn events 
had taken with Spain, blustered for a 
while, then bandaged the eyes of her 
lions, and we were at peace with all 
the world, with a country united from 
the Lakes to the Gulf, and from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. 

Jackson was rewarded for his au- 
dacity, made United States Senator 
from Tennessee, and then President of 
the United States from 1 829 to 1837 ; 
and tradition has it, that there were 
those who continued to vote for him 
for that office long after his death, 
June 8th, 1845. 

The extent of the territory em- 
braced in the Louisiana Purchase is 
but little understood or comprehended 
by the people of this country today. 
It is a territory larger in extent than 
the thirteen original States of the 
Union ; it is greater in agricultural re- 
sources, richer in mineral wealth, has 
a greater variety of climate and soil. 
Its mountains are magnificent in gran- 
deur, its scenery the finest, its natural 
curiosities the most remarkable in the 
country ; and its river courses the long- 
est in the world. 

This whole territory was shut up in 
seclusion, with its solitudes unbroken, 
except by the war-whoop of the In- 
dian, and the growl of wild beasts 
echoing through the forests. The buf- 
falo and wild horse roamed at will 
over its vast prairies ; the stately elk, 
the timid deer, and the sprightly ante- 
lope chewed their cuds in contentment. 
The bear and the wolf were monarchs 
of the forest, and snapped their teeth 
at settlers as they reared their rude 
cabins in the wilderness. The beaver 
built its dams, and the otter gambolled 
in its waters unmolested. Feathered 



EVER RECORDED IN HISTORY 



749 



game and feathered songsters reared 
their young undisturbed, and caroled 
their songs upon morning air, laden 
with the perfumes of eternal summer. 
The Indian pursued his game unmo- 
lested, worshipping the Fatherhood in 
the spirit of sunlight, which illuminat- 
ed the happy hunting grounds with 
coveted trophies at his bidding. Trop- 
ical fruits ripened and dropped in 
■.abundance upon the land at one ex- 
tremity, while icy chains locked the 
water springs and covered the earth 
with snowy mantles at the other ; gen- 
tle breezes from grassy plains, and sea 
air from salted waves, swept the land, 
over a region of country stretching 
from the Gulf to the Lakes, and the 
Lakes to the Pacific ocean, a country 
large enough for an empire, and rich 
enough for the ambition of kings. 

In the history that we are so rapidly 
making, in the marvelous achieve- 
ments that we are familiar with, it is 
well to remember the beginnings, that 
we may the better appreciate the re- 
sults. The human mind is aided in 
comprehending magnitudes by famil- 
iar comparisons. 

To this end we will call attention to 
the fact that Connecticut has only a 
territorial area of 4,990 square miles ; 
Massachusetts, 8,315 ; and the State of 
New York, 49,170 square miles. Now 
the ''Louisiana Purchase," excluding 
Texas, embraced a territorial area 260 
times larger than Connecticut; 150 
times larger than Massachusetts, and 
26 times larger than New York. 

What have we done with this mag- 
nificent empire farm, purchased 100 
years ago? 

In 1 81 2, we admitted Louisiana as a 
State into the Union, with 48,720 
square miles. 

In 1 82 1, we admitted Missouri, with 
69,415 square miles. 

In 1836, we admitted Arkansas, with 
52,250 square miles. 

In 1845, we admitted Iowa, with 
56,025 square miles, and the same year 
admitted Florida, with 58,680 square 
miles. 



In 1858, we admitted Minnesota, 
with 83,365 square miles. 

In 1 861, we admitted Kansas, with 
82,080 square miles. 

In 1867, we admitted Nebraska, 
with 76,855 square miles. 

In 1876, we admitted Colorado, with 
103,925 square miles. A portion of 
this State, lying west of the Rocky 
mountains, was not included in the 
Louisiana Purchase, but was obtained 
by the "Gaudalupe Hidalgo Treaty," 
which gave us Utah, Arizona, etc. So 
we will put down for Colorado only 
60,000 square miles as obtained bv the 
"Purchase." 

February 22, 1889, at one dash of 
the pen, we admitted North and South 
Dakota, with an aggregate area of 
150,932 square miles, and Montana, 
with 146,080 square miles. 

Wyoming, with 97,890 square miles, 
was admitted into the Union in 1890. 

Twelve great States, each nearly 
double the size of New York, have 
already been admitted into the L^nion 
out of territory east of the Rocky 
mountains ; and we have in addition, 
the Indian Territory, with 64,690 
square miles, and the Yellowstone, or 
National Park, v/ith 3,575 square 
miles. 

The strip of land, like an index fin- 
ger pointing westward, seen on the 
map of the Indian Territory, was ced- 
ed by Texas to the United States, 
December 13, 1850. Call the Indian 
Territory 50,000 square miles under 
the Purchase. 

There was also taken from Florida, 
south of the 31st parallel of latitude, 
2,300 square miles to be added to Ala- 
bama, and also 3,600 square miles 
which was added to Mississippi, to 
give to those two States a water front 
upon the Gulf of Mexico. 

In the territory west of the moun- 
tains, we have Oregon, with 96.030 
square miles, admitted into tlie L^nion 
as a State in 1859 ; Washington, with 
69,994 square miles, which was ad- 
mitted as a State, February 22, i88q; 
and Idaho, with 84.800 square miles, 
admitted into the Union as a State in 



7SO 



GREATEST REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION 



1890; making fifteen States already 
admitted out of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase. 

Whether all these political divisions 
of territory west of the mountains and 
Florida were actually embraced in the 
Louisiana Purchase or not, that Pur- 
chase was the key that confirmed our 
title, and gave us quiet possession of 
a land that receives the last golden 
baptism of the sun, ere he sinks be- 
hind the billows of the Pacific; and 
also gave us the land of flowers and 
tropical fruits in the peninsula of 
Florida. 

We have discussed this matter as 
though there might be a shadow of 
doubt as to whether this North Land, 
west of the mountains, was included 
in the Louisiana Purchase. An emi- 
nent historian gives the crest of the 
Rocky mountains as the western boun- 
dary of the "Purchase," but the first 
time we find that boundary line men- 
tioned, is in our treaty with Spain in 
1 81 9, when we were settling disputes 
and difliculties growing out of dis- 
puted boundaries and other compli- 
cated relations. 

Congressional Records compiled in 
1884, which describe the public do- 
main that we have acquired by trea- 
ties, cessions and conquests, after care- 
ful investigation and analysis of each, 
classify these three political divisions, 
Oregon, Washington and Idaho, as 
embraced within the Louisiana Pur- 
chase. 

We find on examination of ''Con- 
gressional Records" concerning this 
North Land, the following bit of his- 
tory. 

'The French, prior to the sale of 
the province of Louisiana and pos- 
sessions to the United States, claimed 
the country south of the British pos- 
sessions and west of the Mississippi 
river to the Pacific ocean, by reason of 
discovery and exploration of the Mis- 
sissippi river. This claim the United 
States, being the successor of France, 
also urged and stood upon." 

"The United States held an inde- 
pendent claim to that portion of the 



Louisiana Purchase known as Oregon, 
based upon the discovery of the mouth 
of the Columbia river in May, 1791, 
by Captain Gray, of Boston, in the 
ship Columbia, naming the river after 
the name of his ship." 

Let us now go back to our starting 
point, an inconsiderable period in the 
history of a nation, and behold the 
rapid strides we have made, in all the 
physical realities of life. Take one 
more look at the little band of ex- 
plorers, toiling up at the expense of 
sinews of flesh and blood, paddling, 
wading, pushing and pulling their 
rough boats up the turbulent waters 
of the Missouri, filed with snags and 
sand bars, its banks lined with trees 
and tangle wood, and follow them in 
imagination as they overcome one ob- 
stacle just in time to encounter an- 
other, stopping where night overtakes 
them to gather strength for the next 
day's experiences. Think of them in 
the wilderness, in the years of isola- 
tion from civilized life, mindful only 
of the scenes they are passing through, 
and of the great work before them ; 
then drop a memorial leaf to the mem- 
ory of faithful men, who served well 
their country in their day and genera- 
tion. 

We annually set apart one day in 
three hundred and sixty-five to re- 
count the brave deeds, and strew flow- 
ers upon the graves of the heroic dead 
who fell in the great struggle for a 
nation's unity, and we do well ; but 
no one generation has the exclusive 
honor of furnishing heroes who fall 
in life's battles. Struggles for a fuller 
and higher development of all the 
agencies that crown duty's call and 
life's faithful work everywhere call 
for gratitude. In the sweep of events, 
where brave deeds and heroic work 
are forgotten, let us not forget Cap- 
tains Lewis and Clark, whose memory 
should be cherished while years re- 
volve and the sun shines. They did 
their work faithfully, grandly, well, 
and we are enjoying the fruits of their 
labor. Since their day, how changed 
the realities of our national life. The 



EVER RECORDED IN HISTORY 



751 



mighty Missouri river — with its 
swift current, its shifting sand bars, 
here today and there tomorrow, filled 
with snags which have come down 
from mountain forests — still rolls its 
iloods to the sea, in some places distant 
from where those first explorers pas- 
sed over its murky bosom, not then as 
now bearing the wealth of a nation. 

Instead of boats creeping up 
its waters impelled by oars, now 
steam power, harnessed to great ships, 
more numerous than the ships of Tar- 
shish, laden with passengers and 
freight, plow up and down its waters 
for thousands of miles, opening up to 
settlement and civilization a vast, rich 
country, which our countrymen can 
have, almost for the asking. 

Great cities line the river banks. 
Railroad bridges span its waters from 
shore to shore, civilized homes, culti- 
vated fields, and rich harvests bright- 
en the landscape, greeting the eye in 
all directions. Ponderous railroad 
trains move over its vast plains, wind- 
ing through dismal chasms, and climb- 
ing along frightful precipices, drawing 
the wealth of nations from ocean to 
ocean, and from the lakes to the gulf. 

A short time ago, a cargo of two 
thousand tons of tea from Yokohama, 
arrived at Tacoma, in the State of 
Washington, consigned to St. Paul, 
Chicago and New York. To move 
this tea required twenty freight trains 
of ten cars each, at an expense of $35 
a ton, or i^ cents a pound, to trans- 
port it from Yokohama to its destina- 
tion. This tea came by the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, over a route part of 
which was traversed by Lewis and 
Clark, in their expedition to the Pa- 
cific. Its transit from Tacoma to 
New York occupied eight days and 
four hours. It took Lewis and Clark 
two years, four months and nineteen 
days of weary travel to make the jour- 
ney from the Mississippi river to Port- 
land, Oregon, and back. Now rail- 
road trains with luxurious compart- 
ments come and go regularly between 
the Pacific and the Mississippi river, 
with civilized homes brightening the 



landscape in all directions, where not 
one in all the region greeted the eyes 
of Lewis and Clark. 

This territory between the Missis- 
sippi river and the Pacific ocean, then 
an unbroken wilderness, is today a 
great empire, bustling with activities 
— its development too rapid to be cal- 
culated, and its possibilities too great 
to be guessed at. Railroads penetrate 
the country in all directions. The tel- 
egraph flashes daily intelligence from 
Rocky mountain homes into editorial 
rooms in New York, London, Paris, 
and St. Petersburg; the steam press 
catches it up, sending it off at the rate 
of 100,000 impressions an hour, and it 
is read in every part of the civilized 
globe, in different languages, before 
the pointers on the dial plate complete 
their circuit. 

The widely separated dates between 
the signing of the Treaty at Paris, 
April 30th, and its arrival at Wash- 
ington, July I st, — between the draft 
of instructions to Captain Lewis and 
the signing of them June 30th, seems 
almost incredible to us, accustomed as 
we are to quick thinking and rapid 
execution, but when we remember that 
it was in 1807 that the first steamboat 
plowed the waters of the Hudson to 
Albany, that it was in 1826 that the 
first railroad was constructed, running 
four miles from the Quincy quarries 
in Massachusetts to tide water, that 
not a telegraph wire was stretched in 
the land, that 100 years ago the post 
rider mounted his horse with mail 
pouch and saddle bags, and traveled 
on horseback through the wilderness 
and over the mountains from Wash- 
ington to the Mississippi river, we can 
realize in some measure the delays and 
difficulties of the journey of Lewis 
and Clark. 

It took President Jefferson weeks to 
communicate a line or a word from 
Washington to the Mississippi river 
in any direction. Now when the Pres- 
ident delivers his inaugural message 
at Washington, one telegraph wire 
catches it up and sends it to the Pa- 
cific ocean : and thousfh it covers a 



752 



GREATEST REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION 



printed page of a newspaper, it is 
there received, three thousand miles 
distant, three hours in point of time 
before its deUvery, — is there pub- 
Hshed, without the loss of a word or 
omission of a comma, and read simul- 
taneously in point of time with its de- 
livery in Washington. Another wire 
starts it down to Mexico and the 
South American States ; another sends 
it through the ocean to London, Paris, 
St. Petersburg, and on to the Isles of 
the Sea. 

We had supposed that the tele- 
graph, having annihilated distance and 
time, could have no rival in the field ; 
but lo! the telephone appears, a man 
may sit at one end of the wire and call 
to a friend at the other, who listens 
to the words of a familiar voice, de- 
livers his commercial orders, and 
pockets his ducats, before a telegraph- 
ic message reaches its destination. 

These magic wires, stretching over 
all lands — through all waters — are 
earth's heart-cords, making this plan- 
et of ours a living creature, sensitive 
through every fiber of its gigantic 
frame, along whose quivering nerves 
and throbbing pulses the great human 
mind thinks, and the great human 
voice speaks of realities that crown 
our national life with achievements, 
greater than Jefferson comprehended 
or dreamed of. 

Instead of wind-bound, storm-baf- 
fled sailing craft, with forty day mani- 
fests from London, Liverpool or Paris, 
such as Jefferson depended upon for 
means of communication in his day, 
now great floating steam palaces, with 
home comforts, come and go in their 
six-day pastimes, regardless of wind 
or weather, with holiday entertain- 
ments the journey over. Instead of a 
mail pouch hung across the saddle- 
tree, carrying a week's mail from 
Washington to the Mississippi river 
in a month's time as in Jefferson's day, 
now thirty span of horses could not 
haul one day's mail from Washington 
to St. Louis, in any one month of the 
year. 

No man, however extensive his 



reading, his knowledge of statistics,. 
■ can have by such means alone any ad- 
equate idea of the vastness and value 
of the "Louisiana Purchase." He will 
fall short of the great reality which, 
can only open before him as he jour- 
neys over it by steam power day after 
day in a continuous direction, and com- 
prehends by comparison and contrast 
that the great Empire State of New 
York is, after all, a mere speck upon- 
the surface, but dust in the balance,, 
when weighed against the mighty em- 
pire embraced within the "Louisiana 
Purchase." 

Sixteen millions of dollars was a 
large sum for our country to assume 
at that early date, and yet, the sum 
paid for the entire purchase is not 
equal to the product of the mines in 
Montana for one month, or the wheat 
of Kansas or the corn of Iowa for a 
single year. 

Jefferson, though doubting his con- 
stitutional right to make the purchase, 
was greatly pleased with the result of 
the negotiations, though many of his 
countrymen were displeased with 
what seemed to them an enormous 
price to be paid. Jefferson encounter- 
ed fierce opposition by reason thereof 
throughout our scattered population, 
but Congress promptly ratified the 
treaty, and opposition soon turned to 
praise. 

When Jefferson prepared his in- 
structions to Lewis and Clark, he 
spoke of all that western territory as 
foreign land. We find in his instruc- 
tions the following: 

"As your movements while within 
the limits of the United States will be 
better directed by occasional communi- 
cations adapted to circumstances as. 
they arise, will not be noticed here. 
What follows will respect your pro- 
ceedings after your departure from 
the United States. 

"Your mission has been communi- 
cated to the Ministers here from 
France, Spain and Great Britain, and 
through them to their governments, 
and such assurances given them as to 
its objects as we trust will satisfy 



EVER RECORDED IN HISTORY 



753 



them. The country of Louisiana, hav- 
ing been ceded by Spain to France, 
the passport you have from the Min- 
ister of France, the representative of 
the present sovereign of the country, 
will be a protection of all its subjects, 
and that from the Minister of Eng- 
land will entitle you to the friendly 
aid of the traders of that allegiance 
with whom you may happen to meet." 

Armed with these passports, and 
backed with assistance and orders of 
our government, the expedition start- 
ed, and faithfully completed the work 
assigned them, returning to St. Louis, 
September 23d, 1806, having crossed 
the country from the mouth of the 
Missouri river to the mouth of the 
Columbia river on the Pacific coast 
and back again. 

General Sherman's march to the 
sea was not attended with more anx- 
iety to the government and the coun- 
try than was the absence of this little 
band, unheard of for more than two 
years. Their return to St. Louis was 
heralded with delight all over the 
country, and a great burden of sus- 
pense lifted from the heart of the na- 
tion. 

Many of the rivers, mountains, 
rocks and places received names from 
them which they bear today. 

Their observant eyes, practical wis- 
dom, and marvelous surmounting of 
difficulties will not cease to be a won- 
der to all w^ho are acquainted with 
their great work. The writer, having 
traveled by easy conveyance thou- 
sands of miles over the country by the 
route they pursued, can never cease to 
wonder at the marvelous achievements 
of those brave, persevering men. 

Captain Lewis, soon after his re- 
turn, was made Governor of Louis- 
iana, and Captain Clark, general of 
its militia, and agent of the United 
States for Indian affairs in that de- 
partment. Lewis, with poor health, 
and a constitution shattered by the 
fatigues and exposures of the expe- 
dition, committed suicide near Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, on his way from St. 



Louis to Washington, October iith, 
1809. 

President Madison ajj] jointed Cajj- 
tain Clark Governor of Missouri in 
1813, which position he held until 
Missouri was admitted into the Union. 
In 1822 he was appointed Superin- 
tendent of Indian afifairs, which office 
he held at his death in St. Louis, Sep- 
tember 1st, 1838. 

A debt of gratitude to the men who 
composed the Lewis and Clark exjje- 
dition was recognized by Congress, 
and a donation of public lands was 
made which at that early day was of 
small value. Men of less public con- 
sideration have received greater pub- 
lic rewards. 

How much this nation and the 
world at large is indebted to Thomas 
Jefferson and James ]\Ionroe, for the 
peaceful acquisition of this territory 
amid threatening and impending dif- 
ficulties, can never be told or compre- 
hended. 

This purchase gave us the breadth 
of the continent from ocean to ocean, 
the command of its rivers and harbors, 
the wealth of its mountains, its plains 
and valleys, a country sw-eeping from 
the Gulf to the Lakes and the Lakes 
to the Sea, in which is being worked 
out the sublimest problems of human 
life and of self-government in the in- 
terests of the people. 

We cannot speak particularly of 
each State and Territory carved out of 
the "Louisiana Purchase." A country 
so vast, extending through so many 
degrees of latitude and longitude, em- 
bracing so many States and Terri- 
tories, such a variety of climate and 
natural features, cannot be individual- 
ized or grouped together in a single 
paper. 

Each State and Territory has its 
own individuality, in man\ respects 
different from its fellows. The writer 
has only shown the Genealogical Tree 
from which these several States and 
Territories have sprung, and brought 
together such data as it may be de- 
sirable to remember. 



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AFTER many generations of 
scholastic attainment, mer- 
cantile achievement, inven- 
tive genius, and honorable states- 
manship, Connecticut has gained 
national recognition as a leader 
of commonwealths. The historical 
significance of the State has been 
given a distinguished and perma- 
nent rating. No longer are its 
geographical limitations an argument 
against its true importance; material 
littleness is completely set aside in 
the overwhelming weight of its 
political greatness. Physical dimin- 
utiveness is frequently overbalanced 
by mental largeness. In Connecticut, 
narrowness in area has been over- 
come by breadth of intellect and 
bigness of heart. From the first 
written constitution known to history 
to the inventive skill of to-day is a 
long roll of achievements — and Con- 
necticut's sons holdalarge proportion 
of the positions of honor. 



With the opening of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, 
Connecticut begins a new epoch. It 
attains, after a long struggle, its 
well-earned rank in statecraft. The 
Connecticut State Building at St. 
Louis is accredited with reflecting 
the truest type of American home 
life; its quiet culture and refined 
artistic bearing make it a study in 
national character. Its atmosphere 
is that of unostentatious home breed- 
ing; its furnishings teach a silent 
lesson in true patriotism ; its nobility 
of architecture bespeaks good citizen- 
ship. The Connecticut State Build- 
ing is psychological; its design de- 
notes moral purpose; its structural 
workmanship is emblematic of stabil- 
ity; its wide and inviting portals 
typify generous hospitality and true 
democracy; the tone of its great 
rooms is that of simple, virtuous 
living. 



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THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



BEING THE EIGHTH AND LAST OF THE SERIES OF 
BIOGRAPHIES OF CHIEF EXECUTIVES OF STATE 



BY 
FREDERICK CALVIN NORTON 

Mr. Norton completes his several years of research and investiijation in this article. While he has not attempted 
to present comparative qualities, he has given an interesting story of the lives and accomplishments of the Governors 
of Connecticut The biographical statements were gathered from descendants of the earlier executives and from 
public records. In the later biographies an intimat.e acquaintance with the men has given a still stronger character 
to the story, and increased historical value, Mr. Norton's compilation will now go into book form, all rights having 
been granted by The Connecticut Magazine. The author will continue important biographical collections for this 
publication — Editor 



GEORGE EDWARD LOUNSBURY 



1 899- 1 901 

THE second Governor Louns- 
bury was born on May 7, 
1838, in the town of Pound 
Ridge, Winchester County, 
N. Y., where his father and mother 
were temporarily Hying-. He is the 
fifth child of Nathan and Delia Sco- 
field Lounsbury, and brother of Ex- 
Goyernor Phineas C. Lounsbury. All 
of his immediate ancestors were na- 
tives of Stamford and Governor 
Lounsbury is in reality a native of this 
State. His parents removed to Ridge- 
field when their son was less than a 
year old, and since that time he has 
made the town his home. For over 
sixty years he has resided in the farm- 
house that his father owned before 
him. He attended the district school 
and received all the training that the 
ordinary country school was capable 
of in those days. When seventeen 
years of age Mr. Lounsbury com- 
menced to teach school, and followed 
the occupation three winters, working 
on his father's farm in summer and 
studying during his spare time. At 
the age of twenty, entirely self-pre- 
pared, Mr. Lounsbury entered Yale 
College, where he gained a reputation 
for being a thorough student. His 
career at Yale was quite brilliant and 
he was graduated in 1863 with high 



Two Years 
honors. Although the parents of Mr. 
Lounsbury were Methodists, he em- 
braced the Episcopal faith, and en- 
tered the Berkeley Divinity School at 
Middletown to prepare for the minis- 
try. He was graduated from that in- 
stitution in 1866, and for a year or 
more had charge of the Episcopal 
churches in Suffield and Thompson- 
ville. A writer in the Hartford Coiir- 
ant says: "He is still remembered for 
the eloquence of his sermons and the 
kind-heartedness of his parish work. 
A swelling of the muscles of the 
throat, brought on by over-training in 
elocution and threatening to become 
chronic, caused him to refuse to take 
the vows of priesthood and to enter 
upon a career of business." 

Accordingly INlr. Lounsbury formed 
a partnership with his brother, P. C. 
Lounsbury, and commenced the man- 
ufacture of shoes in New Haven. 
Later the concern removed to South 
Norwalk, where the business has been 
successfully carried on for many years. 
Mr. Lounsbury is now the senior 
member of the firm of Lounsbury, 
Mathewson & Company. 

During a period of twenty-seven 
years Mr. Lounsbury persistently re- 
fused to accept any political office, but 
in 1894 he was nominated for Senator 




From reproduction for The Connecticut Afagazitu 



S:hry^'^£, ^ , o<^^^Z><^^t^<^--2^-;l.<l.^12_^ 



762 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



in the Twelfth District. His popular- 
ity was demonstrated at the election 
that fall which resulted in a victory 
for him of over 1,300 majority. Dur- 
ing the session of 1895 he was Chair- 
man of the Committee on Finance, 
"which," says the Conrant, "was dis- 
tinguished for its ability and the una- 
nimity with which its reports were ac- 
cepted by both houses of the Legisla- 
ture." 

He was re-elected in 1896 by over 
2,700 majority, which was a larger 
vote than any other Republican can- 
didate received in his district. He 
also ran considerably ahead of the Mc 
Kinley election, a record that was 
equalled only by one other Senator in 
Connecticut. In the session of 1897 
Mr. Lounsbury was Chairman of the 
Committee on Humane Institutions. 
He distinguished himself to such an 
extent that the Republican leaders sawr 
in him the most desirable candidate 
for Governor, and at the Conven- 
tion held in August at New Haven, 
Mr. Lounsbury was accordingly nom- 
inated for that high office. 

In the election which followed Mr. 
Lounsbury received 81,015 votes 
against 64,227 for Daniel N. Morgan, 
the Democratic candidate. He was 
inaugurated Governor of Connecticut 
on January 4, 1899, and served the 
State acceptably for two years, retir- 
ing on January 9, 1901. 

The Hartford C our ant says of Gov- 
ernor Lounsbury : "His home is that 
of a thrifty, well-to-do farmer. Wealth, 
which would have been spent by many 
men in more showy ways of living, 
has been used by him in helping the 
poor. He has not been conspicuous in 
large donations to rich churches or to 
the fashionable charities of the day, 
but has rather sought the needy and 
helped them over the rough, hard 
places. There are scores of families 
who have had a better life, because he 
has been content with his simple style 
of living." 

Governor Lounsbury is one of the 
most companionable of men, and his 
simple, unaffected cordialitv has won 



for him a vast circle of friends and 
admirers. 

GEORGE PAYNE McLEAN 
1 901 -1 903 — Two Years 

George Payne McLean is a native 
of Simsbury and was born in that 
town on October 7, 1857. His father 
was Dudley B. McLean, a leading 
farmer of that town, and the Gover- 
nor's grandfather, Rev. Allen Mc 
Lean, was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church in the same town for 
over half a century. 

The McLeans have been prominent 
in the history of Simsbury from the 
colonial period and the name has long 
been an honored one in that section. 
Governor McLean's mother, Mary 
Payne, was a daughter of Solomon 
Payne, a man of prominence in Wind- 
ham County, and a direct descendant 
from (jovernor William Bradford and 
Captain John Mason. Mr. McLean 
attended the public schools of Sims- 
bury during the winters of his boy- 
hood and lalDored on his father's farm 
in the summers. W^hen he had com- 
pleted the course of study offered by 
the Simsbury schools he went to Hart- 
ford and became a student in the High 
School of that city. He was chosen 
editor of the school paper during his 
junior year and exhibited at that early 
age ample manifestation of his pro- 
nounced ability. Graduating from the 
High School in 1877, Mr. McLean 
entered the office of the Hartford Post 
where he became a reporter at a salary 
of seven dollars a week. He did much 
good work for that paper and remain- 
ed on the staff two years, but finding 
the life unattractive he turned his at- 
tention to the law. Mr. McLean then 
entered the law office of the late la- 
mented Henry C. Robinson at Hart- 
ford. While pursuing his studies he 
supported himself by keeping books 
for Trinity College for which he re- 
ceived $-300 a year. He was admitted 
to the bar in Hartford in 1881, thor- 
oughly fitted for the profession as has 
been demonstrated by his subsequent 




Frotn reproduction /or The Connecticut Magazine by Raniiall 






ta<A^ , 



764 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



career. A writer has said of Mr. Mc 
Lean : "Embracing this profession, he 
made no mistake. It is exactly suited 
to his temperament. He has the mind 
of an advocate and of a jurist as well. 
He is able to get all there is in a case ; 
he prepares his cases thoroughly and 
is an able cross-examiner." 

When he commenced to practice 
jMr. McLean continued in the office of 
Air. Robinson, but lived in Simsbury 
which he had always made his home. 
His law practice grew rapidly and he 
soon became not only a leading law- 
3'er, but one of the Republican leaders. 
Although very young he was success- 
ful in "holding his own against all 
comers," as a writer remarks. He was 
elected a Republican member of the. 
House of Representatives from Sims- 
bury in 1883. His career in the Legis- 
lature was uncommonly brilliant for 
so young a man, and he made a record 
there that was not soon forgotten. He 
was the chairman of the Committee 
on State's Prison, and was instrumen- 
tal in making a radical change in the 
methods of hearing petitions for par- 
dons from the prisoners. He prepared 
a bill which provided for the present 
Board of Pardons, consisting of the 
Governor ex-officio, the Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court, and certain 
other members of the bench, a doctor 
and sundry citizens. Previous to this 
all petitions from inmates of the prison 
Avere heard by the General Assembly. 
His bill met with speedy approval and 
acceptance, the board was organized 
in the fall of 1884, Mr. McLean was 
made its clerk and remained in that 
position until he was elected Governor. 
In 1885, Governor Henry B. Harri- 
son, remembering the fine legislative 
work of Mr. McLean, appointed him 
on a commission to revise the statute 
law of the State. Although only twen- 
ty-nine years of age he ably performed 
this delicate task. His associates on 
the commission were Judges James A. 
Hovey, Augustus H. Fenn, and R. J. 
A\'alsh. Mr. McLean was induced to 
enter the field in 1885 for the nomina- 
tion as Senator in the Third Senatorial 



District. He was duly nominated, 
elected by a large majority and took 
his seat in the Senate in 1886, where 
he at once became a leader. Mr. Mc 
Lean was a prominent speaker in the 
presidential campaign of 1888, and to 
him was due much of the credit for 
the Republican majority in Connecti- 
cut. 

In 1890 he became the candidate for 
Secretary of State on the Republican 
ticket, but as that was the year of the 
famous "dead lock," Mr. McLean was 
not elected. The entire Connecticut 
Congressional delegation recommend- 
ed Mr. McLean for United States At- 
torney in 1892, and President Harri- 
son appointed him to that position. 
He filled the office for four years and 
did so well that he won for the gov- 
ernment every criminal case that was 
tried, and every civil case except one. 
During this period he was also counsel 
for the State Comptroller and for the 
State Treasurer, and represented the 
State in the action brought by the 
corporation of Yale University in 
1893, seeking to enjoin the State 
Treasurer from paying to Storrs Agri- 
cultural College any part of the funds 
accruing to the State of Connecticut 
under certain Congressional enact- 
ments of 1862 and 1890. Mr. Mc 
Lean's professional work in the con- 
duct of these cases, says Joseph L. 
Barbour, and in the preparation of the 
argument before the commission was 
of the highest order, won for him the 
commendation of the leading lawyers 
of the State, and resulted in a substan- 
tial victory for the cause. Mr. Mc 
Lean's name was put forward early in 
1900 for the Republican nomination 
for Governor and he received the same 
in the Convention which met in New 
Haven on September 5. When being 
informed of his nomination, Mr. Mc 
Lean went to the Convention hall and 
made a short speech, which was pro- 
nounced at the time to be "a master- 
piece of tact and eloquence, exactly 
suited to the somewhat peculiar con- 
ditions of the moment." 




From reproduction for The Connecticut Magazine by Ratuiuli 





766 



THE GOVERNORS OE CONNECTICUT 



Mr. McLean said in part: "The in- 
formation which I have just received 
at the hands of your committee is 
dearer to me than anything else I 
have ever heard, or shall hear, until 
I am notified of my election. It would 
he impossible for me to express to you, 
and to each and every one of you, my 
g-ratitude. I am the candidate of 
the best party on earth, and for the 
highest office in the gift of the 
people of the best State in the 
Union. You have put your confidence 
in me ; you have conferred upon me a 
great honor and a sacred trust. It is 
unnecessary for me to say that if 
•elected I shall be elected without 
pledge or promise to any man save 
the one I shall make to every citizen of 
Connecticut, without regard to party, 
when I take the oath of office. It is 
imnecessary for me to say that my 
■sole hope and effort will be to keep 
unspotted before God and man the 
hright shield of the State I love. I 
don't pretend to be better than my fel- 
low-man. My life has its blunders 
and its regrets. There are thousands 
of men in Connecticut as well qualified, 
and better than I am, to hold the of- 
fice that I aspire to, and shining among 
that number is the distinguished gen- 
tleman (Hon. Donald T. Warner) 
who opposed me in this Convention." 

During the campaign Mr. McLean 
Avas enthusiastically received by audi- 
ences in all parts of the State. At the 
following election he was elected by a 
good majority, receiving 95,822 votes 
to 81,421 for Judge Bronson, the 
Democratic candidate. He was inau- 
-gurated Governor of Connecticut, be- 
fore a vast audience, in the House of 
Representatives, on Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 9, 1 90 1. As Governor of this 
Commonwealth, Mr. McLean fulfilled 
all the predictions his most ardent ad- 
niiirers claimed for him, and he was 
universally admired in every portion 
•of the State. In "J^^^lge's History of 
the Republican Party," is this tribute 
to Governor McLean : "Mr. McLean 
TS a young man of sterling character 
and of amiable disposition. He is 



always open and above board in deal- 
ings with his fellows, and can be re- 
lied upon in every particular. His 
success is the result of application and 
ability, and when this is truthfully 
said of any man it is a saying of which 
he may well be proud. No man can 
succeed who does not have qualifica- 
tion or who does not enjoy to a 
marked degree the confidence of the 
community. A man must hew his 
way to the top, but he can not succeed 
even so unless he has a character be- 
hind the hewing. Mr. McLean is al- 
ways affable and approachable. These 
in any one are desirable attributes 
much more so in any one who strives 
to be a leader at the bar or in the 
public life, and to represent the people 
in important capacities. And then, 
too, Mr. McLean is one of the most 
eloquent of men. It is a delight to 
listen to his orations. His words have 
that sincere ring which must be true 
of any eloquence, and they are aptly 
chosen. The strength of fact and ar- 
gument are these, and so is the beauti- 
ful form without which much of the 
power is lost. If Mr. McLean had 
no further record to leave than the one 
he has already made, Simsbury and 
Llartford would have the right to en- 
roll him high on its list of worthies, 
but it is prophesied by citizens of acute 
observation that he is certain to be 
chosen to even higher places of use- 
fulness." 



ABIRAM CHAMBERLAIN 
1903— 
Abiram Chamberlain of Meriden, 
the present Governor of Connecticut 
(1904), is a fine example of the self- 
made man, and his career in business 
is similar in its results to that of Hunt- 
ington, the elder Griswold and Eng- 
lish, all famous predecessors in the 
important office of Chief Executive of 
this Commonwealth. The Governor 
comes from the best New England 
stock. On his paternal side he is de- 
scended from Jacob Chamberlain, who 
was born in Newton, now Cambridge, 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



■67 



Mass., in 1673, and on the maternal 
side the Governor is a descendant in 
the eighth generation from Henry Burt 
of Roxbury, Mass. His father's name 
was Deacon Abiram Chamberlain, and 
he was for many years a resident of 
Colebrook River, with a reputation for 
goodness and uprightness that was a 
byword for many miles in each direc- 
tion. Deacon Chamberlain was a civil 
engineer and farmer, and his ability 
in the former profession was marked 
and well known. Governor Chamber- 
lain was born at Colebrook River on 
December 7, 1837, and spent his early 
years in that town where he attended 
the public schools. Later he studied at 
Williston Seminary at Easthampton, 
Mass., and made a special study of 
civil engineering. In 1856, Governor 
Chamberlain's father and the rest of 
the family removed from Colebrook 
River to New Britain, then a growing 
village. The Governor took up civil 
engineering for a time in company 
with his father. Then he learned the 
trade of rule making; but his career 
in life was not destined to be at a 
factory bench, but in the more import- 
ant world of finance. 

When a young man he entered the 
New Britain National Bank, commen- 
ced in a subordinate position and was 
soon teller of the institution, an office 
he held with success for five years. 
His ability as a banker was such that 
at the age of thirty, in 1867, the Gov- 
ernor was elected cashier of the Home 
National Bank of Meriden, and he 
then removed to the city that he has 
made his home ever since. His career 
in the Meriden bank and his extensive 
financial experience of many years has 
made him one of the leading bankers,, 
not only of the State, but of New Eng- 
land as well. During the time that he 
has been connected with the Home 
National Bank, Governor Chamber- 
lain has also been deeply interested in 
other financial institutions of Meriden, 
and has been for some time Vice-Pres- 
ident of the Meriden Savings Bank. 

On the death of Eli Butler in 1881. 
Governor Chamberlain was elected 



President of the Home National iiank, 
a position he still holds, and the duties 
of which he has performed with emi- 
nent ability and success. 

In all questions that have had the 
welfare of the city of Meriden at their 
foundation, Governor Chamberlain has 
been a persistent champion. Those en- 
terprises that have been the means of 
developing the growth of Meriden 
have found in him a ready helper. He 
was one of the promoters and sub- 
sequently a director of the Meriden, 
Waterbury & Cromwell Railroad, oi 
the Winthrop Hotel Compan)-, is a di- 
rector of the Meriden Cutlery Com- 
]:>any, the Edward Miller Company 
and of the Stanley Works of New 
Britain. 

In politics Governor Chamberlain 
has always been a staunch Republican 
but he never sought public office, and 
all the honors that have come to him 
were conferred by an admiring public, 
who saw in him an ideal public official. 
Governor Chamberlain's first public 
office was as a member of the City 
Council of Meriden ; then he repre- 
sented his town in the General As- 
sembly in 1877. 

From then until 1900 Governor 
Chamberlain did not hold public of- 
fice, nor could he be persuaded to en- 
ter the ranks of office-holders. 

When the Republican State Con- 
vention met at New Haven on Sep- 
tember 5. 1900, and put George P. 
McEean of Simsbury in nomination 
for Governor, Mr. Chamberlain was 
also nominated unanimously for 
Comptroller of the State. This he ac- 
cepted and at the subsequent election 
received a large vote, being elected to 
the office. His career as Comptn^ller 
of the State w as so successful, anil his 
j^opularity so great, that on the an- 
nouncement in u)02 that (iovernor 
McLean was not a camlidate ti>r re- 
election, the name of Ci^inpt roller 
Chamberlain was at i^noe deci^led u|xmi 
bv the party managers and the public 
as the man who could carry his party 
t(^ \ict(M-\. He was nominated for 
Governor at the Convention which was 



768 



THE GOVERNORS OF CONNECTICUT 



held in Hartford on September 17, 
1902, and at the pohs received a vote 
that not onlv elected him Chief Exec- 
utive of the State but was of sufficient 
size to demonstrate beyond any doubt 
the confidence the people reposed in 
him. 

Governor Chamberlain was inaugu- 
rated on the first Monday in January 
of 1903, and his first address as Gov- 
ernor of the State called forth liberal 
praise from newspapers and citizens 
of all shades of political belief. His 
determination to be Governor of all 
the people while he is in office was 
abundantly shown when soon after 
his inauguration he called out the 
armed forces of the State, and spent a 
sleepless night, in his efforts to quell 
the lawless spirit which infested Wat- 
erbury during the famous trolley 
strike of 1903. For this action he re- 
ceived the unqualified praise of all. 
and he set an example for other chief 
executives to follow when similar oc- 
casions arise, and have to be suni- 
marilv dealt with. 



Governor Chamberlain's adminis- 
tration has been characterized by a 
conservative spirit, and he has fully 
justified all that his friends said of 
him previous to his election. 

Wesleyan University conferred up- 
on the Governor in 1903 the degree of 
doctor of laws. 

Governor Chamberlain is a brother 
of Mrs. Charles Elliott Mitchell of 
New York, wife of the former Patent 
Commissioner of the United States 
under President Harrison. His broth- 
er was the late Valentine Chamberlain 
of New Britain, whose death is still 
lamented bv thousands in Connecti- 
cut. 

A biographer has said of Governor 
Chamberlain : "He is kind, genial, and 
courteous, and his dignity, fidelity, and 
ability peculiarly fit him for the high 
office of Chief Magistrate of Connec- 
ticut. The same proverbial success 
that has always crowned his efforts 
in whatever he has undertaken to do 
for the good of the public has already 
won for him the proud distinction of 
being a model Governor." 



AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTION EIGHTY OLD MEN 
FORMED THEMSELVES INTO A MILITARY COMPANY IN PENNSYLVANIA. 
THEY WERE CHIEFLY GERMAN EMIGRANTS AND HAD SERVED WITH 
DISTINCTION IN EUROPE. THE COMMANDER WAS ONE HUNDRED 
YEARS OLD AND HAD SERVED IN SEVENTEEN PITCHED BATTLES. 
THE DRUMMER WAS EIGHTY-FOUR, AND NEARLY THE WHOLE TROOP 
HAD PASSED THE LIMIT OF THREE SCORE YEARS AND TEN. IN PLACE 
OF A COCKADE THEY WORE CRAPE ROUND THEIR ARMS 




HUNGARIAN 
LACE WORK 



A TALL 
BRONZE 



HELMET 
CREAMER 



INVESTING POTTERY WITH PERSONALITY 



THE TWO-FACED JANUS — THE TORTOISE SHELL COW — 
PIERROT THE JESTER — THREE JOLLY TOPERS — DOMESTIC 
AND FOREIGN COLLECTION OF POTTER'S SKILL DESCRIBED 



BY 



KATHARINE SPENCER-GULICK 



Mrs. Gulick writes on a subject close to the heart of every antiquarian. She not only describxis a beautiful col'fc- 
tion of pottery but invests each delicate piece of the potter's art with a distinct personality. Whether ihe personality 
■is that of the vase or the poetical and philosophical qualities of the author is a matter for discussion, li is very fre- 
quently that objects reflect the personality of their owner and bespeak the collector's deep sense of hiintor or 'eve for 
subtle beauty cr plain practicability. It is undoubtedly true that collectors choose those objects that appeal to their 
individual tastes, and a collection of china at least denotes a delicacy of feeling and a refinement of lasie in its owner. 
Mrs. Gulick charmingly animates an inanimate subject. The article was written for The Connhctkut M.^gajinb 
■several months ago when Mrs. Gulick, nee Miss Katharine Spencer, was devoting much time to historical and r-trioix 
^vork in Waterbury. Since her marriage to Rev. De Hart Gulick she has continued her literary researchcs-EoiTCK 



O 



NE of the most unique and 
beautiful collections of china 
to be found in the Connecti- 
cut valley, is that owned by 
E. Hill, of Waterburv, Con- 



Miss S. 
tiecticut. 

The writer had the rare good for- 
tune to obtain permission to photo- 
graph and describe the bewildering 
array. 

Miss Hill can say with the sixteenth 
century poet, slightly changing his 
Avords : 



"I have pitchers, ewers of tin. pewter 
and glass ; 
C^ireat vessels of copper, tine lattcn 

and brass, 
And jugs, jars and bottles sucli as 
never was." 
for hero are luiiulrotls of them, some 
large, some small ; many rare, valuable 
and old ; a few fascinatingly ugly, and 
manv exceedingly beautiful. 

Her pets were, at first, housed in an 
inunense bay window, whose rich 
stained glass throws a mellow light 



77° 



INVESTING POTTERY WITH PERSONALITY 




-THREE 

3— 



JOLLY TOPERS 
THE **C0MBED' 



2. PIERROT 

COW. 



over the assemblage, while three sol- 
emn owls, majesterial creatures in life- 
like hues, guard the treasures and bid 
defiance to intruding strangers. A 
most appropriate setting for such a 
gathering, no member of which is ever 
degraded to actual service. 

As piece after piece begged admis- 
sion to the fold, their quarters were 
enlarged. Attractive cupboards were 
built on either side ; slender moldings 
were fastened overhead, from these 
depend the smaller bits ; shelves were 
hung on the opposite walls and every 
nook and cranny offered itself a rest- 
ing place for some lucky find. At 
length, the rarest were borne, in all 
their glory, to the drawing-room, 
where they glimmer and glisten in 
conscious pride. 

"From my childhood, I had a craze 
for pitchers and bottles," says the col- 
lector, "Every old bottle I found I 
captured; every pitcher or dingy jug 
I treasured as most girls do their dolls. 

"This old fellow I consider one of 
my choicest. We call him Janus, he 
has two faces, two spouts and no han- 
dle." Janus is a fine specimen of cop- 
per-lustre. A basket of flowers, done 
in blue, adorns his body and alto- 
gether he is quite a dandy. 

"One of my rarest is the Pilgrim 
pitcher. This is old blue Stafford- 
shire. It represents the 'Landing of 
the Pilgrims at Plymouth,' and bears 
the inscription, 'Carver, Bradford^ 
Winslow, Standish and Brewster. 
Plymouth, December 22, 1629.' 

"Here is a duplicate of the Tnno- 
cence' Pitcher m.entioned in Alice 
Morse Earle's interesting book on pot- 
tery. She speaks of two varieties : the 
first, called 'Sportive Innocence,' has 
one design only, showing highly col- 
ored children at play, while the other 
has two, the one just described and, 
reversely, one called 'Mischievious 
Sport,' a boy with a mask frightening 
a small girl. Mine, as you see, has 
both. 

"This old Brittany is rather inter- 
esting," showing me a quaint affair, 
gaily sporting a Breton woman, spin- 
ning ; a really gorgeous lady in a 



INVESTING POTTERY WJTJI EERSONALirY 



bright green waist, orange and red 
skirt and blue apron. 

''An exact reproduction of a pitcher 
which is now in the Cesnola collection 
(one of those dug up on the island of 
Cyprus) is this piece of iridescent 
glass ; all these, you know, look as if 
they had been through fire, giving a 
clouded effect." 

A fine piece of Crown Derby, called 
"Witch's Japan," was then displayed, 
probably taking its name from the 
Japan quince, whose flowers are 
sketched on both sides. 

Miss Hill's collection boasts a "cow" 
in the combed or tortoise shell work ; 
a pattern also mentioned by Miss 
Earle. The ware is of English make, 
though seldom found now in England. 
There are but two specimens of it in 
the Museum of Practical Geology. 
This particular cow is a mottled brown 
shading into yellow ; her sides are 
beautifully "combed" and she is useful 
as well as ornamental, for, by remov- 
ing a piece of her china skin, she gra- 
ciously accommodates a cupful or 
more of milk, wdiich one can then pour 
from her big, brown nose. Her tail 
forms a very graceful handle. 

A tall bronze, resembling America's 
cup, is two inches high and most beau- 
tifully modeled in tiny cupids and 
cherubs. It was found in the Adiron- 
dacks, in the hut of an Indian guide. 

Pierrot, a comic confection in china, 
grinned at me, delighted to have his 
queer visage noticed. Pierrot is the 
"Jester" in the Pantomime. He wears 
a dark green cap with green and yel- 
low trimmings. His face is round and 
jolly ; his cheeks are flushed with joy, 
and his interior is a bright, beautiful 
blue. 

The largest piece in the group is an 
antique ; a very handsome black and 
white pitcher bearing a scriptural de- 
sign. It is "The Good Samaritan," 
and is evidently the inspiration of a 
very devout man. A hasty glance 
gives one the impression that the en- 
tire Old Testament is pictured here, 
for not only does it illustrate the inci- 
dent from which it takes its name, but 
it bears the breast-plate of a high 
priest, the "tables of stone," the open 




77 2 INVESTING POTTERY WITH PERSONALITY 




;evi beni and bevi poco 



2. MEXICAN WATER BOTTLES 



book, Gabriel's trumpet, the cross, a 
dove, a chain, and other symboHc fig- 
ures. 

In close juxtaposition, and shock- 
ingly oblivious of all this scenic piety, 
is (for they are three-in-one) the 
''Three Jolly Topers," shown in an 
accompanying photograph. 

Near by is a Moorish bronze from 
Algiers, very artistic, and further on 
is the famous "puzzle-jug," rarely 
found in America, with the lettering: 

"From Mother Earth I Claim Mv 

Birth, 
I'm Made A Joke For Man, 
But Now I'm Here, Filled with Good 

Cheer 
Come Taste Me If You Can." 

It has very odd little knobs all 
around its mouth, in which are tiny 
holes. How to drink without spilling 
the contents, is indeed a puzzle. Miss 
Hill explained that "a man with very 
long fingers, by using both hands, can 
cover all the openings save the one 
from which he drinks." 

A Russian coronation cup, very rare 
and valuable, is in the shape of a mug, 
about six inches high ; white, with 
tracings of red and blue, and is fin- 
ished by a band of gold. One of the 
cups presented by the Czar to his peo- 
ple in 1886, on which occasion, we are 
told, four thousand people were killed 
in the struggle for the coveted treas- 
ures. One wonders if the Czar con- 
ceived this sinister plot as a more 
speedy mode of extinction than banish- 
ment to Siberia ! 

Of the foreign collection, all were 
brought by Miss Hill from distant 
lands, and each recalls a happy pil- 
grimage. Among them is a pitcher 



modeled after the bronze knocker on 
Durham Abbey, — a grotesque head, 
its mouth holding a ring, while above 
is St. Cuthbert's yellow cross. Tiny 
models from Salisbury, take the form 
of "Jacks" and "Tobys" bearing the 
Edinburgh coat-of-arms. A copy of a 
jug dredged up near Eddy stone, came 
from Ayre. The original is now in 
the Plymouth Athccneum. It sports 
the coat-of-arms, a red shield on a 
green background, and the motto : 
"Better A Wee Burn Than No Bield." 

A small Italian jug, blue and yellow, 
with the proverbial big ears, says, 
"Bevi Beni" ("Drink Well"), while 
another comical fellow revelling in 
green leaves and yellow posies, would 
suit better blue-ribbonites, as it says, 
"Bevi Poco" ("Drink Little"). A 
quaint, pretty conceit came from the 
city of Chester, England, its motto, 
"Every blade of grass has its own 
drop of dew." The Canterbury sou- 
venir is a Lincoln "Jack," having the 
arms of Thomas-a-Becket. A Strat- 
ford "Toby" is resplendent in a red 
coat, a blue and yellow waist-coat and 
green cap. From Chester there is an 
antique known as the "hound-handle." 
It is mottled in brown and yellow and 
has a hunting scene. 

"The proof o' the puddin' is in the 
preein' o' it," declares one cute Scotch 
jug, while another, also from Edin- 
burgh, quotes the proverb, "We must 
take the current as it serves or lose 
our venture." "A wee drappie o't," 
urges a pert midget barely three inches 
high. From the Belfry of Bruges is 
a pretty green ewer. A souvenir of 
Forth Bridge commemorates a so- 
journ in Glasgow, and Abbey foyle con- 
tributes a dark blue and cream keep- 



INVESTING POTTERY WITH PERSONALITY 



•73 




FOREIGN COLLECTION 



I. OLD 13LUE STAFtORLSHIkE 

2. DURHAM ABBEY KNOCKER MODEL 

3. — SPANISH WATER JAR 



sake, picturing the cottages and trees 
of the town. 

Another foreign pitcher, the gift of 
a friend, is a fine piece of hammered 
brass from Thibet ; an idol forms the 
body and three serpents, the handle. 

''My cook sent to Ireland to procure 
for me this Kerry pitcher," remarked 
my hostess. ''It portrays the celebrat- 
ed Kerry dancers and is itself a hand- 
some specimen of copper-lustre. "And 
there," she continued, "is an odd bit, 
a reproduction in miniature of one 
found in Pompeii." It looks like a 
sitting duck, but most unnatural, for 
who ever heard of a blue and yellow 
duck? There, too, is an original Jo- 
siah Wedgewood, and a piece of the 
coveted "pink-lustre," with "Mrs. 
Campion" flowers, both from York. 

But the most artistic design in the 
whole group, is the "lotus-flower !" 
The shape of that exquisite blossom 
is perfectly followed, from the big, 
green calyx-base, the dainty pink pet- 
als which form the body, and the fold- 
ed stamens, the neck, to the twisted 
stems shaping the handle, and the 
spout, which is made of a bud. 

Another thing of beauty in china, 
is a choice bit of Hungarian lace work. 
On a rich cream foundation two pierc- 
ed layers are applied. This pitcher 
was in the Austrian exhibit at the 
World's Fair. 

A duplicate of the "Helmet" cream- 
er mentioned in Miss Earle's book, 
is an antique of Lowestoft china ; it 
has a peculiar indented spout. 

And now we come to the portrait- 
set. "I think a great deal of my por- 



traits," said their (jwner. One of the 
best is the Wedgewood Longfellow." 
A good "likeness" nearly covers one 
side, while on the reverse, are two 
verses from Keramos. A floral band 
at the to]3 is intertwined with the titles 
of his poems. 

"Lincoln is so very ugly," sighed 
Miss Hill, "I think they ought to have 
made a better jug for i)oor. old Lin- 
coln !" The motto for this is, "With 
malice toward none : with charitv tow- 
ard all." 

"I am fond of this one," she con- 
tinued, "because I admire Dickens so 
much." It would interest most peo- 
ple, for not only is it fashioned of 
Wedgewood and gives a good por- 
trait, but it proudly shows the very 
tombstone ( ?) discovered by the im- 
mortal Pickwick. Reversely, it pic- 
tures an empty chair with the titles of 
his books encircling the rim. 

"I was dissatisfied with my Whit- 
tier at first," she said, "but tlie longer 
I keej) it the better pleased I am, for 
it just suits the plain, old Ouaker." 
A small cider jug thi>, witli portrait 
and this ([uotation : 

"The nirg o\ cider simmered slow. 
11ie appk\^ sjuUtereil in a nnv." 

l\t>gor Williams is rei^resented by 
liis jMCtnre and a scene from "The 
Landing at IVovitlence." also the ex- 
tract. "1. having made jHWce — called 
the i^lace Proviilence." 

llladsttMie is particularly appropri- 
ate, lust a rorgh. common ware for 
the "grand old man." .\bove the ixirt- 
rait is the sentence, "l\ngland*s C^ireat- 



774 



INVESTING POTTERY WITH PERSONALITY 



est Commoner/' then his own words, 
"Effort, honest, manful effort, suc- 
ceeds by its reflective action on char- 
acter better than success," surrounded 
by a wreath of oak leaves, while be- 
neath all are the names and dates of 
the famous man's birth and death. 
The coloring of this memento is a deep 
cream and brown. 

''My nearest approach to a coveted 
Washington pitcher is this crude, glass 
bottle with the busts of Washington 
and Lafayette ; and this Saskia com- 
pletes my portrait set. Saskia, you 
know, was Rembrandt's wife. Oh, I 
must not forget TcnnysonT The lat- 
ter is a beauty and quite elaborate. 
The head of the poet is wreathed in 
laurel. Reversely, is an open book, 
showing an extract from "Crossing 
the Bar," with, below, the musical 
notes. The fictitious character, Tarn 
O'Shanter, flying from the inn on his 
milk-white steed, adorns one pitcher, 
and John Brown, another. 

An old pewter communion flagon 
curiously resembles a beer mug. 'Tt 
was used in the Prospect meeting- 
house in the days when that town was 
part of Waterbury, called Columbia, 
and was bequeathed to me by an old 
lady who promised I should have it 
after her death." 

A curious piece is the 'alphabet 
pitcher." Around the brim is a sen- 
tence which contains every letter in 
the alphabet. It reads : "Pack my box 
with five dozen liquor jugs." 

"This quaint coquina mug," said 
Miss Hill, "is a bit of the oldest house 
in St. Augustine. The sweet-grass 
pitcher was made especially for me by 
a squaw. That bamboo ewer came 
from Tarpon Springs, Florida, where 
bamboo ta1)le utensils are in common 
use." 

"The one you are looking at now," 
she continued, "is rather rare ; on it 
arc the words 'Spode's Tower.' I 
have two others — one in pretty reds 
and greens — both marked Copeland 
Spode." Taking up another, she told 
me it was a replica of those used in 
the "Society of Cincinnati," of which 
Washington and Lafayette were no- 
table members. 



"And here is a Washington, D. C, 
jug which is made entirely of old 
money. Three thousand dollars in 
greenbacks are said to be in this paper 
pulp. That gaudy red and yellow fel- 
low, made of grasses, comes from the 
Bahamas." 

Droll indeed, is "Kees the monkey, 
that funny one gives milkie from his 
mouthie." Kees is a monkey in real 
Dutch delft. Wide-stretched is his 
mouth over a tempting cocoanut. Be- 
side Kees, sits sedately a winking, 
blinking frog from Austria. 

J was told that our American pro- 
ductions in this line are not worthy 
of our country, and as proof, was 
shown a hideous design picturing the 
oldest house in Guilford. 

There are several specimens of 
Mexican and Indian water bottles ; a 
handsome Spanish jar with the repre- 
sentative bulls, ostriches and dogs ; 
then an example of Pueblo ware, 
which has no glaze, and also a bit of 
Juadlajara. 

The baby of the collection is a piece 
of Doulton from the Chicago World's 
Fair. Scarcely an inch high it is a 
veritable "little brown jug." 

The costliest find is an exquisite 
pitcher having a gold mouth and han- 
dle, its body decorated with wild briar 
roses. 

"What is that queer thing resemb- 
ling snakes' heads ?" I asked. "Ital- 
ian faience," was the reply. "The 
Italians are very fond of the serpent 
design." 

I spied several dainty little creamers, 
beautifully hand-painted. "Those I 
painted myself," she said, rather dep- 
recatingly, "some have white clovers 
and blue gentians, my favorite flow- 
ers." 

Reluctantly I bade farewell to my 
hostess and her fragile treasures, re- 
calling the lines : 

"Where Gubbio's workshops gleam 
and glow 
With brilliant iridescent dyes. 
The dazzling whiteness of the snow, 
The cobalt blue of summer skies ; 
And vase and scutcheon, cup and 

plate, 
In perfect finish emulate 
Faenza, Florence, Pesaro." 



9 i; 




;:^Jk!fcXr£-'- v.-^.. 



VENICE FROM PAINTING BY GILBERT MUNGER 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



GILBERT MUNGER UPON WHOM THE GOVERNMENTS AND 

SOVEREIGNS OF EUROPE CONFERRED MANY DISTINCTIONS 

BORN IN NORTH MADISON, CONNECTICUT — APPRECIATION 



BY 



MYRA E. DOWD MONROE 



In speaking of Artist Munger's works the President of the Luxembourg Gallery once remarked, "They do not 
resemble any other artist's of the present day." While he was living in Barbizon a London critic said, "He has satu- 
rated himself with the beauty of that nature that inspired Corot and his friends." A Parisian critic declared, "Gil 
bert Munger, le peintre Americain, qui suit de si pres les traditions de nos grands maitres Francais est bien 
represente," while the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha conferred upon him the Knighthood of his House 
Orders, with title of Baron, he being the only foreigner who has ever received this decoration. Myra E. Dowd Mon- 
roe, of Guilford, Connecticut, writes this appreciation of the distinguished artist after a life-long friendship with him. 
She is one of his near relatives and knew him as few others. The reproductions from his paintings are from plates 
loaned by the author and recently used in a memoir issued by the deceased artist's intimate friends— Editor 



IN January, 1903, in his studio at 
Washington, passed away one 
of the most unique yet beauti- 
ful characters which this 
generation has produced. 

Gilbert Munger, "Painter, poet, 
patriot," as a dear friend cherishes 
him, has his place, and will always 



hold it, amid the company of clear- 
visioned souls who see things as 
they are and work and never tire in 
the task of staying friendly visions 
for their own delight and the joy of 
those who pass. 

Connecticut claims him as her 
own, for she, with her quiet past- 



776 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 




FOREST OF FONTAINEBLEAU FROM PAINTING BY GILBERT HUNGER 



ures, sunny meadows and fern- 
bordered brooks, was God's messen- 
ger who awakened in a mother 
heart the understanding of — "The 
great harmony that reigns. In 
what the Spirit of the world con- 
tains." And this strong soul was 
born. 

The Munger Homestead is yet a 
well-preserved and picturesque old 
house, with large chimney and 
sloping roof, and fronts the "Open- 
ing: Hill Road in North Madison, 
only a short distance from the 
^Murray Homestead'." In our 
fancy, an expression of contentment 
and fond memory lingers about it, 
as though modestly proud of the 
family reared under its roof. For 
the children of Sherman Munger 
and Lucretia Benton, his wife, were 
all talented, and easily won first 
places in their various vocations 

While Gilbert was yet a boy the 
family removed to New Haven, 
Conn. His tutor there, an Eng-lish 
gentleman, was an enthusiast in 
art, who, upon seeing some of the 
boy's productions and divining in 
them much promise, urged the 



parents to encourage him and allow 
him to follow his own inclinations 
toward an artistic career. The 
tutor's advice was considered, and, 
at the age of thirteen, Gilbert 
became the pupil of a natural 
history and landscape engraver at 
Washington. At the early age of 
fourteen years he was a full-fledged 
natural history engraver, receiving 
a salary from the United States 
Government. 

During the following five years 
he was principally employed in 
engraving large plates of plants, 
birds, fish, reptiles, portraits and 
landscapes, published by the govern- 
ment in connection with the explor- 
ing expedition of Commodore 
Wilkes, and for Professor Louis 
Agassiz's works and the works for 
the Smithsonian Institute. 

Although his time was thus 
busily occupied, he never renounced 
his intention of becoming a land- 
scape painter, and adopted engrav- 
ing only as a means to that end. 

He read Ruskins' works, and 
purchased a copy of J. D. Harding's 
drawing-book. Rising in the sum- 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



111 




ON THE SEINE NEAR POISSY FROM PAINTING BY GILBERT MUNGER 



mer months at four o'clock, he has- 
tened, sketch-book in hand, to the 
woods, and made careful studies of 
trees till eight o'clock. Then back 
to his engraver's desk from nine till 
five. After that, three more hours 
in the woods with pencil and paper. 
Could any other profession have been 
successful to such an enthusiast? 

During this period he went, on 
one occasion, to the atelier of a 
sculptor (from Rome) who was then 
executing some government com- 
mission, and for the first time saw 
an artist at work on a statue. 
Taking home some clay, he turned 
with eagerness to the new work of 
modeling portions of the human 
figure. These studies were received 
at the exhibition of the Metropolitan 
Institute of Science and Art, and 
awarded the first medal — to the 
astonishment, no doubt, of the 
young exhibitor. His success in 
this branch of art did not curb his 
desire to paint He procured a box 
of colors and brushes, and for the 
first time seriously attempted to 
copy the hues as well as the forms 
of the Columbian woods. 



Aside from some technical points 
gathered now and then from seeing 
other artists at their work, Nature 
has been his only teacher. 

And now came the great changes 
caused by the outbreak of the 
rebellion. Appropriations for art 
and sciences — the luxuries of a 
nation — had to be withdrawn, and 
Mr. Hunger was thrown out of 
employment, for no private firms 
would publish such work as he 
produced. He was offered and 
accepted a position as engineer in 
the Federal Army, but the new 
work was not congenial, the 
imaginative artist temperament 
being "cribbed, cabined and con- 
fined," when all his duties were 
comprised in the mechanical labors 
of the military engineer. However, 
he studied hard to fit himself for 
his new calling, with such success 
that he became constructing engi- 
neer. 

During the four years' war, he 
was engaged upon the field fortifica- 
tions around Washington, and so 
while actively employed for the 
defense of his country, happily 



778 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



■■■ 


■ 


^^^1 




^^^^H 


^^^^^^Hpi^^^H^H 


1 


WW^'' ■ 




WBW' 


|.^-kJ, 



NEAR SAINT-GERMAIN FROM PAINTING BY GILBERT MUNGER 



escaped the horrors of the battle- 
field. 

When peace was declared and the 
vast army disbanded, to return to 
their homes, Mr. Hunger also laid 
down his arms and resigned his 
commission, much against the 
advice of his friends. 

He was at last to follow in 
earnest the career his boyish fancy 
had chosen. Taking a studio in 
New York, he painted two pictures 
during the winter, both of which 
were exhibited in the National 
Academy of Design, favorably 
noticed by the press — and sold. A 
large work — "Minnehaha Falls" — 
was next painted and was exhibited 
in different cities — a specially paid 
ticket exhibition. This picture 
attracted a great deal of attention 
and brought him a commission 
from a wealthy gentleman of 
France, to paint Niagara Falls. 
After filling this commission, for 
which he received ^i,ooo, he went 
West and spent the next three years 
in the wilds and scenery of the 



Rocky Mountains, traveling as 
artist and guest in connection with 
the first geological survey ever 
organized by the United States 
Government, under Clarence King. 

In the vast mountain region 
which divides the Continent, he 
devoted himself to the close study 
of nature's grand effects. And the 
work he did at that time was the 
most careful and conscientious 
interpretation of nature — fine in 
color and strong in artistic values. 
The work of those days was the 
most interesting of that of any 
period of his life, as it was abso- 
lutely sincere and not influenced by 
the art of any other country. It 
was spontaneous and full of the 
most careful feeling for truth and 
nature. 

One season was passed amid the 
extinct volcanoes of Oregon, Cali- 
fornia and Washington Territory. 
He received a commission from the 
United States Government to paint 
a series of pictures illustrating the 
scenery of that wild region. 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



779 



The attractions of the Yosemite 
were sufficienily powerful to hold 
him for two seasons. Here he met 
Lord Skelmersdale, who, with some 
other English gentlemen, gave him 
commissions tor work illustrating 
the scenery of that locality. They 
also earnestly advised him to set 
out at once for England with his 
collection of studies. 

He in due time accepted their 
counsel. Arrived in London, he 
found his works much appreciated 
and was soon prospering finely with 
the many orders received for his 
pictures. But the great city was 
stifling to him after his long free 
life in the mountains, and he made 
his escape in the autumn of the 
same year and spent some months 
at Dunkeld, in company with Sir 
John Millais. The second season 
was passed at Skye, Stornoway, 
Loch Marie and Dunkeld. 

He did not exhibit during his 
first year in England, but in 1879 
sent no less than eight pictures to 
various exhibitions. To the Royal 
Academy, **Loch Cornisk," "Loch 
Marie" and "Great Salt Lake. 



Utah"; to Manchester, "A Glimpse 
of the Pacific" and "Lake Cornisk" ; 
to Newcastle-on-Tyne, "Woodland 
Streams" and "Herring Fleet," 
and to Liverpool, "Great Salt Lake." 

Seven of these pictures were sold. 
His large picture, "King Arthur's 
Castle, Cornwall," was exhibited 
later, a fine work and well placed 
on the line. 

At this time, the Fine Art 
Society, New Bond street, was 
successfully publishing his etchings. 

He was now occupying a fine 
studio near New Bond street. He 
had a great display of his pictures 
on the spacious walls and on easels, 
was full of work and in a most 
properous condition of life. He 
was described as being, in those 
days, one of the best dressed men 
who walked Bond street and 
Piccadilly. He was of the lean, 
lank type, with much manner, and 
impressed one as possessing a great 
deal of nervous energy and 
strength. Albeit he was an ex- 
tremely distinguished looking man. 

His work was somewhat changed 
at this period, as he had been study- 














BORDER FOREST OF FONTAINEBLE AU FROM PAINTING BY GILBERT MUNGKR 




MINNEHAHA FROM PAINTING BY GILBERT :\IUNGER 



COXXECTICUr ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



781 



ing the great galleries ot Europe 
and England, and doubtless his best 
work was painted from 1880 to 1890. 
The following was published iu 
the Whitehall Review: "All last 
summer and autumn people on 

(Upper Thames were haunted by a 
strange looking river-craft. It was 
a sort of rough Noah's Ark on a 
raft. Late in the year it was 
moored for weeks together at a 
>: picturesque bend above Marsh Loch 

tand beyond Henley. It had a great 
window, which was shut when the 
autumn rains came and open when 
the weather was fine. At the 
window was an easel; at the easel, 
the owner of the ark, Mr. Munger, 
w^hose extensive studies of the 
Cornish coast were hung on the line 
at the last Academy Exhibition. 
Mr. Munger has gone ahead of all 
his former work in "Autumn on 
the Thames." The last golden 
hues of autumn and the closing 
beams of the setting sun, are on 
tree and meadow and river; a fevr 
stray yellow leaves are floating on 
the stream; the cluster of beeches 
forming the central object of the 
landscape, are reflected — trunk and 
branch — in the flood. The broad 
stretch of canvas is magnificently 
covered with a poetic realization of 
J the richness and depth of color and 

I beauty of forest outline and skyey 
forms which are to be seen in 
October and November on our 
picturesque English river." 
For ten years Mr. Munger made 
England his home, passing his 
summers on sketching tours on the 
Thames and in the Highlands of 
Scotland with Sir John Millais. 
Then he went to Paris, where he 
soon became recognized as the most 
talented landscape artist of the 

I American colony. He traveled 
extensively throughout Europe, 
spending occasional summers in 
Italy and Spain. Upon the invita- 
tion of Mr. Ruskin, he went to 
k Venice and painted fifty pictures 



producing a sensation and establish- 
ing his fame in England. His 
Italian subjects are very different 
from his usually chosen ones; and 
his Venetian pictures have a 
distinctive character all their own. 

He was a line colorist and strong 
in the organic principles of his art, 
and possessed of a scientific knowl- 
edge of the chemistry of color. 

His work was descriptive and 
instructive, and always charmed. 

The London Times says: "We 
shall not quarrel with those who 
prefer the delicate 'Greville' by 
Millet, or the peaceful evening scene 
' Near Barbizon' by Gilbert Munger. ' ' 

And the London Daily Telegraph: 
"Rub out the signature from any 
one of his landscapes and it would 
pass for a work of that same school 
which glorifies the forest scenery of 
Fontainebleau. Corot, in his 
deeper and firmer mood, is repro- 
duced, with no slavish efi'ect of dull, 
mechanical imitation, but with the 
appreciative reverence of an 
original hand, by this same Mr. 
Munger." 

To analyze the character of this 
man were a difficult task. He was 
endov/ed with rare gifts of mind, 
heart and soul. He had an 
extremely sensitive and poetic 
nature, responsive alike to joy in 
its fullest measure or deep sadness. 

A mysterious sadness, caused by 
a denial of his dearest hope in 
earlier days, was locked securely 
within, and he and it dwelt on 
alone, since so it must be, to the 
end of life. Nearest friends and 
family never trespassed there. 
Only increasing and increasing toil 
told how valiantly it was being- 
guarded from even sympathizing 
scrutiny. Yet, on the other hand, 
his strong personality, buoyed up 
by his delighted consciousness of 
truth and reverence for nature, 
together with a keen sense of 
humor kept alive an enthusia^^m in 
him which thrilled men to their 
best efforts. 



782 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



He was in every sense a born 
artist. His art was a philosophy. 
He looked upon landscape as the 
environment of men, and tried to 
paint the quality of nature which 
suggests and appeals to the mind. 
He succeeded in conveying in his 
art the emotion he himself experi- 
enced before Nature. He put 
poetry into desolate and saddening 
landscapes. He had to paint to 
express his great love for Nature. 

He also wrote exceedingly well — 
the most successful of his writings 
was a comedy in three acts, entitled 
"Madelaine Marston. " It was 
brought out in Theatre Royal, 
Haymarket, London, February, 
1886, Helen Barry acting it with 
great success. 

Socially he was possessed of a 
charm all his own. He was delight- 
fully full of fun at times, and would 
entertain a bevy of girls in the most 
refined and charming way. He 
was a rare story-teller, possessed of 
an exquisite "light touch" in the 
matter of polite small talk, and a 
much - sought - after dinner - party 
man. 

He took a lively interest in 
politics and affairs, and liked to 
know men of action. He was a 
mild user of tobacco. He, like 
Turner, would accept one glass of 
wine, and refuse the second. He 
rarely called upon other artists in 
their studios. 

He was fond of little children. 

One day he was painting on the 
dyke up in Cazenovia, N. Y. A 
little girl came upon him quietly, 
with a babe in her arms, and said: 
*'Are you taking a 'paintin' les- 
son?" "Yes, little girl; I'm 
taking a painting lesson." The 
next day she came again, and said: 
"I see you are taking another one. " 
"Yes, I'm taking another one." 
This little incident, Mr. Hunger 
thought was lovely. 

While Mr. Hunger was painting 
the large "Cazenovia Cornfield," an 
Irishman of the old-school type 



often came and looked over his 
shoulder. Mr. Williams, whose 
guest Mr. Hunger was, relates the 
incident: "I met Jerry one even- 
ing and said to him: *Mr. Hunger 
is a hard-working man.' Jeiry 
said: 'I never saw the bate of; 
him. He works with his head, his. 
moind, his hands and his eyes, and 
he's working 'em all to onct'." 

Mr. Hunger was a man of refined 
tastes and high artistic culture. A. 
great student, and a man of high 
ambitions. And to those whose 
privilege it was to know him 
thoroughly, he was always a dear 
friend and always a gentleman. 

That he was not more universally- 
known was due to the fact that he: 
did comparatively little exhibiting, 
his pictures being sold in advance 
and sent direct to their owners. 
His success in the sale of his 
pictures was phenomenal, always, 
receiving flattering sums, a few as 
high as $5,000 each. 

He was a favorite with the Duke 
of Saxe-Coburg — one of whose 
treasures was a Hunger subject 
which hangs in his library, and for 
the excellence of which he con- 
ferred upon him the honor of 
knighthood. He has been decorat- 
ed by nine different countries: 

Germany — Knight of the Order 
of Saxe Ernestine ; Grand Cross for 
Art and Science. 

Russia — Red Cross with the 
Ribbon of the Order of St. Andrew. 

Belgium — King Leopold Gold 
Hedal with Crown. 

Italy — Decoration from the Duke 
d'Aosta; Gold Medal and Honorary 
Member of the Academy of Fine 
Arts. 

Venezuela — Officer and Com- 
mander of the National Order of 
the Liberator. 

France — Member of the Societe 
Litteraire Internationale Founded 
by Victor Hugo. 

These honors cannot be secured 
through influence, but are awarded 
on merit alone. They grant the- 




^:r-- 




784 



CONNECTICUT ARTISTS AND THEIR WORK 



wearer many privileges and admit 
him to all court functions. 

Tlie New York Journal, of not 
very recent date, printed a letter 
from Mr. Hunger, in answer to the 
inquiry, "Why do American paint- 
ers live abroad.?" In which the 
artist says: 

"One of the reasons for my own 
stay, now prolonged since 1877, and 
the reason with which I am fond of 
appeasing my own patriotism, 
whenever it urges my return to the 
blue skies of my native country, is 
the increase of knowledge and the 
sure means of growth in art every- 
where at hand in these old lands. 

"Furthermore, it is in Europe, 
rather than in America, that the 
indefinable and singular charm in 
painting which men call style is 
most readily attained. Perhaps the 
ample survey of the whole field of 
art offered in Europe better enables 
a man to 'strike his personal note,' 
as the French say — to find out his 
failings and avoid them, I should 
say. 

JJ,"The gratifying measure of suc- 
cess which has greeted my humble 
efforts, in these later years, is due, 
I am sure, to having found the way 
to my own style through a number 
of experiments, and a series of care- 
ful observations, which I should 
not have been able to make if 
settled at home. There is a crys- 
tallization of style in paintings as in 
literature. It is, of course, a slow 
process; and in my own case is the 
fruit of long seasons of painting in 
the foothills of our own Rocky 
Mountains, in the shadow of El 
Capitan in the Yosemite, and of 
St. Paul's Cathedral in London; of 
work in the open of Scotland with 
Sir John Millais; of solitary toil in 



the lagoons of Venice, and finally, 
of a long and thoughttul season of 
severe effort in Fontainebleau 
forest in the track of the masters. 
It is in following successively such 
widely differing phases of Nature 
and Art that I have at last come to 
a final phase of my own painting, 
about the recent general recognition 
of which the Journal kindly asks. 
Could I have reached this stage at 
home? Frankly — no. But mainly 
for the reason that art is as yet 
comparatively uncultivated in 
America, and not because of any 
special limitations in the country 
itself." 

, Mr. Hunger returned to America 
in 1893, spending a season here, 
another there, but always working. 
He was a most indefatigable worker, 
and his whole mind and soul were 
devoted to his love of art. The 
fascination was so strong, that of 
late years he was not satisfied to 
work the whole day, but he too 
frequently toiled the whole evening 
and the whole night as well. This, 
together with losses sustained in 
worthless investments — for like 
many another genius, he was 
innocent of finance — naturally 
ruined his health and developed a 
morbid feeling, which drove him in 
a measure to becoming a recluse to 
the outside world. 

He had a studio at New York in 
The "Valencia," Fifty-ninth street, 
for a few years —and later, one at 
Washington, at which place he was 
working on devotedly till he fell 
asleep at last, too weary to waken. 

He has left some two score of 
pictures, which were yet in his own 
possession, and which will doubtless 
eventually find their way into some 
of our national galleries. 




BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 

STRATFORD, THE MOTHER TOWN, AND ITS PROSPEROUS 

OFFSPRING THE BUILDING OF A GREAT INDUSTRIAL 

CENTER AND ITS BUILDERS INTRODUCTORY ARTICLE 



BY 



JULIAN H. STERLING 



» 



Mr. Sterling has prepared two articles on the material prosperity of Bridgeport, a 
city which he believes is destined to have a great future. The introductory article, 
with historical development from colonial days, is here given. It will be followed by 
a forcible writing on the municipality as it is today, its park systems, its huge indus- 
tries, its influential men, and possibly something on the needs of the city government. 
Mr. Sterling has given his home city much study and is thoroughly acquainted with 
the sociological conditions. He was a member of the class of '68 of Vale University 
and is a member of " Book and Snake " secret society of that institution. He 
attended the Yale School of Fine Arts in '73 and '74. For ten years he was the 
instructor of the various classes of the industrial drawing schools, under the direction 
of the Board of Education of the City of Bridgeport. In 1880 and 1S81 he studied art 
in Paris under eminent masters. For fifteen years he was the representative and cor- 
respondent of the New York World in Bridgeport and throughout the State of Con- 
necticut, For ten years he was a regular contributor to the New Haven Register, and 
has for twenty years contributed to various state papers. He has also been a regular 
correspondent for the Boston Globe, the New York Times and St. Louis Dispatch. He is an active member of the 
New York Press Club, and has been vice-president of the Press Club of Connecticut. As a painter his work has been 
accepted and exhibited in the flational Academy New York, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at Philadelphia, 
as well as in exhibitions in Chicago, Buffalo and St. Louis. He has written many interesting reminiscences of old 
times for the Bridgeport Standard and Bridgeport Farmer, and has published a candid book entitled " Space," which 
created much interest in his native city. On his paternal side he is descended from David Sterling of England, who 
came to this country in 1633, ^"^ from Governor Thomas Welles who came from England in 1636. On his maternal 
side he is descended from Paul Beck, Jr., of Philadelphia, whose father, Paul Beck, Sr. came from Nuremburg and 
settled in Philadelphia .752, and he is also a descendant from Amos Alexander and the Alexanders of Maryland. He 
resides in Bridgeport at 76a Park Avenue— Editor 




786 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 




Photo by E. M. Wells 



SANDY HOLLOW 
Where the pioneers from Wethersfield settled in 1639 



A CITY without antiquity, with- 
out colonial or revolutionary »*=. 
history ; a city with a little past 
but a great future, — this is 
the city of Bridgeport, Connecticut, 
today forging ahead of its more his- 
toric neighbors and becoming the lead- 
ing industrial center of the State. 
Until the year 1836 the city of Bridge- 
port did not exist. Prior to that, as 
far back as 1800, the locality was the 
borough of Bridgeport, then in retro- 
spect it was Newfield and originally 
Stratfield, with a beginning in 1691. 

Earlier in 1639 Fairfield was set- 
tled, and some years before Stratford 
was settled. Hence, Fairfield was 
originally a suburb of Stratford, and 
Bridgeport (or Newfield) a suburb 
of Fairfield. 

By industry and enterprise Bridge- 
port has risen, so that now-a-days, 
Stratford and Fairfield are regarded 
by Bridgeporters as suburbs, which 
appellation is distasteful to the parent 
towns, and we are compelled to fall 
back on that charming epic, credited 
to the famous wit, Douglas Jerrold, 



that, "God made the country, man 
made the towns, and the Devil made 
the suburbs." 

The history of the three towns is so 
inseparably interwoven, and the habi- 
tations so cemented into one grand 
whole, that it is difficult to speak of 
one without allusion to the other. 
Eradicating the genealogical tree, 
Bridgeport today holds the mercantile 
supremacy and claims to be second 
city in the State in population, and 
third in wealth. 

This sketch will be confined to an 
outline of happenings which have oc- 
curred in the mother town (Stratford) 
and the mammoth child (Bridgeport). 
Both are the homes of loyal citizens 
and lovers of history and in Bridge- 
port is the Mary Silliman Chapter, D. 
A. R., the Sons of the Revolution and 
Sons of Colonial Wars, while in Strat- 
ford reside several prominent Colonial 
Dames and members of historical or- 
ganizations. 

Two hundred and sixty-five years 
ago the mother town of Stratford first 
felt the hand of civilization when a 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



1^1 




Photo by K. M. Wc 



THE BARRYMORE HOUSE SANDY HOLLOW 

One of the oldest houses in Stratford 



little company of hardy pioneers push- 
ed into the wilderness from Wethers- 
field, under the leadership of a clergy- 
man, Rev. Adam Blakeman. It is be- 
lieved that they sailed down the Con- 
necticut river and along the Sound, 
turning their course up the river now 



known as the Housatonic. It is said 
that they first gave the habitation the 
name of Pequonnock, and that it was 
later known as Cupheag, an appella- 
tion taken from an Indian tribe dis- 
placed by the white planters. The 
euphonious name of Stratford is stat- 




NEAR THE MOUTH OF THE BROAD HOUSATONIC 
Hay barges in the foreground 



788 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 




BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



789 



1 




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By Courtesy Rev. Royal W. Raymoiid 

STRATFORD POINT LIGHT HOUSE 



ed in legend at least to have been taken 
from Shakespeare's birthplace, Strat- 
ford-on-Avon, one of the original set- 
tlers being from that historic English 
village. As was the custom of the 
pious forefathers, logs were hewn 



from the forest for the erection of a 
quaint little meeting house in the cen- 
ter of the settlement of "Sandy Hol- 
low." This meeting house stood on 
the site of the barn of the late Captain 
William Barrvmore, and was also held 




Photo by E. M. Wells 

STRATFORD SHORE WASHED 



BY THE WATERS OF LONG ISLAND SOUND 



790 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 




Photo by E. M. Well 



ALONG THE SALT MARSHES LEADING TO THE DYKE 
Yacht owned by Hon. Stiles Judson, Jr. 





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« 



REV. SAMUEL JOHNSON, D.D. 



First rector c 
—First presid: 



f Christ Episcopal Church at Stratford 
r,t of King's College (now Columbia) 



as a place of defence from attacks by 
the Indians. The pioneers, undaunted 
by hardships of a savage land, tilled the 
ground, but obtained most of their 
sustenance from the river. 

It seems, according to record, that 
the first individual who arrived here- 
abouts was Roger Ludlow. It was in 
the year 1639 ^^^^ Ludlow and four 
followers came here with a right 
granted by the Colonial Court of Con- 
necticut Colony to settle west of Pe- 
quonnock river. The little party stood 
upon Golden hill and looked down 
upon the present site of the new rail- 
road improvements, which was at that 
time "wolf's hole," and decided to lo- 
cate where Mrs. Hanford Lyon now 
dwells. It seems a party of fishermen 
from Stratford had become somewhat 
tired of catching Stratford shad in the 
Housatonic river, and had rowed their 
boat around into the Pequonnock 
river to try their luck with ''harbor 
blues,'' when they discerned upon the 
summit of Golden hill, Roger Ludlow 
and his party building a camp fire. 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



791 



The Stratford fishermen landed and 
offered some of their fish for the mid- 
day meal, and when Roger Ludlow 
related his plan to locate on Golden 
hill, the visitors thereupon informed 
him that the Stratford line was not 
the river, but ran as far back inland 
as Division street (now Park avenue). 
''All right," said Roger Ludlow, using 
the words which Horace Greejgy af- 
terwards offered as advice to young 
men, 'T'll go west." And straightway 
he walked over and became the first 
settler of Fairfield, and Division street 
was the dividing line between Strat- 
ford and Fairfield. In 1641 the Gene- 



ral Court enjoined upon the towns to 
keep the highways between the towns 
open, and it was then that the King's 
Highway was laid out, running east 
and west in-shore from New Haven, 
Stratford, Fairfield, and so on toward 
New York. It was known as the old 
Post road and is now called North 
avenue. 

It was at the point, in 1640, where 
now North avenue and Park avenue 
intersect, that the first settlement of 
Bridgeport was made, exactly on the 
town line. The first settler was Henry 
Summers, Sr. Fifty years later there 
were fortv-six householders, and thev 




Hy Courtesy Kev. X. E. Cornwall 

CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT STRATFORD 
Second building erected in 1744— The preceding edifice was dedicated in 1723 and was the first Episcopal church 
building in Connecticut 



792 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 




lioto by E. M. Wells 

PRESENT CHRIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
Erected at Stratford in 1857 



petitioned the General Court for a 
new parish, and in 1691 the Parish of 
Stratfield was authorized. The center 
of civihzation therefore was located at 
the intersection of North and Park 
avenues, directly in front of the pres- 
ent day residence of Mr. Paul Ster- 
ling. The land east of Division street 
and west of Pequonnock river was 
largely owned by the Sumners, Ster- 
lings,*' Strongs and Hawleys. The 
Parish of Stratfield was set out to in- 
clude this area. As time evolved these 
tracks were sub-divided, yet to the 
present day descendants of these fam- 
ilies still hold in fee, some of this 
realty. 

The mother town, Stratford, be- 
came a prosperous community and its 
record of growth is best illustrated by 
its progressive movements. 

A second meeting house was built 
in 1680 on Watch House hill. The 
third meeting house on the same site 
was struck by lightning in 1785 and 
burned, and when in 1889 Stratford 
celebrated her 250th year, a design 
in fireworks was set off in commemo- 
ration and representation of the old 
burned church. The fourth meeting 
house stood on the site of the present 




CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT STRATFORD DEDICATED 



hoto By E. M. Wells 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



793 




OLD LAND MARK 



Photo by E. M. Wells 

peck's mill 



By Courtesy Rev. Royal W. Baymoud 

THE GENERAL WALKER HOUSE 



Congregational church, opposite the 
Sterling place. The first pastor of the 
Congregational church was Rev. Na- 
than Birdseye. He was born August 
19, 1714, graduated from Yale 1736, 
and ordained in West Haven 1742. 
He died January 28, 1818, at the age 
of 103 years, five months and nine 
davs. It is said in Stratford that he 



preached in the Congregational church 
at the age of 100 years. 

In the old church yards or burying 
grounds of the Congregational and 
Episcopal churches are to be seen the 
gravestones marking the graves of the 
early settlers. Many of these are in a 
good state of preservation while some 
are weed overgrown and rapidly 




By Courtesy Hon. Frauklln Burton 

BURTON HOMESTEAD OVER I50 YEARS OLD 

Now occupied by Hon. Franklin Burton 



794 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 




I'liiit.- I.^ K M Wells 

OLD METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
Erected in Stratford in 1839 

crumbling away. Of the early fami- 
lies, who settled in Stratford in its 
pioneer days, were John Thompson, 
Moses Wheeler, John Wells, John 
Hnrd, Nathaniel Foot, John Birdseye, 
Thomas Ufford, William Curtis, 
Thomas Fairchild, Francis Nichols, 
Rev. David Chauncey, John Wilcoxen 
and William Burritt. The head stones 




over these graves are still in good 
preservation. 

In 1723 Christ Episcopal church 
was built in Stratford and the first 
service was held on Christmas day of 
that year. Rev. Samuel Johnson was 
the first rector. He was the great 
grandfather of Mrs. Susan Johnson 
Hudson. At present Rev. N. E. Corn- 
wall is rector. In 1744 the old church 
was replaced by a more commodious 
edifice. Rev. Samuel Johnson pre- 
sented to the church the first bell. 
It was cast in Fairfield in 1743 and 
cost ^300. It bears the inscription, 
"George 3rd, King of England, A. D. 
1743." The church which stood 
on the site of the present edifice was 
made in England and shipped in sec- 
tions to Stratford. In 1856 it was 




PRESENT METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



I'hdto by 
K. M. Welle 



NECK BRIDGE SPANNING THE CREEK 

razed and the present church erected. 
The old iron foundry where Strat- 
ford's historic church bell was cast, 
was located in Fairfield at the north- 
west corner of the present day Fair- 
field and Clinton avenues. The foun- 
dry was owned by Bennett Whitney, 
great grandfather of Ebin Whitney at 
present U. S. postal clerk in the regis- 
ter letter department of the Grand 
Central depot, New York. In 1827 
this foundry was removed to John 
street in Bridgeport town and was 
called the Union foundry. In 1851 it 
was burned, together with the old 
State street school house, Wheeler 
Beers' brass foundry and the old 
North church. 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



795 




STRATFORD ACADEMY — FOUNDED IN 1804 By Courtesy Hemy p. Stagg 
Acquired wide reputation as one of the most thorough institutions in the country 




riioto by K. M. Wolls 

FAR MILL RIVER NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF STRATFORD 



796 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 




By Courtesy Henry P. Stagg 

FREEMAN CURTIS HOUSE 
Erected before 1713 

The oldest house in Stratford, believ- 
ed to have been erected before 1740, 
still standing, is the Walker place on 
Main street, just above the railroad 
crossing; the second oldest is the 
house now occupied by Miss Celia 
Curtis on Academy hill, built by Dan- 
iel Judson, and, in fact, from the ma- 
terial once a portion of the fort on 
Academy hill. This fort or stockade, 
was erected as a protection against 
Indians, the Cupheag and Pequonnock 
tribes. 



In the early history of Stratford the 
court house and jail were in Fairfield, 
as that was the county seat, and it was 
not until 1855 that Fairfield resigned 
her court house and jail to Bridgeport. 

In Stratford Rev. Samuel Johnson 
v/as instrumental in planting many of 
the elm trees on Main street which 
have since grown to grand propor- 
tions and have afforded subjects for 
both poet and artist, thereby broaden- 
ing the fame of Stratford, because of 
the elms' surpassing beauty. Dr. 
Samuel Johnson also presented Christ 
Episcopal church an organ, which was 
the first church organ used in Connec- 
ticut. Its melodious strains were vi- 
brated within the confines of the sa- 
cred edifice for 125 years, and in 1879 
it was replaced by the present organ. 
At one wedding of international im- 
portance this organ was used; that of 
Glorianna Folsome, daughter of the 
village blacksmith, to Lord Sterling. 
That IS a story within itself, too rife 
with romance, beauty and nobility, 
simplicity and courtly elegance, to in- 
terweave in this brief sketch. It may 
come later. In 1754 Dr. Johnson was 
chosen the first president of Kings 
College (now Columbia) of New 
York. 




CENTER GRADED SCHOOL AND OLD DAYTON HOUSE ' 



Photo by E. M. Wells 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



797 




SOLDIER S MONUMENT ON ACADEMY HILL 
Dedicated October 3, 1889 



Photo by K. M.Wells 



After the battle of Lexington, a 
rider arrived in Stratford on a Sunday 
morning with the news of that engage- 
ment. The Minute Men were sum- 
moned and the Httle town of Stratford 
was aroused. Intense feehng perme- 
ated the congregations of the two 
churches. At Christ church during 
service the rector read the accustomed 
prayer as usual, whereupon George 
Benjamin (later a captain in the Revo- 
lution), great-great-grandfather of 
Bedell Benjamin, arose in. his pew 
and said, "No such prayer for the 
royal family must again be read in 
this church, as George III is this coun- 
try's worst enemy." The rector closed 
his prayer book with a slam, pro- 
nounced the benediction and dismissed 
the congregation. The church was 
locked and remained closed until after 
the Revolution was over and peace 
declared. 

On the steeple was the famous gol- 
den rooster, impaled there as early as 
1 744 with a mission to point out which 
way the wind blew, like a faithful 
weather cock should do. That old 
rooster is up there yet and has been 
doing duty day and night for i6o 
years. It had short respite during the 
Revolution. It seems this worshipful 
old bird was presented to the church 



by Poulaski Benjamin, father of Cap- 
tain George Benjamin, and during the 
Revolution was riddled by bullets from 
the muskets of British soldiers, who. 
while encamped on Academy hill near 
by, amused themselves by shooting at 
the chanticleer. 

One evening in the year 1778, Cap- 
tain George Benjamin, with the assist- 
ance of some Revolutionary soldiers, 
removed the rooster and hid it in his 
barn. After the war was over, he cal- 
led his daughter Alice, and said to her, 
*T am about to replace the weather 
cock on the spire of the church, place 
your hands upon it, you may have an- 
other opportunity to again touch it, 
but I never shall." 



' ^flHBEBHIHnw«s<. ^M^ 4- ^^hS 


JW> ' .^ , "^^^wki^SS^ a^H 



TOMBSTONE MARKING STATESMAN S 

GRAVE 

In old Congregational burying-ground— over remains of 

Gideon Tomlinson, Governor of Connecticut, 1827-1830- 

United States Senator, 1831-1837 



798 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



In 1857 the rooster was again taken 
down to be replaced upon the present 
edifice which stands upon the site of 
the old church. In the lapse of years 
Alice Benjamin had married John 
Thompson, and her son, Joseph 
Thompson, resided in the Seymour 
Curtis place. When the old rooster 
was lowered from the spire, Joseph 
Thompson loaded the old cock in a 
wagon and conveyed it to the home of 
his mother, and she, for the second 
time placed her hands upon it. 



No historical mention would be 
complete without some reference to the 
Congregational church. This anti- 
dates the Episcopal society for antiq- 
uity and the influences which have 
gone largely to make up the character 
and progress of Stratford were con- 
trolled by these two religious societies. 

The first church in Stratford was 
the Congregational and the first 
church in Stratfield was also the Con- 
gregational. In 1748 the first Episco- 




HUNTINGTON ROAD AND TORY HILL 
Estate of Swan B. Brewster on the right — Deer on Brewster Estate 



after an interval of 79 years. The old 
chanticleer was then regilded and Jo- 
seph Thompson affixed under one of 
the wings a plate engraved with the 
names of the donor, also his son. Cap- 
tain Benjamin, and Alice his daughter, 
as well as the dates of the removal 
from, and restoration to, the church, 
spire. If anyone doubts this, it is a 
simple matter to verify the statement 
by climbing the steeple and peeping 
imder the rooster's left wing. 



pal church in Stratfield was conse- 
crated with Rev. Philo Shelton as rec- 
tor, great-grandfather of Mr. Hamil- 
ton. Shelton, cashier of the Connecti- 
cut National bank. The Episcopal 
church stood just north of North ave- 
nue on Church lane. The old Strat- 
field burying ground is on North ave- 
nue, just west of Clinton avenue. Re- 
cently the D. A. R. has erected a me- 
morial gate, and upon tablets are en- 
graved the names of those who lived 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



799 




PARADISE GRKEN AT STRATFORD 

Stately elms lend beauty and symmetry to the scene— Brewster homestead in the distance on the left 




FIRST MEETING HOUSE IN STRATFIELD 
Erected 1695 



Hy Co\irtosy 

the Briageport Stiiu.lard 



8oo 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



in Stratfield and were soldiers in the 
American Revolution. 

The First Congregational church 
was moved to its present site on Bank 
street in 1808, and the Episcopal 
church was reestablished at the cor- 
ner of State and Broad streets in 1801. 
In 1836 the building was sold to the 
First Baptist society and St. John's 
w^as transferred to Cannon street, 
where now stands the post office build- 
ing. In 1 87 1 St. John's was again 
moved to the corner of Park avenue 
and Fairfield avenue. After these 
two religious societies removed front 



area in Mountain Grove, and he was 
to remove the dead. This law provok- 
ed indignation. However, Barnum 
could not be stopped, the dead were 
taken up in cartloads and carried, 
mostly at night time, to another rest- 
ing place. The bodies were reburied 
in the far side of Mountain Grove 
cemetery, monuments were broken, 
headstones misplaced, and in many in- 
stances headstones were utilized for 
flagging side-walks about town. The 
proceeding was an outrage on the 
country, but, despite all opposition. 




„ By Courtesy 

GROUP OF BRIDGEPORT CHURCHES IN 1835 the Bridgeport Staudaidi 

From an old wood-cut — Corner of Broad and Gilbert streets, looking north — Second Congregational at right— St.. 
John's Episcopal Church, later Baptist, comes second — First Congregational, third — Old Methodist Church, fourth and 
last in the distance 



North avenue to the sites on Broad 
street, a new burying ground was se- 
lected on Park avenue. In this sacred 
soil were deposited the remains of 
most of the people who were born, 
bred and brought up in this commu- 
nity. 

The story of progress has its un- 
fortunate features. In the sixties, 
when P. T. Barnum was a member of 
the State Legislature, he introduced a 
bill providing that he should be grant- 
ed the old burying ground for an equal 



Barnum laid out Lewis street and Cot- 
tage street through the old burying 
ground and planked both streets with 
cottages. On this soil, which was. 
wept over by countless mourners, to- 
day stand scores of tenements. 

The contemporary and successive 
generations of men have passed away. 
In the long lapse of years their fami- 
lies and their descendants have become 
supplanted by other men. The energy 
in the city of Bridgeport today is im- 
ported. 



BRIDGEPORT— A STORY OF PROGRESS 



8oi 



In 1 82 1 the population of Bridge- 
port was 1,700. In 1825 Bridgeport 
was not on the map, and as late as 1835 
the place was literally unknown to the 
outside world. Prior to this a few 
coasting vessels were owned here, the 
most noteworthy being the sloop Hy- 
ram, built in 1 789 and owned by John 
S. Cannon, and Lambert Rockwell. 
The captain of this 63-ton sloop was 
George Hoyt, and in 1806 he was cho- 
sen first cashier of the Bridgeport 
bank. It was during these years that 
Stratfield was called Newfield. Ste- 
phen Burroughs had built the first 
wharf and Abijah Hawley had built 
the second wharf below Bank street. 
The head of navigation was at Berk- 
shire pond, and one or two bridges 
were in process of construction. 

In 1800 the village of Newfield made 
an application to the General Assem- 
bly for a separate government, and to 
be incorporated as the Borough of 
Bridgeport. This was granted, and 
Captain Abijah Sterling presided at 
the first meeting of the borough, No- 
vember 12, 1800. However, it was not 
-until 1 82 1 that the name "Newfield" 
was set aside and that of Bridgeport 
definitely adopted. In 1836 the city 
of Bridgeport was incorporated and 
the first mayor, Isaac Sherman, Jr., 
was chosen. In 1887 the seal of the 
city of Bridgeport, designed by Julian 
H. Sterling, was adopted by the Com- 
mon Council, and in March, 1889, the 
city and town governments were con- 
solidated and the charter revised in 
conformity with the requirements of 
an act passed by the State Legislature. 

Late in the fifties the Wheeler & 
Wilson Sewing Machine Company 
started, and to this concei-n belongs 
the credit of giving to Bridgeport the 
impetus and thrift which has followed. 
When the historian proclaims fact ex- 
actly as it existed and continued to 
exist, then will be told that to Nathan- 
iel Wheeler belongs the story of trans- 
forming the city of Bridgeport from 
a countr}^ town into the gigantic big 
mill city which it is today, with its 
thousands of mill operatives, its 



smoke, clang and clatter, and its far- 
reaching detonations echoing from 
factory whistles. From the Wheeler 
& Wilson concern sprang East Bridge- 
port, then the Union Metallic Cart- 
ridge Company's plant, Eaton, Cole & 
Burnham's, The Bridgeport Brass 
Company, and hundreds upon hun- 
dreds of other industries, which have 
been located here since the birth of the 
Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine 
Company. Nathaniel Wheeler was 
alive to the wants of a growing city, 
he was indefatigable in his labors to 
induce other manufacturing concerns 
to locate here. 

Too much credit is given P. T. Bar- 
num, who, with his traveling circus, 
saw fit to invest money obtained by 
exhibiting wild animals and circus 
riders, in real estate in East Bridge- 
port, as wxll as Bridgeport proper. Bar- 
num gave small parcels of land here 
and there for park purposes with the 
proviso that the city should improve 
all such gifts. Always adjoining to 
these gifts to the city, Barnum would 
own large areas of land, which by 
virtue of the parks which the city im- 
proved and kept up, advanced the val- 
ues of Barnum's holdings. That is 
the way Barnum did so much for 
Bridgeport. His "philanthrophy" is 
today turning out colossal interest to 
his heirs. 

If it had not been for Nathaniel 
Wheeler there would have been no 
such growing city with the thousands 
of incoming families and skilled op- 
eratives to inhabit the place. These 
thousands needed homes and Barnum 
had corralled the building lots. Na- 
thaniel Wheeler made Barnum. rich. 

In less than fifty years Bridgeport 
has grown to be a thoroughly cosmo- 
politan city known all over the world, 
because of the products of her manu- 
factories. 

This "business hustle," as it is styl- 
ed, gives those concerned in it but 
little time for reading or improving 
the mind in those literary lines deemed 
essential in the cultivated and refined 
walks of life. Cultured and refined 



802 



BRIDGEPORT-^ A STORY OF PROGRESS 



Stratford and Fairfield, look upon 
Bridgeport as the spoilt child. 

It considers Bridgeport today as 
too materialistic, but feels confident 
that with years will come achievement 
in the arts and sciences. With pride 
Stratford points to her sons who have 
become distinguished in the world's 
service and fears that materialistic 
Bridgeport is not continuing the rec- 
ord. 

Among them may be recorded Gen- 
eral David Wooster, of Revolutionary 
fame, born in 1710; William Samuel 
Johnson, LL. D., born in 1727, for 
thirteen years President of Columbia 
College, one of the delegates to the 
convention which framed the Consti- 
tution of the United States, and well 
known in national politics at the period 
in which he lived ; Colonel Aaron Ben- 
jamin, born August 17, 1757. He is 
described in Orcutt's history as "a 
man of medium stature, but command- 
ing presence ; of large humanity, great 
purity of character, iron energy, and 
unyielding integrity and honor; who, 
during the Revolutionary war was 
more than a hundred times under fire, 
and in the attack on Stony Point, as 
one of the forlorn hope, was the second 
man to enter the fort. His military 
mantle has fallen upon his grandson. 
Colonel Samuel N. Benjamin, whose 
brilliant record in the war of the Re- 
bellion is worthy of his grandsire." 
Captain Nehemiah Gorham, born Oc- 
tober 10, 1753. ''He was an officer in 
the army of the Revolution, and served 
faithfully through the war which es- 
tablished the independence of his 
country." General Joseph Walker, 
born in 1756, "who entered the Amer- 
ican army in 1777, and served his 
country in the several grades from 
captain to major-general." Hon. Gid- 
eon Tomlinson, born in 1780, Gover- 
nor of the State of Connecticut from 
T827 to 1830, and United States Sena- 
tor from 1831 to 1837; Hon. David 



Plant, born in 1783, for four years 
Lieutenant-Governor of Connecticut, 
and Member of Congress from 1827 
to 1829; Captain D. Pulaski Benja- 
min, born in 1796, last survivor of the 
Dartmoor prisoners. 

Nothing perhaps tends more toward 
ultimate conditions whereby Bridge- 
port will rank among the first cities 
of this commonwealth, than the ad- 
vantages which are derived from the 
superior system of her public schools. 
As early as 1678 the settlers of Strat- 
field petitioned the General Court to 
be released from paying school taxes 
to Fairfield, and in 1691 a new school 
society was incorporated and in 1701 
it was called Stratfield school society. 
In 1766 three districts were establish- 
ed, the north, middle and south. The 
district system continued until 1876 
when they were consolidated under 
one control and the management of 
all the district schools was placed in 
the hands of a single committee or 
Board of Education. In addition to 
the public schools there have been 
many private ones under the manage- 
ment of able preceptors, among them 
Rev. Samuel Blatchford, Rev. Elijah 
Waterman, Rev. Birdsey G. Noble, 
Amos A. Pettingill, Mr. Abbott, Isaac 
H. Johnson, W. W. Sellick, Rev. 
Henry Jones, S. R. Calthrop, Rev. G. 
B. Day, George W. Yates, Emery F. 
Strong and Rev. L. W. Bloomfield. 
Among the leading private schools to- 
day are the Park Avenue Institute, 
conducted by Mr. S. B. Jones, and the 
University School, conducted by Mr. 
A^incent C. Peck. 

The possibilities of the thriving city 
are innumerable, and after the fever 
for material gain has subsided, and the 
dwellers have settled back to normal 
living, then Bridgeport will become an 
important moral and intellectual factor 
in addition to its present reputation as 
a great industrial center. 



HOME — IN MEMORY OF ITS BEAUTIES 



ITS WEALTH OF SACRED ASSOCIATIONS — ITS GLADNESS 
AND ITS PATHOS — GAYLORD HOMESTEAD ON POST 
ROAD BETWEEN NORWALK AND DANBURY — MEMORIAM 

BY 

JOHN GAYLORD DAVENPORT, D.D. 

PASTOR SECOND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT WATERBURY 



NO sensitive spirit can regard 
with indifference the place 
where generations of human 
beings have been born, have 
met Hfe's supreme experiences, have 
wrought out their destiny and passed 
from earth. Imagination rehabihtates 
the ancient mansion and peoples it 
again with the men and women who 
there smiled and wept and prayed. 
And we find ourselves in sympathy 
with their love and their hatred, their 
aspiration and their struggle. A lone 
chimney, marking the spot where a 
home once stood and the firelight and 
the lovelight shone, will often awaken 
thoughts and emotions too deep for 
words. A dismantled house, silent 
and lonely, may suggest pictures of 
fascinating interest. Even the old- 
fashioned flower that opens its petals 
beside the now unused doorstone has 
its tale to tell of the one who planted it 
in the long ago. As some poet has 
written : 

"Old lilac bushes, thin and gray, 
In wistful longing sigh ; 
Dishevelled roses blush in vain. 
No mistress lingers by. 

The tansy creeps e'en to the door 
Through garden tangles sweet ; 

Gaunt apple trees their wizened fruit 
Strew at the master's feet. 

And lo ! a cricket bravely chirps 
Throughout the lonely house ; 

But those who loved there long ago. 
They sleep too deep to rouse." 



I invite you to visit with me the 
ancient colonial home that is endeared 
to me by the experiences of my child- 
hood, and that five generations of my 
kindred have occupied. It was here 
that winter after winter during a cen- 
tury or more, such scenes occurred as 
the poet refers to : 

"We piled with care our nightly stack 
Of wood against the chimney back, — 
The oaken log, green, huge and thick, 
And on its top the stout back-stick ; 
The knotty fore-stick laid apart. 
And filled between with curious art 
The ragged brush; then, hovering 

near 
We watched the first red blaze ap- 
pear, 
Heard the sharp crackle, caught the 

gleam 
On whitewashed wall and sagging 

beam. 
Until the old, rude-furnished room 
Burst, flower-like, into rosy bloom ; 
While, radiant with a mimic flame 
Outside the sparkling drift became. 
And through the bare-boughed locust 

tree 
Our own warm hearth seemed blaz- 
ing free." 

As one journeys northward on the 
old post road between Norwalk and 
Danbury, about five miles above the 
former village and one mile above the 
southern boundary of Wilton, he pass- 
es, on the right, a house that inevitably 
attracts his attention. Standing back 
from the highway upon a slight eleva- 



8o4 



HOME— IN MEMORY OF ITS BEAUTIES 



tion from which it seems to command 
its surroundings, the broad lawn in 
front of it sloping toward the street 
and dotted here and there with clumps 
of ancient lilacs, some of which cling 
closely to the narrow window panes, 
as if looking through them to gain a 
glimpse of those who once there 
dwelt; its gateway guarded by two 
venerable elms : it is somewhat impos- 
ing even in its decrepitude. For it 
sufters from extreme old age. Al- 
though its skeleton is of oak, and as 
strong and impenetrable as iron, its 
outer tissues are crumbling away and 
occasionally an eye, in the shape of 
one of its diminutive windows, shows 
a tendency to fall from its socket. 
About the place cling associations that 
are of considerable interest. 

In the spring of 1726, the original 
proprietors of Norwalk, desirous of 
helping the Wilton parish, that year 
organized, granted "ten acres of land 
to be taken up, to be lay'd out for ye 
use of ye Presbyterian or Congrega- 
tional ministry among them forever." 

And here, upon the land thus re- 
ceived, probably the same year (1726), 
the Wilton parish built its first par- 
sonage. A Scotchman, the Rev. Rob- 
ert Sturgeon, having been installed as 
pastor, a portion of the land, with the 
house, in accordance with the excel- 
lent custom of the time, was deeded to 
him as a "settlement." But it seems 
that his family had been left in Scot- 
land, and the idea of a lone man's tak- 
ing possession of the property and oc- 
cupying the brand new house was not 
altogether pleasing to his parishioners. 
Some uneasiness regarding him is in- 
dicated in the records. The people 
"desire him to apply to the Presbetry 
to use all proper means to induce his 
wife to come over to New England," 
saying that if he did so, they would 
"sett down esse and contently." After 
some delay, as it would appear, the 
family came, and it is said that on the 
day of their arrival Mr. Sturgeon 
preached from Luke v : 26, "We have 
seen strange things today." But for 
some reason unknown to us the un- 



easiness lingered. The family failed 
to bring with it to the Wilton parish 
the contentment that had been expect- 
ed. On the records today stands the 
entry, read of all generations, "The 
pastor's life and conversation do not 
give satisfaction." Thus is illustrated 
Shakespeare's saying, "The evil that 
men do lives after them." Five years 
after the minister's settlement, a coun- 
cil is called for his dismissal, a some- 
what unusual event in those days of 
lifelong pastorates. Mr. Sturgeon and 
his family departed, and for a year or 
two the parsonage was left without an 
occupant. Whether or not the boys of 
the eighteenth century could resist the 
temptation to stone the windows of a 
vacant house, does not appear. 

At a parish meeting, held April 11, 
1732, measures are taken to secure an- 
other minister. The neighboring pas- 
tors recommend one William Gaylord, 
who was born in West Hartford in 
1709, and had graduated at Yale in 
1730, and who had just completed his 
theological studies. He was of good 
Puritan stock, being a great-grandson 
of Dea. William Gaylord, who came 
from England to Dorchester, Mass., in 
1 63 1, and removed to Windsor, Conn., 
with the Rev. John Warham in Sep- 
tember, 1636. On his mother's side 
he was descended from Samuel Stone, 
assistant and successor of Thomas 
Hooker. He seems to have preached 
in Wilton for several Sundays, when 
on May 20, 1732, he was approached 
to know "if he would tarry with them 
some considerable time, and upon what 
consideration." They agreed to give 
him a "settlement" of two hundred 
pounds, including the estate bought 
back from Mr. Sturgeon, and a yearly 
salary of sixty-five pounds. Warned 
by their experience with their previous 
pastor, however, they voted that "it is 
to be understood that if Mr. Gaylord 
turn from ye opinion or principals that 
he now professes, contrary to ye mind 
of ye Society, then he is to return ye 
two hundred pounds again." Evident- 
ly those fathers of ours were not lack- 
ing in shrewdness. A council met 



HOME — IN MEMORY OF ITS BEAUTIES 



805 



February 13, 1733, for the young 
man's ordination. The first day was 
given up to a thorough examination 
of the candidate, who may have 
thought the 13th especially unlucky! 
But he appears to have acquitted him- 
self admirably, and the solemn service 
of ordination and installation was held 
on the 14th. 

There was one whose smile and 
commendation must have sustained 
him through the ordeal, for three 
weeks before, January 24, 1733, he 
had married and brought to the par- 
sonage his bride, Elizabeth Davenport, 
daughter of the Rev. John Davenport 
of Stamford, and a great-granddaugh- 
ter of the patriarch of New Haven. 

Her father was a graduate of Har- 
vard in the class of 1687, and in 1694 
had become pastor of the church in 
Stamford, where he remained for thir- 
ty-six years. He was a man of un- 
usual scholarly attainments. It was 
said at his funeral that he "had the 
advantage of an accurate knowledge 
of those languages wherein the scrip- 
tures were given by divine inspiration, 
probably far beyond the compass of 
any of his survivors within many 
scores of miles every way ; and so 
could drink immediately out of the 
sacred fountain, those languages being 
almost as familiar to him as his moth- 
er tongue." 

He stood in prominent relations to 
the civil interests of the colony, was 
for twenty-four years a member of the 
corporation of Yale college, was a 
member of the synod that formed the 
famous "Saybrook platform," and held 
a commanding influence among the 
ministers of the day. At the election 
sermon preached three months after 
his death, this was referred to as "the 
removal of one eminent for learning, 
and who was a bulwark and barrier 
upon our frontiers." 

It was his daughter, Elizabeth, who, 
as the pastor's wife, came to this now 
dilapidated home. She was not yet 
twenty-five years old, but we infer 
from the associations of her life and 
from that which is recorded of her. 



that she was thoughtful and dignified 
as well as devout, and so well fitted to 
assume the duties and responsibilities 
of her position. It is pleasant to think 
of her, radiant with youth, flitting 
through these old rooms, presiding 
over the minister's household, and 
with native and acquired grace meet- 
ing the good people of the place, as in 
their quaint attire and manner of a 
hundred and seventy years ago, they 
called to pay their respects to "Mis- 
tress Gaylord," the first lady of the 
parish. How we should enjoy look- 
ing in upon one of those afternoon re- 
ceptions and listening to the stilted 
language of the time. Possibly the 
dress of the ladies would interest some 
of us most of all. 

Mrs. Gaylord's father had died two 
years before, at the age of 63, so that 
he could have had no associations with 
this ancient house. Not so with her 
brother, Abraham, whose remarkable 
firmness and devotion to duty in his 
later life have been immortalized bv 
one of our American poets. He was 
eighteen years old at the time of her 
marriage, and had graduated at Yale 
the previous year. He returned to 
Stamford and there spent his long life, 
largely in the service of the public. 
Almost every office in the gift of the 
people of his native place was confer- 
red upon him. Whittier, after telling 
the familiar story of his conduct on 
the famous dark day of 1780, says: 

"And there he stands in memory to 

this day, 
Erect, self -poised, a rugged face, half 

seen 
Against the background of unnatural 

dark; 
A witness to the ages as they pass 
That simple duty hath no place for 

fear." 

It is very natural for us to believe 
that he, in his young manhood, not un- 
frequently mounted his horse and rode 
across the country from Stamford, 
some fourteen or fifteen miles, to visit 
his sister, for the people of those times 



8o6 



HOME — IN MEMORY OF ITS BEAUTIES 



thought Httle of making much longer 
journeys to call upon their kindred. 
With him he must have brought to 
this home the charm of a bright and 
forceful personality. We imagine 
him, however, as serious rather than 
playful, as dropping sage remarks 
within this old dwelling, and exhort- 
ing the children to be true to privilege 
and opportunity. 

Mrs. Gaylord's oldest sister, Abigail, 
had married the Rev. Stephen Wil- 
liams of Longmeadow, who, as a boy 
of nine years, had been captured by 
the Indians on the night of the fear- 
ful assault upon Deerfield, Mass. Is 
it not quite probable that he and his 
consort once and again drew rein at 
the Wilton parsonage, and stopped 
over for a visit when on their way to 
the old home in Stamford? We read- 
ily think of the Gaylord children as 
listening with open-eyed and open- 
mouthed absorption, as "Uncle Ste- 
phen" recounted to them his exper- 
iences during the two years that he 
w^as a captive among the Indians. 
And very likely the tales told filled 
their nights with terror and changed 
their dreams to nightmares ! 

Other sisters had married Rev. 
Thomas Goodsell of Branford and Dr. 
Eleazur Wheelock, the founder and 
first president of Dartmouth College, 
and it is not at all difficult for us to 
believe that more than once they visit- 
ed sister Elizabeth within these now 
venerable walls, and that high dis- 
course was here held, theological hair- 
splitting indulged in, political situa- 
tions in the mother country and the 
colonies discussed, and the latest books 
from England reviewed, while the 
children were asleep and the ''tallow- 
dips" burned low. If these old v/alls 
had but been a graphophone to pre- 
serve and to report that which they 
heard, how eagerly we should listen 
to their utterances. 

In 1746, there walked up to the old 
front door and entered this home a 
gentleman whose reputation was well 
nigh world-wide. It was none less 
than the Rev. George Wbitefield, then 



on his third visit to this country. 
While journeying from New Haven 
to New York he stopped over at Wil- 
ton, as the guest of the pastor, and 
preached in the little meeting-house 
which stood about an eighth of a mile 
further up the street. Mr. Gaylord 
was in sympathy with his spirit and 
his methods, and apparently as a re- 
sult of his preaching here, an unusual 
number of people, the following year, 
connected themselves with the mem- 
bership of the church. It is interest- 
ing to recall the fact, that the wonder- 
ful voice, which had charmed and in- 
fluenced so many thousands, was heard 
beneath this roof. 

As the years flew on, joy and sor- 
row visited the parsonage. Those ex- 
periences which are deepest and most 
momentous, came to the pastor and 
his wife. Three sons were born to 
them and four daughters, and on a 
June day in 1742, while the old-fash- 
ioned roses were blooming in the gar- 
den, little Theodosia, "Gift of God," 
the sweet bud of the household, was 
claimed by the Master and borne 
away. 

Not long afterward a more grievous 
trial befell the pastor. His cherished 
wife grew weary and wan, and faded 
like a stricken flower. Under date of 
July 6, 1 747, he wrote as follows in the 
parish record : 

"Died, my own dear wife, Elizabeth, 
after about twelve months' indisposi- 
tion, and about fifteen weeks' confine- 
ment to the house, aged 38 years, 10 
months and 8 days. She was the 
youngest daughter of the late Rev. 
Mr. John Davenport of Stamford, de- 
ceased. Religiously disposed, as I un- 
derstand, from childhood, and since, 
by her own consent, I trust savingly 
converted, I took her in marriage Jan- 
iiary 24, 1733. I have had by her 
seven children, six of whom are alive. 
A good God has made her a good wife 
to me, both in temporals and spirit- 
uals : prudent, faithful, loving, loyal, 
and very respectful, and I have great 
reason to hope the God of all grace 
made her a good Christian. Her death 



HOME — IN MEMORY OF ITS BEAUTIES 



807 



is a sore loss to me and my dear chil- 
dren, but I trust in God who in great 
wisdom has ordered it, according to 
the exceeding great and precious 
promise of the Covenant of Grace, to 
turn it to my gain, that I may under- 
stand his voice in the dispensation and 
be enabled to glorify him in the pres- 
ent circumstances." 

The brightness of that summer day, 
when the form of the dear wife was 
borne from this door and laid under 
the shadow of the little meeting-house, 
must have been sadly eclipsed by the 
grief of kindred and friends. The 
pastor, still in the bloom of his early 
manhood, evidently felt his sorrow 
most keenly, but was sustained by an 
unfaltering trust. His oldest child, 
William, was not yet fourteen years of 
age, while baby John was but little 
more than a year. Within four years 
afterward, two of his children follow- 
ed their mother into the unseen world. 
Thus was the happy family circle that 
had here been formed quickly broken. 
But amid the shadows that enveloped 
him the pastor toiled bravely on, cling- 
ing to the Hand divine. The first vol- 
ume of the romance of his life, with its 
fourteen chapters, much of it written 
in golden letters, but some of it in 
gloomy characters, was finished, when 
he here bade his wife farewell. 

A second volume, also to consist of 
fourteen chapters and to be penned in 
alternate brightness and shadow, was 
begun, when six years later he brought 
to this home another Elizabeth, the 
daughter of a Mr. Bishop of Norwalk. 
She was thirty-one years old, and here 
lived for fifty-eight years, surviving 
her husband by forty-four years, and 
here dying October i, 181 1, aged 89. 
She became the mother of .four sons 
and two daughters. And so again the 
old home was filled with the prattling 
of babes, the laughter of childhood, 
the aspiration of ambitious youth. 
And as before sorrow came in the loss 
of a bright and promising boy of six, 
who was drowned in the Norwalk riT- 
er which runs through the meadows 
just across the way. The story of the 



accident was told with impressive de- 
tails to the boys of a century later, and 
the stream where we used to bathe, as 
its waters murmured and sighed over 
the shallows, always seemed to be 
whispering of the young life that had 
there gone out. This boy was inap- 
propriately named "Moses," for he 
was not ''drawn out" of the water be- 
fore it was too late. 

A year or two before he was born, 
another Moses, a son of the former 
marriage, enhsted as a soldier in the 
war then raging between England and 
France. In the obituary list of the 
church records the father writes : 

"October 7, 1760, Moses Gaylord, 
aged twenty-one years." And he 
adds : "He died at Fort Herkimer, af- 
ter he had been from home in the ex- 
pedition against Montreal, a little 
more than four months, and after four 
months of sore sickness at Oswego, on 
his way toward Albany." 

And so, back to this old home came 
the tidings of son and brother, fallen 
in the service of his country, an event 
that has occurred in the case of so 
many homes since that day, and that 
always occasions sorrow unspeakable. 
National progress as a rule seems to 
be made over crushed and bleeding 
hearts ! 

But the pastor's work was approach- 
ing its completion. He seems sudden- 
ly to have laid it down, dying January 
2, 1767, as it is recorded, "of an apo- 
plectic disorder," when he was not yet 
58 years old. And here the church 
and parish and a great company of 
kindred and friends, mourned the hon- 
ored and beloved dead. 

Mr. Gaylord seems to have been a 
useful and somewhat prominent man 
in his day. He was in sympathy with 
the advanced thinkers of his time, the 
"New Lights" as they were called. In 
1 75 1, at Windham, he presided over 
the General Association of the Con- 
gregational Ministers of Connecticut. 
As pastor of the Wilton church for 
thirty-four years, he was a devoted 
and successful worker. Among other 
things he kept the records of the 



8o8 



HOME— IN MEMORY OF ITS BEAUTIES 



church with remarkable accuracy and 
minuteness. Upon his slate tombstone 
we read : 

"He was an able divine, a faithful 
minister, and a meek and humble 
Christian. His love for souls was 
very great, in proof of which he spent 
his life in unwearied endeavors for the 
conversion of sinners, and the edifica- 
tion of saints. And among many oth- 
er excellencies he eminently merited 
the character of a peace-maker, and 
is now undoubtedly reaping ye re- 
ward of such in the kingdom of his 
Lord." 

Of his thirteen children seven sur- 
vived him. One of these, Deodate, 
"Divine Gift," occupied this old home 
during his entire life of eighty years, 
here dying in the winter of 1840. 
When the British under General Try- 
on invaded southern Connecticut, he 
enlisted, although but seventeen years 
old, in the American army, and in his 
old age became a revolutionarv pen- 
sioner. Past this old home swept the 
division of the English forces that as- 
sailed and burned Danbury, in 1777, 
to the alarm no doubt of its occupants, 
who were known to be sturdy adher- 
ents of the colonial cause. And here, 
as the old people used to relate, were 
heard the cannon fired in 1779, when 
Norwalk was destroyed by the sol- 
diers of King George. The sound 
was described as thrilling and doleful, 
as it swept up the valley, suggestive 
of the tremendous struggle of the 
weak against the strong that the colo- 
nists had undertaken in the interest of 
independence and liberty. To this 
neighborhood, and no doubt to this 
home, fled many for refuge, when the 
town five miles below was laid in 
ashes. 

Three generations of Deodate Gay- 
lord's descendants were here born, and 
now for but a few years have alien 
faces peered through the old windows 
and the house been occupied by those 
who know little if anything of its his- 
tory. The home itself has suddenly 
fallen to decay, as if stricken with 



grief for "the tender grace of a day 
that is dead." 

As we think of the events that have 
occurred within these now crumbling 
walls, of the pure joys and the pro- 
found sorrows that have here been ex- 
perienced, of the struggles with self 
and sin, and the wrestlings with the 
Angel of the Covenant that have here 
been known, of the notable persons 
who have here lingered for a longer 
or shorter period, of the words that 
have here been spoken, the purposes 
that have here been formed, the vic- 
tories over doubt and fear that have 
here been won, the hundreds of ser- 
mons that have here been meditated 
and penned, the thousands of prayers 
that have here ascended to the Maj- 
esty on high, the triumphs over "the 
last enemy" that have here been se- 
cured, the place assumes a sacredness 
whose power we can but feel. These 
low-studded rooms seem haunted by 
the generations that have here met 
that which takes deepest hold of the 
human heart. As in a dream they pass 
before us, "young men and maidens, 
old men and children," the bride in 
her snowy robe, the mourner in her 
sable garb, the matron burdened with 
her cares, the pastor with mingled 
anxiety and faith and hope pictured 
upon his countenance ; all animated by 
substantially the same expectation and 
dread and ambition that move us. 

And while we must be impressed 
with a sense of the transitoriness of 
all human experience, do we not find 
here an argument for immortality? 
Can it be that for these men and wo- 
men, thinking oft-times great thoughts, 
touched with unbounded sympathy 
and affection and aspiration, taking 
hold, as they verily believed, upon the 
infinite and eternal, the little space ac- 
corded them here was all? It seems 
impossible to believe it. The old home 
with its wealth of sacred association, 
its gladness and its pathos, lifts our 
gaze toward the goal of human ex- 
istence, "the house not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens." 



HOME — IN MEMORY OF ITS BEAUTIES 



809 



Our fancy like wand of magician 
Restores to its pristine condition 
The home of the loved and the van- 
ished. 
Falls all the moss from its clapboards, 
Leaps to its place crumbling shingle, 
Back comes the porch with its side- 
seats, 
Where lovers oft sat in the gloaming 
While up from the sweet daisied mea- 
dows 
The notes of the whippoorwill floated ; 
Laces again shade the windows 
Where gaze the faces long absent, 
Bright with undying affection ! 
\\'ithout how the lilacs are blooming 
And filling the air with their frag- 
rance. 
The while all the honey-bees murmur 
Their tiny hearts* glad' satisfaction ! 
Over the scene bend the elm trees 
In blessing on all who approach them ! 
And grasses like emerald velvet. 



Mottled with shadows fantastic, 
Invite us to rest mid their beauty 
And pillow our head on their softness. 
The past in its sweetness is with us. 
We live in its love and its sunshine. 
Thrilled with its yearning immortal. 
Thanks for the impulse which bids us 
Be worthy of those who before us 
Their life have accomplished so nobly, 
^lansions may fall into ruin 
And dust may envelop the hearthstone, 
But good deeds abide through the 

ages 
And character pure is eternal ! 
It may be God's future will give us 
In some realm, the home of our child- 
hood, 
Idealized, touched with perfection, 
And filled with the loved ones whose 

presence 
vSo sweet and so beautiful made it, 
Whose memorv charms us forever ! 



NIGHTFALL 



BY 



FLORELLA ESTES, M.D. 



The heat of the day is now over ; 

Cool rises the evening breeze ; 
It brings me the song of the river, 

The soft, soothing whisper of trees. 

The sun has passed down tiro' night's portals, 
And fades the last gleam of its light ; 

The whip-poor-will calls in the marsh-land ; 
The rose nods a sleepy good-night. 

With youth and its passions long perished, 
I hear, borne on life's evening breeze, 

A song sweet as that of the river, 
A whisper like that of the trees. 

The song and the whisper, they soothe me. 
And fill with deep peace my sad breast: 

They tell me that night is fast falling 
And soon I shall go to my rest. 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



GENEALOGICAL DEPARTMENT 
Conducted by Charles L. N. Camp 



Mr. Camp is the leading Genealogist, Heraldic Expert and Illuminator in this country. His world-wide reputa- 
tion has been again sustained by his recent services for the State of Connecticut at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
at St. Louis, where he has completed Coats of Arms in water colors of seventy-five of the most distinguished early 
families of the state. They are pronounced by critics to be the finest ever exhibited in the United States. The 
Genealogical Department of The Connecticut Magazine is open to all, whether subscribers or not, and no fees are 
required. The services of an eminent authority in replying to brief queries are at your disposal. Queries should be as 
precise and specific as possible. Extended investigations, only, will require compensation. Persons having old fam- 
ily records, diaries or documents yielding genealogical information are requested to communicate with Mr Camp in 
reference to placing them on permanent record. Readers are cordially invited to co-operate in answering queries. 
All matters relating to this department must be sent to THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE, Genealogical 
Department, Hartford, Conn.— Editor 



THE following list of names was 
gleaned from the official records 
at Exeter, England, and as they 
may aid in tracing the ancestry of 
some Colonial families of America, I 
send them for publication in The Con- 
necticut Magazine. 

While most of the English wills were 
proved and recorded in the counties 
where the testators lived, many wills of 
the better class of people were proved in 
London and recorded at Somerset 
House. There Mr. Waters found the 
wills of Richard Allen, proved 1652, and 
of his son, Richard Allyn, proved 1662. 

Richard Allen (also Allin and Allyn) 
the elder, was married, first, at Braun- 
ton. County Devon, in 1583, and I have 
searched seven parish registers in that 
vicinity and found hundreds of official 
records of Aliens, Allins, Allyns, Wyatts, 
Rices and Tomlins. 

As I have found no record of this 
Richard Allen's baptism, I hope that 
some descendant of Hon. Mathew Allyn 
(of Hartford, Conn., 1636) will examine 
the wills (proved before 1635) at Exeter 
and London, to find traces of the former 
ancestors of this line of Allyns. 

JEREMIAH ALLYN. 
Conneaut, Ohio. 

ALLEN AND ALLYN WILLS, FROM 
N. W. DEVONSHIRE, RECORD- 
ED IN PROBATE OFFICE, 
EXETER, ENGLAND. 

Year 

Proved. Testator's Name. Parish. 

1564 William Allen South Molton 

1565 Robert Alen Shebbere 

1566 Paule Allen North Tawton 



Year 






Provec 


I. Testator's Name. 


Parish. 


1567 


Nicholas Allen 


Peters Marland 


1569 


John Allen 


Great Torrington 


1569 


Petre Allen 


Abbotsham 


I571 


John Allen 


Bydeford 


1576 


Simon Alen 


Fremington 


1576 


William Alen 


Marwood 


1580 


James Allyn 


Fremington 


I581 


John Allen 


Twychen 


1581 


Elizabeth Allen 


Marwood 


1585 


Robert Allyn 


Were Gifford 


1586 


Philip Allen 


Shebbeare 


1588 


Juliane Allen 


Abbotsham 


1589 


Johanna Allen 


Shebbere 


159I 


Stephen Allen 


Pilton 


1592 


John Allen 


Barum 


1592 


John Allen 


Fremington 


1596 


Richard Allen 


Chedelhampton 


1597 


John Allen 


Parkham 


1598 


John Allen 


Parkham 




Joan Allen 


Wear Giflford 


1600 


Joan Allen 


For: mag. 


1603 


Jerome Allen 


For: mag. 


1604 


Robert Allen 


South Molton 


1608 


Robert Allen 


Wear Giffard 


1608 


Robert Allen 


East Buckland 


i6to 


Robert Allen 


Biddeforde 


1612 


Robert Allen 


Fremington 


1613 


Robert Allen 


Monckleigh 


1615 


Robert Allen 


S. Molton 


1617 


Mathew Allen 


Cheddelhampton 


1618 


Mathew Allen 


Fremington 


1619 


Anthony Allen 


South Molton 


1619 


Thomas Allen 


Abbotsham 


1619 


Mathew Allen 


Fremington 


1622 


William Allen 


Buckland Brewer 


1623 


Grace Allen 


Biddiford 


1625 


George Allyn 


Fremington 


1625 


Henry Allen 


North Tawton 


1625 


Ursula Allen 


Fremington 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



8ii 



Year 

Proved. Testator's Name. Parish. 

1625 Hugh Allen S. Molton 

1627 James Allen Chettlehampton 

1629 Gertrud Allyn Chettlehampton 

1630 Christopher Allen Fremington 

1630 Ralph Allen For: Mag. 

1631 Thomas Allen Torrington 

1633 William Allen Abbotsham 

1634 Agnes Allen Torrington 

1635 William Allen Torrington 
1635 John Allen East Buckland 
1635 EUene Allen Torrington 
1637 John Allen S. Molton 
1642 John Allyn Tawstock 
1644 William Allyn South Molton 

No wills were recorded at Exeter, 

from 1645 to 1659. 

1660 John Allen Frithelstock 

1660 Edward Allen Torrington 

1661 Anna Allen Molland 
1661 Thomas Allen Molland 
1661 Jerome Allen Torrington 
1661 Martha Allen Torrington 
1661 John Allen Pilton 
1664 William Allen Bidefard 
1664 Johana Allen Shebbear 

1666 Prudence Allen Molland 

1667 William Allyn Biddifarde 
1667 Katherine Allen Tawstock 
1667 John Allen Huntshaw 

1667 Jane Allen Shebbear 

1668 Matthew Allen Barum 

1670 John Allen Pilton 

1671 James Allen Bideford 

1671 Alexander Allen Torrington 

1672 Thomas Allen Biddiford 

1674 Thomas Allen Stoke River 

1675 John Allyn St. Giles 

1676 Henry Allen Marwood 
1676 Hercules Allen Shebbear 
1676 George Allyn Bitheford 

1676 John Allen Tawstock 

1677 Maria Allyn Tor: Mag. 
1677 Cecily Allen Pilton 

1681 Robert Allen Shebbeare 

1682 Thomas Allen Atherington 

1683 Laramy-alias-Allyn Barum 
1683 Anthony Allen Chittlehampton 

1683 Henry Allen Torrington 

1684 Gabriel Allyn Northam 

1684 William Allyn Chettlehampton 

1685 George Allyn Bideford 

1686 Jeremiah Allyn Torrington 
1688 Eliza Allen Bideford 
1690 Phillippa Allen Chittlehampton 
1690 George Allyn Filleigh 

1692 Maria Allen South Molton 

1693 Thamazen Allyn Fremington 
1693 Phillippa Allen Munckley 

1695 Catherine Allen St. Egidis 

1696 Samuel Allen Bundleigh 

1709 John Allyn Bideford 

1710 Thomazen Allyn South Molton 
1710 John Allyn Northam 

1710 John Allin Shebbeare 

171 1 John Allen Parracombe 
1719 Christopher Allen East Buckland 



QUESTIONS. 

75. (a.) Peckham. Wanted par- 
entage of Thomas Hazard Peck- 
ham, born about 1764, died Sept. 
19, 1822 ; married at Stoning-ton, 
Conn., Patience, daughter of 
Jonas and Content (Bromley) 
Main. 

(b.) Parentage of Mary Peckham, 

born 1756-7; married Hil- 

lard ; was living in Stonington ; 
Conn., 1836. 

(c) Parentage of Isaac Peckham, 
born 1773, died Jan. 31, 1843, ^t 
Ledyard, Conn., married Mary 

? Had a daughter Amey, 

who married Thomas Prosser; 
also another daughter who mar- 
ried Taft or Tefift. 

B. J. P. 

76. Rice. Wanted the ancestry of 
Nehemiah Rice, born about 1799. 
He was born possibly at Essex, 
(Mass., Conn, or N. Y.?) Al- 
bany or in the Conn, valley. It 
has been thought that he was con- 
nected with the Rice-Royce line 
of Wallingford and with Capt. 
Nehemiah Rice of the Revolution 
who lived at Woodbury, Middle- 
sex, Waterbury and Watertown, 
Conn. The younger Nehemiah 
was probably an only child. He 
lived in Herkimer Co., N. Y. 

L. N. N. 
yy. (a.) Scoville - Silshy. Esther 
Scoville, born March i, 1763, 
married Dec. 10, 1783, at Ac- 
worth, N. H., Eliphaz Silsby. 

Huldah Scoville, born Apr. — , 
1760, married April 13, 1780, at 
Acworth, N. H., Lasell Silsby. 
They are reported to have come 
from Connecticut to New Hamp- 
shire. Can anyone give place of 
their birth and names of their 
parents ? 
(b.) Jones-Silshy. Wanted names 
of parents and place of birth of 
Frances Congdon Jones, who 
married Rev. Ozias Silsby. She 
was born Jan. 5, 1776. She had 



8l2 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



a sister, Lucinda, born 1762, who 
married George Hough, a printer, 
born at Bozrah, Conn., June 15, 
1757, later went to Windsor, Vt. 
Their father was Thomas Jones, 
in 1768 of Claremont, N. H., but 
who is said to have moved there 
from Conn., a soldier of the Rev- 
olution. 

(c.) Jones-Gardner. Wanted names 
with dates and places of birth of 
the children of Thomas Jones of 
Colchester, Conn., son of Jabez 
and Ann, born May 21, 1732, who 

married, , 1753, Hannah, 

daughter of Stephen and Frances 
(Congdon) Gardner of Mont- 
ville. Conn., born Nov. 7, 1733. 

(d.) Cady-Silshy. Wanted the ad- 
dress of some descendant of Em- 
ery Cady, who married at Wood- 
stock, Conn., Jan. i, 1843, Sophia 
vSilsby; married, second, at same 
place, Emeline Silsby, sister of 
Sophia, Aug. 22, 1855. He had 
one son by Sophia, James, born at 
Woodstock, present address un- 
known. 

(e.) Palmer-Silsby. Wanted names 
of the parents of Samuel Palmer, 
who married Lydia Silsby, at 
Scotland, Windham Co., Conn., 
Jan. 18, 1739. Would also like 
the address of some descendant 
of this marriage. 

( f . ) Silsby- Trowbridge- Chapman. 
Information wanted about Joshua 
S. Silsbee, an actor and delineator 
of Yankee character. Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia of American Biog- 
raphy and Drake's Dictionary of 
American Biography both say he 
was born Jan. 4, 181 5, at Litch- 
field, Conn., and died Dec. 22, 
1855, at San Francisco, Cal. His 
wife was Mrs. Martha Trow- 
bridge, an actress, born in Eng- 
land, and who, after the death of 
Silsbee, married, in 1858, Wm. A. 
Chapman, the comedian. I want 
the names of the parents of Jos- 
hua, names with dates and places 
of the birth and death of his chil- 
dren, names of the parents of 



Mrs. Trowbridge, with dates and 
places of her birth and death, 
(g.) Abbott - Tice - Silsby. Will 
some one familiar with the Ab- 
bott family, give me record of the 
marriage of Samuel Abbott of 
New York to Roxy Silsby of 
Windham, Conn., about 1800. 
They had one son, Samuel, Jr. 
Roxy married, second, Peter 
Tice, also of New York. The ad- 
dress of any descendant of either 
Abbott or Tice will be of service. 
G. H. S. 

78. Noah Smith, born in Stamford, 
Conn., 1770, married Lucy Holly 
and moved to Ridgefield in 1796. 
Noah died in Ridgefield in 1859. 

Who were the parents of Noah ? 
Did Noah's father serve in the 
Continental Army? L. C. S. 

79. Bartholomew - Williams. Infor- 
mation is desired concerning Sy- 
bil Bartholomew, or Williams, 
who married Daniel Hickox, Jan. 
15, 1766, and died April 2, 1774. 
See Bronson's History of Water- 
bury, p. 500. J. A. B. 

80. St. John - Taylor. Wanted the 
date of the marriage of Rev. Ja- 
cob St. John and Ruhamah Tay- 
lor, Danbury Conn., also the par- 
entage of both parties. 

Mrs. R. B. 

8i-. (a.) Stone. Can anyone give 
me a brief sketch of John Stone, 
an early settler of Guilford ? 
(b.) Lathrop. Martha Lathrop 
married, in 1677, John Moss, Jr. 
When was she born and who were 
her parents ? 

Was she a descendant of Rev. 
John Lathrop of Scituate and 
Barnstable, Mass.? 
(c.) Moss-Cole. Benjamin Moss, 
born Feb. 10, 1702, married, May 
28, 1728, Abigail Cole. Who was 
she? C. 1. I. 

82. Skinner. In the Connecticut State 
Collections, of men in the French 
and Indian war, i7S^-^7S7y (pub- 
lished at Hartford, 1903) there 
appears, on page 230, a list of 
men in Capt. Wm. Pitkin's com- 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



813 



pan)^ giving the date and days of 
service. 

A foot note would indicate that 
this information is abbreviated, 
for it states that "twenty men 
rode on horses, four from Bol- 
ton," etc. I should like to know 
what the original roll, in the War 
Library, gives concerning Elias 
Skinner, and if he was one of the 
four who rode from Bolton. 

L. C. S. 
83. (a.) Watson. What were the 

surnames of Ann and Sarah 

, first and second wives of 



John Watson of Hartford and 
West, or New, Hartford, in early 
times ? 

(b.) Skinner. Capt. Judah Wil- 
liams, son of Nathan^, son of 
Charles ^ of Colchester and Had- 
ley, married Mary Skinner. They 
moved from Colchester to Wil- 
liamstown, Mass., then Troy, N. 
Y., where his wife died; he then 
moved to Utica, N. Y. Whose 
daughter was Mary Skinner? 
Place of residence ? Was she from 
Hartford? Mary Skinner, daugh- 
ter of Rev. Thomas Skinner, was 
thought, until found she married 
a Wells rConn. Marriages j, and 
on the same page apparently the 
same Mary married a Taintor. 

(c.) Stevens. Were Beriah or 
Thomas Stevens of Killingworth 
in the Revolution? A. D. S. 
84. (a.) Bronson. Who were the 
parents of Harris Bronson, born 
somewhere in Conn, in 1789? He 
married Hannah Thompson and 
was living in Waterbury in 181 5, 
when his eldest son, Charles, was 
born. He then removed to Wat- 
ertown, N. Y. Four more chil- 
dren were born, William, Emma, 
Helen and George. He died Oc- 
tober 14, 1827. 

(b.) Thompson. Who was the 
wife of John Thompson of Strat- 
ford, Conn.? He was the son of 
John Thompson and Mehitable 
(Booth) and was born in 1749, 
died April 25, 1801. His son, 



Stiles, married Hannah Hopkins, 
and their daughter, Hannah, was 
wife of Harris Bronson. 

E. P. S. 

85. (a.) Brigham. Cephas Brig- 
ham, from Coventry or Mans- 
field, Conn., married Amelia Rob- 
inson . He is supposed to be 

the son of Uriah Brigham. Were 
either of them in the War of In- 
dependence? Who were Amelia 
Robinson's ancestors, and was 
her father in the War of Indepen- 
dence ? 

(b.) Jesse Shepard, of Plainfield, 
Conn., born July 6, 1644, married 
Sarah White. Can you inform 
me when and where he died ? He 
was the son of David White and 
Mehitable (Spaulding) White. 
Did Jesse die in Plainfield or in 
Tolland county? It has been 
thought by some of the friends 
that he went to Tolland county 
about 1800. Q. 

86. (a.) Bulkley-Jones. Was Thos. 
Bulkley son or brother of Rev. 
Peter Bulkley of Concord, Mass., 
and was his wife, Sarah, a daugh- 
ter of William Jones of New 
Haven, who married a daughter 
of Gov. Eaton? 

(b.) Morgan. Who was James 
Morgan, the father of Hannah, 
who married Nehemiah Royce? 

(c.) Royce. What is known of 
Robert Royce of New London? 

(d.) Hall. Who were the parents 
of Keziah Hall, wife of Nehemiah 
Royce, Jr. ? 

(e.) Warren. Was Temperance 
Warren, who married Stephen 
Bushnell about 1740, a descendant 
of Richard Warren of the May- 
flower ? 

(f.) Dickinson. Who were the 
parents of Lois Dickinson, wife 
of John Ensign, Sr. ? 

(g.) Who were the parents of 
Martha Lathrop, wife of John 
Moss, Jr. ? 

(h.) What is known of the ances- 
tors of Abigail Cole, who married 
Benjamin Moss, Mav 28, 172S? 
' C. I. I. 



8i4 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



87. Bunce. In 1672, Edward Bunce 
acquires rights, is accepted as far- 
mer, etc., etc., Huntington, L. I. 
In 1738, Thomas Bunce of Hunt- 
ington, makes will and divides a 
considerable amount of real estate 
and other property amongst his 
eleven children, viz. : Thomas, 
Edward, Jacob, Matthew, Isaac. 
George, Nathaniel, Sarah, Hig- 
bie, Susannah, Hannah, and De- 
borah. In this will the wife is 
not mentioned, probably is not liv- 
ing, as the children are of mature 
age, some married. In the will 
the name of "Crab-Meadow 
Farm" is the same as the name of 
one piece of property acquired by 
Edward Bunce in 1672. It is 
mentioned in the history of Hunt- 
ington that the Bunce family 
came from Connecticut. Proof is 
desired, and connection with the 
original settler ; also, that Thomas 
(1738) is son of Edward (1672). 

S. G. F. 

88. Cone. Wanted the ancestors of 
Elijah Cone, who, with his wife, 
Elizabeth Stuart, lived at Mill- 
ington, in the town of East Had- 
dam, Conn. Seven of their nine 
children were baptized in the 
Congregational church at that 
place. He left there in 1795 to 
buy land in the state of New 
York. Supposed to have been 
drowned in crossing the Hudson 
river on his return by breaking 
through the ice. There is also a 
tradition that he was murdered. 
The family, with the exception of 
Statira and Elizabeth, removed to 
New York the next season. The 
children's names were : Iva, born 
May 22, 1768 (my grandfather), 
Elijah, Statira, Candace, John, 
Elizabeth, Rhoda, Lucy, born 
Sept. 12, 1783. I. C 

89. Clark. Who was the father of 
William Clark of Woodstock, 
Conn., who married Sarah Good- 
ale of Norwich, Conn., Sept. 17, 
1 771? Marriage took place in 
Pomfret, Conn., by Pastor David 
Ripley. S. M. B. 



90. Fozvler. Wanted the ancestry of 
Edmond Fowler, born about 1800. 
His mother was Sarah Fowler of 
Avon, Conn., whose will, in 1835. 
mentions daughter Elmira, son 
Edmond, and Edmond B., Cor- 
delia D., and an infant, all chil- 
dren of her son Edmond, daugh- 
ter Elizabeth, wife of Jubee M. 
Willson, daughter Sarah, wife of 
John Childs. He lived in Hart- 
ford and married Diadamia Brad- 
ley. W. F. C. 

91. Linsley-Pond. Wanted the maid- 
en name of Sarah Pond, widow of 
Samuel Pond of Windsor, who 
married (2) the first John Linsley 
of Branford. F. C. 

92. Ketchum. Wanted all informa- 
tion relating to the following fam- 
ily: Thomas Ketchum, born in a 
place then called Whiteside ^ L. I. 
in the year 1748. Was married 
to one Mary Doughty, and moved 
to a place called Nine Partners, 
Duchess Co., N. Y. I am unable 
to locate any place in Long Island 
called Whiteside, and am also un- 
able to obtain any earlier record 
of the family. S. L. K. 

93. (a.) Flint. Wanted the ances- 
tors of James Flint, frequently 
called "junior" in records. He 
lived in Windham, where he died 
in 1824, aged 80 years. His 
wife, Damaris Brewster, daugh- 
ter of William and Damaris 
(Gates) Brewster, died Aug. 6, 
1806, — - her tombstone in Wind- 
ham cemetery. They had three 
children, a son and two daugh- 
ters. The son left home at an 
early age. One daughter mar- 
ried Nathan Taylor and also left 
Windham. The other daughter, 
Charlotte Flint, married Thomas 
Bingham of Windham, and both 
died there, he in 1854 and she in 

1833- 

This James does not seem to 
connect with the large family of 
Flints at Windham, although he 
married and spent most of his life 
there. 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



8iS 



(b.) Kirby. John Kirby is said to 
have been in Hartford in 1645, 
and removed from there to Mid- 
dletown. He died in April, 1677, 
leaving a widow, Elizabeth, and 
several children, one of whom, 
Susanna, married Abraham Crut- 
tenden of Guilford. I should like 
to know the name and parentage 
of Elizabeth, the wife of John 
Kirby. 

(c.) Thompson. Lydia Thomp- 
son, born July 24, 1647, was the 
daughter of Anthony Thompson 
of New Haven. I should like to 
know the name and ancestry of 
Lydia's mother, who is said to 
have been Anthony Thompson's 
second wife. Lydia married, Sept. 
20, 1665, Isaac Cruttenden of 
Guilford, Conn. 

(d.) Draper. Roger Draper of 
Concord, Mass., had a daughter, 
Lydia, born Nov. 11, 1641, who 
married John Law in 1660. 

I have not succeeded in finding 
the ancestry of Roger Draper and 
should like to do so, and also 
know the name of his wife, the 
mother of Lydia. K. B. Y. 

94. (a.) Guthrie. Who was John 
Guthrie, w^ho married Abigail 
Coe in Stratford, Conn., June, 
1727-8? Was he a descendant 
of James Guthrie, sole legatee of 
the will of John Richardson, dat- 
ed May 7, 1683, according to Suf- 
folk Co., Mass., Record of Wills, 
vol. I, p. 416. 

(b.) Barnes. Who were John 
Barnes and Mary Betts, who were 
married in New Haven, Nov. 16, 
1669? Their daughter, Susan- 
nah, married Thomas Wolston, 
Dec, 1 701. 

(c.) Sherwood. Who was Rebec- 
ca, wife of Lieut. Isaac Sherwood, 
of Fairfield, Conn.? She died at 
Green Farms, Conn., May 3, 1761. 
Lieut. Isaac Sherwood, died at 
Green Farms, Feb. 25, 1768. 
(See Buckingham Genealogy.) 

Five dollars each will be paid 
for answers to the above queries 



if accompanied by proofs or doc- 
umentary evidence. H. C. A. 

95. (a.) Jordan. Who was the (a) 
father and (b) grandfather of 
Stephen Jordan, born at Hubbar- 
ton, Vt., 1778, presumably the 
son of Samuel Jordan and Lydia 
Spurr of New Haven and mar- 
ried presumably to Sylvia Shaw 
of Vermont. 

(b.) Who was the (a) father and 
(b) grandfather of William Kit- 
telle, born 1743, at West Green- 
wich, R. L, a resident of Taun- 
ton, Mass., Hancock, Mass., and 
Stephentown, N. Y., and who 
married in 1755 Mary Carr, 
daughter of Robert Carr of West 
Greenwich, R. I., and Rebecca 
Brayton of Coventry, R. I. 

(c.) Who was the father of both 

(a) Pelatiah Daniels, Sr., born 
1725, Durham, Conn., died 1808 
and buried at Hartland, Conn., 
and his wife (b) Abigail Daniels 
of Colchester, Conn.? 

(d.) Who was the (a) father and 

(b) mother of Sarah Meeker, 
born, Durham, Conn., 1754; died, 
1794, and buried at Hartland, 
Conn.? Married, 1772, Reuben 
Daniels. 

96. Atkins. Wanted the ancestry of 
John Atkins, who settled in N. C. 
on Cape Fear river, near Fayette- 
ville, about 1770 or 1775, having 
gone south after first settling in 
Mass. or Conn. L. S. A. 

97. (a.) Joanna Gaylord, born Feb. 
5, 1652-3 (daughter of Walter 
Gaylord and Mary Stebbins). 
When, in 1716, did she die. and 
where? She was the widow of 
John Porter, Jr. 

(b.) Thomas Perrin of Lebanon, 
Conn., born about 1685, died 
Sept. 17, 1753; married, first, 

about 1707, Sarah ; she died ; 

he married, second, at Hebron, 
Conn., Jan. 27, 1742, Sarah Hart- 
well ; she died July 11, 1742. He 
had a son, Stephen, born at Leba- 
non about 1708: a son, Thomas, 
Jr., born at Lebanon, Conn., 



8i6 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



about 1 71 3, and a daughter, Han- 
nah, born at Hebron, Conn., Nov. 
8, 1721. 

(i) Whose son was Thomas 
Perrin, Sr. ? 

(2) What was his first wife's 
full name? 

(3) Whose daughter was Sarah 
Hartwell ? 

(4) Where, in 1713, was Thos. 
Perrin, Jr., born? 

(c.) Mary Stanley, born about 
1625, married, about 1650, John 
Porter of Windsor, Conn. She 
was the daughter of Thomas 
Stanley. 

(i) When and where was Mary 
Stanley born ? 

(2) When, in 1650, was she mar- 
ried? 

(3) When was John Porter 
born? 

(d.) Samuel Talcott, born at Glas- 
tonbury, Conn., July 23, 1733, 
died there in 1780, son of Capt. 
Samuel Talcott and Hannah 
(Moseley). He married, first, 
1757, Mary Smith ; she died. He 

married, second, Sarah . 

(i) When, in 1780, did Samuel 
Talcott die? 

(2) When, in 1757, did he marry 
Mary Smith? 

(3) Who were her parents and 
when was she born? 

(4) What was his second wife's 
full name? 

(e.) Lieut Samuel Orcutt, born 
at Stafford, Conn., May 4, 1730 
(was son of William Orcutt and 
Sarah ). He had a daugh- 
ter, Susan, born 1758, who mar- 
ried Capt. Timothy Edson, 3d, 
born at Stafford, Conn., March 
25, 1754 (son of Timothy Edson 
and Lydia Joy). 

(i) What were Lieut. Samuel 
Orcutt's grandparents' names? 

(2) What was his mother's full 
name? 

(3) When, in 1758, was Susan 
Orcutt born? 

(4) When was Susan Orcutt 
married to Timothy Edson? 

W. T. D. 



ANSWERS. 

50. (b.) Stephens. Vol. 6, p. 449. 
*'Who were the parents of John 
Squire Stephens (or Stevens), 
married, Jan. 5, 1793, Anna, 
daughter of Abner and Hannah 
(Dyer) Woodworth of Salisbury, 
Conn.? Lived in Canaan and 
Norfolk, removed to Pompey, N. 
Y., about 1806." 

The Dighton, Mass., Records 
give the following: 

"Justus Stephens, the son of 
Joseph Stevens, by Lydia, his 
wife, was born Feb. 10, 1737-8." 

"1764, Jan. 10, Justus Stephens 
and Bathsheba Willbore of Rayn- 
ham, entered their intents of mar- 
riage." 

The Raynham, Mass., Records 
give these births : 

"April II, 1766, Squire, first 
son of Gustus Stephens and Bath- 
sheba, his wife." 

"1767, March 15, Ebenezer, 2d 
son of Gustus and Bathsheba 
Stephens, his wife." 

"177 1, March 29, Joseph, 3d 
son of Gustus Stephens and Bath- 
sheba, his wife." 

In the note book of the late 
Mrs. Antoinette Stevens of Ca- 
naan, Conn., I found this entry 
among the deaths : 

"July 21, 1803, Bathsheba, wife 
of Justus Stevens." 

There is a family tradition that 
the Dighton and Stonington fam- 
ilies were related. Mrs. Antoi- 
nette Stevens belonged to. the 
Stonington branch. From the 
similarity of names and ages, it 
seems possible that the Squire 
Stevens may be the John Squire 
Stevens asked for. 

P. S. 
70. Answer. Prudence White's an- 
cestry is to be found in Elder 
John White genealogy. She was 
born in Cromwell. C. C. A. 

Second answer. Prudence 
White was the daughter of Eben- 
ezer White, who married Ann, 



STUDIES IN ANCESTRY 



79- 



daughter of Joseph and Ann Hol- 
Hster. 

Ebenezer was the son of Joseph 
White, who married, April 3, 
1693, Mary Mould, daughter of 
Hugh and Martha ( Coit ) 
Mould. 

Joseph White was the son of 
Capt. Nathaniel White, who mar- 
ried (i) Elizabeth (the 

mother of his children), and (2) 
Mrs. Martha Mould, widow of 
Hugh Mould and daughter of 
John Coit and wife Mary. 

Capt. Nathaniel White was the 
son of Elder John White, one of 
the first settlers of Hartford. 

Mrs. H. W. T. 
Answer. Bartholomew- Williams. 
Sybil, who is called Bartholomew 
or Williams in Bronson's Water- 
bury, was Sybil Thompson, wid- 
ow of Bartholomew Williams. 
She was the daughter of Caleb 
and Rebecca (Hickox) Thomp- 
son, born April 8, 1732, and mar- 



ried, first, ijartholomew Williams, 
who died in 1759, leaving three 
children. She was ten years old- 
er than her second husband, Dan- 
iel Hickox, whom she married 
Jan. 15, 1766, he being then 24 
years old and she 34, — a widow 
with three children. Her identity 
has been a puzzle for years as the 
difference in age was so great and 
the statistics so meager. 
. Answer, (b.) Martha Lathrop, 
who married John Moss, Jr., in 
1677, was born in New London 
in Jan., 1657, daughter of Samuel 
and first wife, Elizabeth Scudder, 
and granddaughter of Rev. John 
Lathrop, who came to America 
on ship ''Griffin," Sept. 18, 1634, 
and died in Barnstable, Nov. 8. 

1653. 
(c.) Abigail Cole, who married 
Benjamin, was probably the Abi- 
gail Cole, daughter of Joseph and 
Abigail, whose birth is recorded 
at Wallingford, Jan. 18, 1703. 



FIRESIDE 



STORIES 



BY 



JUDGE MARTIN H. SMITH 



Judge Smith told in Number Two of this volume about Old Ti, the negro slave whose name is almost legend in 
the village of Suffield, These stories will be continued during the next volume and made a feature, developing 
closest intimacy with character and customs of the early part of the nineteenth century— Eun ok 



IN his later days Old Ti held impor- 
tant offices. He was the janitor 
of the Congregational church ; 
he was the bell-ringer as well ; he 
was the sexton and grave-digger. 
But the office he most delighted in 
was that of tythingman. We all 
know what an ecclesiastical janitor 
is. We cannot always say " Of such 
is the kingdom of heaven " for he 
does not always equalize the tempera- 



ture of the house to the demands of 
the various temperaments assembled. 
The old are too cold, the young are 
too warm. There is too much dust 
and too little sunshine. There is too 
much draft here and too little there. 
He does not always exercise good 
judgment in seating strangers. He 
has even been known to fill most 
aristocratic pews with very plebeian 
sinners. 



8 



FIRESIDE 



STORIES 



We all know what a Bell-ringer is ; 
a strong-armed man whose weight, 
added to his muscles, vibrates the 
bell that calls men and women to 
worship, and maybe to repentance; 
whose tense sinews toll the bell that 
tells us of the passing of souls ; whose 
relaxed tendons ring the merry peal 
of the marriage bell Old Ti had an 
idea that the size of the congregation 
depended much on the quality of his 
ringing. He had a different way of 
ringing for each event — death — 
funeral — wedding — fire — public- 
assembly — and so on. The minute 
his bell rang, all within its sound 
stopped to listen and speculate on 
the nature of the news. / 

We know what a Sexton is; the 
serious-minded man, plainly-dressed 
man, that digs our graves, and stands 
by wnth serio-solemn face as our 
loved ones are lowered; he lets the 
sods fall carefully, oh how sadly, on 
the casket that contains so much of 
our lives; and then smooths down 
the sacred mound as we go silently 
and full of sorrow from the place 
where our loved ones sleep He was 
reverent and careful, for he expected 
to be soon with those he laid away, 
in that glorious land where there is 
no distinction between master and 
slave, white and black. 

But what was a Tythingman? His 
business was to see that the royster- 
ing boys did not shout on the streets 
so loud as to disturb the meditations 
of their seniors; that no drunken 
man cumbered the highway with his 
uncertain steps, or polluted the air 
with his maudlin refrain; that no 
hoydenish damsel, never so covertly, 
should flirt with the opposite sex, 
which sex has always been supposed 
to be ready for a flirtation. He was 
always present at weddings to keep 



the mirth within due bounds and he 
never ' neglected to rescue the 
perplexed bridegroom from the ruth- 
less hands of the irrepressible young 
men. 

The Tythingman was always at the 
funeral as the assistant of the pastor. 
He conducted the funeral, except the 
religious services, and always led the 
procession to the grave, preceding 
the pastor. At funerals then there 
was no music or fix)wers. 

The Tythingmarf^'rnust be at the 
Town meeting of course. How could 
such a day terminate happily unless 
the pastor opened it with prayer, and 
the Tythingman bustled about from 
morning to night? The boys must 
be kept from the town hall for their 
place was across the highway, where 
they played a game as much like the 
modern game of base-ball as varioloid 
is like small-pox. The Tythingman 
must needs keep a sharp eye on them. 
Then the gingerbread man, who was 
sure to be present at all public 
gatherings, sometimes needed advice. 
It was a busy day for the order keep- 
ing man. 

But the "training day" was one 
that tried his soul in no metaphorical 
sense. The shouting of the officers, 
the jocoseness of the men, the jibes 
of the boys which in a limited degree 
were permitted on such days, the 
bewildering women and provoking 
girls, made it a day of fuss and 
feathers, of uniforms and ununiforms, 
of muskets and broomsticks, of drum 
and fife and strutting majors. Happy 
was the good Tythingman that could 
go home that night feeling he had 
done his whole duty. 

And of such were Old Ti's duties 
in the days when the present grand- 
fathers were boys. 



[ To be continued. ] 



ART NOTES 




SCULPTOR BOARDMAN IN HIS STUDIO 



Working on a relief of Donald G. Mitchell's grandcluldren-Bust at right is of "Ik Marvel." the Dean of Amer- 
ican Letters 



R 



JV 



o 



AS^an artist above the common- 
place, and one whose works 
are becoming better known, 
may be named Mr. Frank 
Crawford Boardman. Mr. Board- 
man was born in Hartford. He 
studied at the Yale Schoo) of Fine 
Arts, afterwards at the Ecole des 
Beaux ^ Arts of Paris, under Mr. 
Jules Elie Delauney. He painted 
for a time in Venice, and on his 
return to America found ready sale 
for his pictures, which attracted 
attention and demanded admiration. 
As a sculptor, his ability is such 
that he has served some time as 
Instructor of Modeling at the Yale 
Art School. His studio — the sub- 
ject of the accompanying cut — has 
been a most interesting place to 
visit, unique in its appointments. 
The life-sized bust in our reproduc- 
tion will be recognized as that of 
Donald G. Mitchell (Ik Marvel). 
The panel on the easel at which 
Mr. Boardman is working is a relief 
of two grandchildren of Mr. Mitch- 
ell. Another example of Mr. 
Boardman's work, which some day 
will be of valuable historical 
interest, is a life-sized statue of Dr. 
T. T. Munger of New Haven. Mr. 
Boardman has recently exhibited 
with the Society of American 
Artists and at the Academy in New 
York City. At present he is paint- 
ing in Columbia, Tenn. There is a 
charm most captivating about Mr. 
Boardman's work, and the uneffect- 
ed simplicity and directness of his 
own nature appears again in his 
pictures. He expects soon to return 
to his native state, where he will no 
doubt receive the encouragement 
and patronage which Connecticut so 
readily affords her talented sons. 



MacNeil at once places him among 
the distinguished sculptors of the 
age, as the many honors he has 
received would indicate. Mr. Mac 
Neil's residence is now in River- 
side, N. J. He has a studio in 
New York City. He was born at 
Chelsea, Mass., and taught three 
years at Cornell; also three years 
at the Chicago Art Institute. He 
has studied in Europe, and has won 
various scholarships, and is a 
member of the National Art 
Society, the National Sculpture 
Society, and the Society of American 
Artists. Mr. MacNeil has made 
a specialty of Indian subjects, the 
"Sun Vow" and "Moqui Snake 
Dance" being among his important 
works. His last production, which 
through his courtesy we are able to 
publish in the fore part of the 
magazine — "The Indian's Greeting 
to the White Man" — was made for 
the City of Portland, Oregon, and 
evidences the artist's absolute 
mastery of his profession. 



The strong individuality which 
stamps the work of Hermon Atkins 



The Yale School of Fine Arts has 
given instruction to three hundred 
and ninety-seven students during 
the past year. 

The Winchester Fellowship, 
which is supported by the income of 
$20,000, affords a year's study in 
the ateliers of Paris and another 
wherever designated by the faculty. 
This honor was won by Mr. H. M. 
Luquiens, son of the late Professor 
Luquiens of New Haven. 

Frank D. Millett, in his lecture at 
the closing exercises of the School, 
while praising American art, 
regretted the lack of high ideals 
and art atmosphere in this country, 
which are requisites to the highest 
attainments. 




THE FIRE WORSHIPPERS; AN ART PANEL 



THE Zend-Avesta, or bible of 
the ancient Persians, contains 
"the theological, physical and 
moral ideas of Zoroaster, their law- 
giver, and the ceremonies of divine 
service as established by him." He 
taught that Ormasdes sprang out of 
the purest light, and among all things 
perceived by the senses, that element 
most resembles him, Ormasdes, who 
resides as far beyond the sun as the 
sun is far from earth, created six gods, 
viz., benevolence, truth, order, wis- 
dom, wealth and beauty. He deco- 
rated the heavens with stars and plac- 
ed Sirius at the head as guardian. 
Arimanios, whose birth was out of 
darkness, is the opposing evil spirit, 
but eventually the god of light is to 
prevail ; all unhappiness will disap- 
pear from the earth ; and all nations 
will speak one universal language. 
We shall not need to eat, nor will we 
cast a shadow ; everything will be im- 
mortal, in consequence of man's pray- 
ers. 

The earlier beliefs and customs have 
in a great measure passed away, but 
many still exist, and there are fire- 
priests and sun-worshippers today. 
The models for the accompanying il- 
lustration are persons whose parents 
are at the present time followers of 
Zoroaster, sun-worshippers of Persia. 

This brings us to the subject in 
hand, which has more to do with art 



than religion. The modeling of Luca 
and Andrea Delia Robbia has long 
held the highest place in the art world, 
and reproductions of many of their 
more important panels have made us 
familiar with their work. Those who 
have seen their friezes and other orna- 
mentation on buildings in Italy will re- 
member the distinctive impression they 
made upon them as being wholly un- 
like any other architectural decoration. 
The Hartford Faience Company of 
Hartford, Connecticut, have been ex- 
perimenting for several years in an 
endeavor to take up this sort of work 
where Delia Robbian disciples left it 
in the seventeenth century, carrying 
it on in the same spirit, even to a high- 
er standard of excellence. With this 
end in view they have succeeded in 
producing a finish for their product in 
clay without that high glaze which 
characterized the earlier work. This 
is a decided advance in artistic eflfect. 
Having accomplished this, the com- 
pany decided to make up some pieces 
in faience, in high relief, closely fol- 
lowing the Delia Robbias. They em- 
ployed Mr. Louis Potter, a Trinity 
man of the class of '96, to work out 
the theme and do the modeling for a 
mantel, the point of interest to be a 
panel, five feet high and ten feet loui^-. 
placed directly over the shelf. Mr. 
Potter very happily selectetl the Fire- 
Worshippers, or Sun-Worshij~)j-)ers, as 



N 



O 



his subject for the panel. Through 
his models Mr. Potter was able to 
obtain draperies, caps and other gar- 
ments absolutely in keeping with the 
subject; the mitre worn by one of his 
kneeling figures has been used by a 
priest of the order. 

For the base of the mantel there are 
four large pilasters, between two of 
which, one either side of the opening, 
appears this inscription : 

Left side: 

"Once again thou flamest heavenward ; 
Once again we see thee rise ;" 

Right side: 

"Thee the godlike, thee the changeless, 
In thine ever changing skies." 

So satisfactory were the results of 
this whole undertaking, that the Hart- 
ford Faience Company decided to send 
the mantel and fireplace to the St. 
Louis Fair. 

Too much cannot be said in praise 
of the work. Mr. Potter's selection of 
subject is most excellent. The signifi- 
cance of the design, reviving, as it 
does, the spirit of mediaeval times, and 
its picturesque and well balanced com- 
position at once emphasize it as a work 
of intellectual power. His figures are 
alive with the spirit of worship, and 
one intidtively takes on the feeling of 
reverence, in praise of the "brightly 
shining sky, the eternal luminary, the 
self-created, where all the heavenly 
spirits rise by hundreds and by thou- 
sands to spread his splendor and send 
it down the earth." 

All the conception and work of the 
artist might have been spoiled, how- 
ever, by the unskillful handling of the 
artisan, as it is not so much the sub- 
ject as the manner in which it is pre- 
sented that establishes the influence of 
a work of art. There has been the 



most sympathetic co-operation. The 
technique and coloring is such as to 
strengthen the structural dignity and 
enhance the motif of the modeler. 
The soft finish lends a poetic charm ; 
the gradation in tone against the back- 
ground is remarkable, this dull surface 
being far more decorative, and capable 
of richer harmonies than is the glaring 
enamel of the mediaeval period. The 
silky smoothness far better renders the 
texture of fabric. The surface has 
much of the quality of old ivory, but 
the mingling of other tints, without 
floridness, renders a serenity and force 
to the work most fascinating and 
sculpturesque. 

A number of eminent artists have 
expressed the highest approval of the 
work. It is of notable importance that 
this is the first piece of work of this 
sort which has been done in either 
this country or abroad in the last two 
hundred and fifty years. 

The Hartford Faience Company in- 
tends to follow out the idea, making 
up mantels and mural decorations, se- 
lecting different subjects of the classi- 
cal order appropriate to their sur- 
roundings when placed. 

What a gigantic stride toward the 
perfecting of architecture in this coun- 
try might be made by the revival of 
the embellishment of the facades and 
the outside sections of public build- 
ings by means of relief ornamentation 
as suggested by the great Florentine 
artists ! Designs typifying great 
events, reproductions of noted men, or 
symbolic composition quickened by the 
subtle touch of color to render them 
more expressional and impressive 
would lend beauty and dignity to 
our buildings ; for architecture and 
sculpture, some one has said, "are as 
closely allied as the blossom and the 
tree." H. R. 





MRS. ANNA L. BLANCHARD 



TAPESTRY PAINTING AND ART DECORATION 



TAPESTRY weaving is the 
survival of an art of the 
middle ages. Shakespeare 
speaks of tapestry in Henry 
IV, Act II, Scene IV, as *' arras," a 
name applied from the famous center 
of the industry at Arras, France. 

Tapestry painting is a modern 
development in the arts and was 
professionally introduced about 
fifteen years ago. It is a distinctly 
American art and today commands 
an important position in decoration. 
In the later part of the eighties, 
American connoisseurs were giving 
much attention to old woven 
tapestries and exhibitions were held 
in several of the principal cities. 



" It is beautiful work," exclaimed 
Mrs. Anna L. Blanchard, who was 
then, as now, progressively engaged 
in the application of art to decora- 
tion, ''but even more charming 
effects can be secured on woven hang- 
ings with oil paints." 

Returning to her studio she began 
experiments and succeeded in secur- 
ing equally brilliant effects through 
the medium of the brush. There was 
no tapestry material obtainable in 
this country when the artist under- 
took her first experiment and she 
produced her first painting on silk rep. 

"It is magnificent work," ex- 
claimed the critics, '* there is a great 
future for such hangings in America. " 



824 



R 



N 



O 



The painting brought a remarkably 
high price. The artist, encouraged 
by her success, closed her studio and 
went abroad, traveling in France and 
Italy, visiting the famous galleries 
and studying the original master- 
pieces. She then returned to this 
country and introduced the first real 
tapestry paintings known to art. 

The family home of Mrs. Blanchard 
was at Colebrook, Connecticut, where 
four generations are today buried. 
Mrs. Blanchard has become dis- 
tinguished in her work and her 
present studios at 236 Fifth Avenue, 
New York, are headquarters for the 
art of tapestry painting, where 
facilities are possessed for the pro- 
duction of her beautiful work in the 
line of tapestries, paintings, oil and 
water colors, friezes, art panels and 
ceilings in interior decorations, and 



also miniatures. Mrs. Blanchard has 
been an established artist twenty- 
five years, and has always held a 
prominent position in this special 
field of industry. She has aimed at 
the highest standard of artistic pro- 
duction in her field, her success in 
which is well shown by the increasing 
patronage of the leading families of 
the country. 

Mrs, Blanchard conducts in con- 
junction with her business, a school 
of tapestry painting, which is attended 
by a number of fashionable ladies of 
the metropolis. The beautiful and 
artistic productions shown here are 
representative of that progress to 
which this field of endeavor has been 
brought. The productions include 
the high art of Berlin, Paris and 
London, where Mrs. Blanchard has 
established important connections. 




ONE OF THE STUDIOS OF MRS. ANNA L. BLANCHARD 



THE /ETNA NATIONAL BANK OF HARTFORD 



CAPITAL, $525,000.00 



SURPLUS AND PROFITS, $550,000.00 
DEPOSITS, $3,000,000.00 



A. Spencer. Jr., Pres. 

DIRECTORS 
Morgan G. Bulkeley Appleton R. Hillyer, 
Jamea B. Cone, Morgan B. Brainard, 
Alfred Spencer, Jr., A. 0. Loomis, W. R. 
C. Corson. 



OFFICERS 
A. R. Hillyer, Vice-Pres. 



W. D. Morgan, Cashier 



Safe Deposit Boxes 

For rent from $3 to $20 per year. This bank oflfers to 
depositors every facility which their balances, business 
and responsibility warrant. Special accommodation for 
ladies and new money paid to them. 



GOSSEGTIGUT TRUST m SAFE DEPOSIT GOlVIPAflY 

COR. iV^AIN AND PEARL STREETS, HARTFORD 



Capital, $300,000 



Surplus $300,000 



Banking Business 

Conducts general banking business. 
Accounts opened and Deposits re- 
ceived subject to check at sight. 
Accounts solicited. 



Safe Deposit Vault 

The most Capacious in the City 
1100 Safe Boxes for Rent 

at from $10 to $100 per annum ac- 
cording to size. 



Trust Department 

Is authorized by its charter to a<t 
as Trustee for individuals and cor- 
porations, Executor or administra- 
tor of Estates, Guardian of Minors. 
Etc 



Meigs H. Whaples, President 

John P. Wheeler, Treasurer 



Henry S Robinson, Secretary 

HosMER P. Redfield, Ass't Treasurer 



SECURITY COMPANY 'S:^^^^'?^. 

Acts as Executor, Administrator, Guardian, Conservator and Trustee, and Transacts a 

General Banking Business 



Capital, $200,000 



Surplus, $100,000 



The Officers of the Company will he pleased to consult at any time with those who 
contemplate availing themselves of the services of a Trust Company. 



Atwood Collins, President 

Chas. Edward Prior, Sec. and Treas. 



Henry E. Taintor, Vice-President 
Chas. Edward Prior, Jr.. Asst. Treas. 



INSIDE INFORMATION 

CONCERNING 

THE BETTER CLASS 
OF 

CONNECTICUT 

REAL 

EST A TE 

GIVEN HERE 



Real Estate 



mnpmfC' 



IN ALL THAT FIRST= 
CLASS WORK I/VIPLIES 



APPRAISER FOR 

CONNECTICUT TRUST 

AND 

SAFE DEPOSIT CO. 



OFFICE: 

82 Pearl Street 
HARTFORD 
CONNECTICUT 



7^'?.^;, 



PIpnsA Mpntinn Tww PnxrwwrTirtTT MAn*KivR veliftn nHtrnniziiiir niir Advertisers. 



CONNECTICUT'S EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 




The CAMPBELL SCHOOL 

FOR GIRLS 

WINDSOR, CONN. 

College Preparatory and General 
Courses. Music, Art, Elocution. 
Special attention given to physical 
development. Particularly attrac- 
tive home and social life. Young 
girls received and given home care 
and trainiBg. 

ALFRED H. CAMPBELL, Ph.D., 
PrincipaL 

Mrs. Marian Blake Campbell, 
Associate Principal. 

Catalog sent upon application. 



SALISBURY SCHOOL 



(FOR BOYS) 

SALISBURY, CONN. 



Board of Trustees : 
The Rt. Rev. H. C. Potter D.D., Bishop of New York. 
The Rt. Rev. Geo. Worthington, D.D. , Bishop of Nebraska. 
The Rev. C. C. Tiffany, D.D , Sharon, Conn. 
Wm. H Bent, Taunton, Mass. 

Clarence Whitman, New York 
Episcopal Visitor : The Rt. Rev. Chauncey B. Brewster, D.D., Bishop of Connecticut 



N. R. Cook, Bayonne, N. J. 
C. C. Marshall, Millbrook, N. Y. 
J. M. Pearson, Hudson, N. Y. 
F. Speir, South Orange, N. J 



Head Master: Rev. GEO. F. QUAILF, M.A. 







W. V. A BELL, 



Director 



V. 



The Hartford 
Conservatory of MusL 

W. V. ABELL, Director 

beginning September 12th, 1904, will open a 

HOME SCHOOL 

for the accommodation of pupils coming from a distance 
This department will be conducted by a woman of educatioi 
and refinement. The Hartford Conservatory offers th 
advantages of study with such well known artist instructors a| 

Theodore Van Yorx, Tenor {New York) 
Alvah Glover Salmon, Pianist (Boston) 
Davol Sanders, Violinist {New York) 
and twelve other superior instructors in the different depar 
ments. 

Pupils graduating from The Hartford Conservatory c 
Music receive as good if not better musical instruction at mu( 
less cost than can be obtained at institutions in the large citie 
what is more, its graduates are invariably helped to goc\ 
positions. For Year Book and further information regardinj 
the new Home Department, address 

ABELL, Director 



Hartford Conservatory of Music 



HA R T FO R D 

CONN. 



Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



CONNECTICUT'S EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



Uhe Connecticut J^ffn'cultural Colle^fOy StorrSj Conn, 

CO-MnUCATIONAL 



COLLEGE COURSES 

for Graduates cf Hich 
Schools, leading to the 
Degree, B.S. 



SUPPLEMENTARY 

Practical and Scientific 
Courses, for Graduates of 
Common Schools, leading 
to Diplomas. 



WINTER SCHOOL SUMMER SCHOOL 



Short Courses,, for Busy 
People. 



for Teachers and Others, 
in Nature and Country 
Life. 



^ree TJuition — <^ree ^oom ^ent 



J^ppij/ for the Colieye Caiaio^^ue 



WASHINGTON, LITCHFIELD COUNTY, CONN. 

Home and Preparatory School for Boys. Collegfe 
preparation a specialty. Individual instruction. 
Cottagfe system. Modern equipment. Larg:e grounds, 
^erfect sanitation. Athletic facilities. Base Ball, Foot Ball, Tennis, Golf, etc. Illustrated 
ircular. WILLIAM G. BRINSMADE, Principal. 



Ridge School 



corr:e)Spond:^nc:e; r:e)i,ating to GnNnAi^oGiCAi, matters 

IS INVITED BY THE ^ 

RESEARCH PUBLICATION CO. 

OF" BOSXON 

Researches undertaken anywhere in New England or Great Britain, reliable work, reasonable fees 

THE RESEARCH PUBLICATION COMPANY, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 




Omo 

Dress 

Shield 

\ PERFECT DRESS SHIELD 

WHY? 

Because it is absolutely odorless and ab- 
solutely impervious. Every pair w^arrant- 
ed. Contains no poisonous chemicals of 
any kind. Recommended by the American 
Journal of Health for its hygienic qual- 
ities. For sale by all the Dry Goods 
Stores throughout the U. S. and Canada. 



DM0 MANUFACTURING 
Middletown, Conn. 



CO. 



67 YEARS 

IN BUSINESS AT 

16 STATE ST. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 

THE Hartford 

Printing Co. 

elihu ceer's sons 
BookandJob Printers 



WEDDING INVITATIONS. CARDS, ETC., 
PRINTED AT VERY LOW RATES 

Printers and Publishers of GEERS 
HARTFORD CITY DIRECTORY. Gene- 
alogy of the Gallup Family for Sale 



Our Work 



Has Given Us 
Our Name as 



'• New England's Leading Decorators 



>> 



Our work is in every 
line of Bunting, 
Electrical and Floral 
Display. 



SI TV^ON S St FOX 

240 ASYLUM STREET 
HARTFORD, CONN. 



We make a specialty of 
Weddings and Receptions 

—designing and execut- 
ing with taste ideas that 
are new. 



T^e Leading Fire Insurance Company of A merica 




WM. B. CLARK, President 
W. H. KING, Secretary, A C, ADAMS, HENRY E. REES, 
C. J. IRVIN, A N. WILLIAMS, Assistant Secretaries. 



S.30ro7/i.BO. /jj^ 







# 



,# 






TAHe ELEVA TOff. 



In the line of Fishing Tackle, Sporting Goods, Guns, Garden and Flower Seeds, Tools, Lawn 
^ Mowers, Screens, Cutlery, Belting, Wire and Cut Nails, etc. 

CLAPP & TREAT 

Jobbers in Hardware and Manufacturing Supplies 

Carry, at 68 State Street, Hartford. Conn. , one of the largest and most complete stocks in the State. 

import direct from the grower in pound lead packages put up 
and sealed by himt the finest uncolored India Tea ever brought to 
America — a tea you never have and cannot buy in stores — abso- 
lutely unadulterated, and clean and fragrant. It costs 75 cents and $J.OO per pound, delivered anywhere 
prepaid. Drop me a postal for more details — or a trial package. 
tToBox 639 LUTHER C. GLAZIER, 212 Collins St., Hartford, Conn. 



INDIA TEA \ 



SPECIAL MILK FOR BABIES 

Obtained from a breed of cows known to give 
the best milk for the purpose, and produced under 
the most hygienic conditions; clean cows, clean 
stables, clean milkers, sterilized utensils and bot- 
tles, and many other details of care. Also choice 
milk and cream lor family use. 

Daily delivery at Hartford and New Britain. 
Outside orders by express given careful attention. 
Inspection of the dairy is invited. 

RIDGBSIDB FARM 

Telephone ij-s- Newington, Coiin, 




18 BEAUTIFUL 

PHOTO ENGRAVINGS 

IN TINTS. 

Illustrating the 3a- 
page booklet "The 
Lord's Prayer in the 
Sign Language." 
Will interest young 
or old. Printed on 
finest quality coated 
paper. Postpaid to 
any address, 1 5 cts. 

Conn. Magazine Co.| 
Hartford) Conn. 



WHO'S YOUR TAII^OR? 

We make Suits and Top-Coats to order at prices from $15.00 to $50.00. 
Quality and Fit Guaranteed. 

UNITED STATES WOOLEN COMPANY 



Jast a dooF from flsylam Street 



MAIN STREET, HARTFORD, CONN. 



PIaasp "VfPTitinn Thp. PA-w\n?Y"rrr'TTr Mii 



Palhers patented HAnnocKs. 

ARAWANA, UROPIA, SOLITAIRE and REPOSO. 

Largest Variety of Colors and Accessories. 



SEND FOR 1904 CATALOG IN COLORS. 



Hammock 



Supports. 



Hammock 



Awnings. 




Hammock 

Mosquito Bars. 



Hammock 
Trapeze 



Bars. 



CUX^2d59.4T.^ 
Also Manufacturer of 

Mosquito Nettings, Mosquito Bed Canopies, Canopy Supports and Fixtures, 
Crinoline Dress Linings, Window Screen Cloth, etc. 

T T^ l=>AT1V/ri^T:i> MIDDLETOWN, CONN., U. S. A. 

1. Xl/. ir^>VJ_>iVlll/XX, New York Office, 56 Leonard Street. 



Goncernini (renealoiies. 

Price. 50 Cents Net (Postage 5 Cents). 

The first 500 copies free to applicants. 

A very interesting book, telling how to trace 
one's ancestry and to compile, print, publish and 
sell a genealogy. It is written by the expert in 
charge of the Genealogical Department of The 
Grafton Press, which invites correspondence on 
all questions connected with investigating ances- 
try, making a genealogy, preparing rough notes 
and manuscripts for the press, or the printing and 
publishing of genealogical books, charts and 
pamphlets. Address 

THE GRAFTON PRESS, 

Genealogical and Biographical Dept. 
70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 




Get THE Best 

• ^^ ■ , 

WEBSTER'5 \ 
I INTERNATIONAL f 
* DICTIONARY'* 



ENGLISH 
BIOGRAPHY 



:^GEOGRAPHY 



^As--^^^^^^ ^' FICTION, Etc. 

25,000 NEW WORDS, Etc. 

New Gazetteer of the World 

with over 25,000 entries based on the latest census. 
New Biographical Dictionary 

with over 10,000 names of noted persons, birth, death, etc. 

Edited by W. T. HARRIS, Ph.D., LL.D., 
United States Commissioner of Education. 

New Plates. 2380 Quarto Pages. 

Rich Bindings. 5000 Illustrations. 

Needed in E^very Home 

Also Webster's Collegiato Dictionary with 

iioo pages. 1400 Illustrations. Size: 7 x 10 x as ^ in. 
A Special Thin Paper Edition 

}ust issued, is printed from the same plates S3 the rejrnlar editi«m. 
t haa limp covers and round coniora. Si2e : 5 3^ x 8 ^ x 1 S '"» 

FREE, "A Test in Pronunciations-in- 
structive and entertaining. Also illustrated pamphlets. 

G. 6 C. MERRIAM CO.. 
Publishers, Springfield, Mass. 



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Ttiorougln 
Inspections 



75ND INSURKNCB KGKINST I-OSS OR 
DPC7B5}reGB TO PROPBRTV, KND L^OSS OF* 
LIPB TK.M1D INOXJRV TO PERSONS CKUSED BV 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 



L. B. BRAIN ERD, President. 
F. B. ALLEN, Vice-President. 




J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Ass't Sec'y 



The Hartford Faience Company 

HARTFORD, CONN. — 



«* 1 d te^- .^ i ''4 















Mantel No 19 

Height, 4 ft. lo in ; Width at base, 5 ft. 7I4 in. 

Shelf, iiV^ in. deep by 6 ft. 5 in. wide; 

Opening, 3 feet. 



AN ARTISTIC MANTEL, IN DULL FINISH. 



THIS AND OTHERS WE CAN SUPPLY FOR 



YOUR HOUSE. 



TWENTY DESIGNS CARRIED IN STOCK. 



MANTELS MADE FROM SPECIAL DESIGNS 
A FEATURE OF OUR WORK. 



F YOUR DEALER CANNOT SHOW YOU ONE 
OF THESE MANTELS WRITE DIRECT TO 



III? Hartford Faience Company 



, HARTFORD, CONN. 



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J. H. WALKER, 



MANUFACTURER OF 



Writing, Bool< and Cover 




J. H. WALKER PAPER MILLS, 

BURNSIDE, CONNECTICUT, 

OFFICE, i6 & 18 READE STREET, NEW YORK. 

Employ About 180 People. 



Manufacture 

Aluminum Finish Book Paper, 

White, Colored and Duplex Envelope Papers, 

Linen, Blank Book, Music, 

White and Colored Specialties. 



Please Mention The Co.sNECTicax Magazine when patronizing our Ailvertisers. 




VitotioD Care. 



Vibration Cure is a non-electrical treat- 
ment for curing disease without the use of 
drugs. The form of treatment — as adminis- 
tered by Dr. Wragg — is a small machine con- 
sisting of a series of small wheels which revolve 
at a high rate of speed, and when brought into 
contact with the human body produces a pow- 
erful, penetrating and pleasant sensation of 
warmth to the surface of the body — reaching 
not only the tissues lying near the surface of 
the body — but the deeply seated organs and 
internal systems hitherto so difficult to reach, 
thereby producing physiological effects neces- 
sary for the successful treatment of disease. 

The world's leading physicians have for 
a long time recognized the great preventive 
and curative effects of mechanical or other 
movements applied to the body's surface. But up to the present period a means 
whereby the requisite intensity, rapidity and regularity of movement was afforded 
had not been discovered. 

The circulation of the blood is immediately stimulated, even in the smallest 
capillaries. From the fact that in these small capillaries the changes of the body are 
continually taking place, it follows that this one effect is of the greatest importance in 
the cure of disease. An inactive circulation of the blood in these small vessels always 
causes an accamulation of remainder of tissue changes, which are gradually turned to 
putrefaction, followed by a degeneration of the whole body, viz: Rheumatism, 
Obesity, etc., etc. 

It is essential that the digestive organs be always kept in a healthy condition, 
for the changes of tissues in the body consists not only in the removing of consumed 
vital substances, but also the supplying of building-up material of the body. 

Vibration makes stiff joints movable by removing all pathological matters gath- 
ered at the joints, and by restoring and circulating the nutritious juices into the joints 
and bone tissues. Phenomenal success has been attained in cases of Paralysis, 
Sciatica, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Cramp, Congestion of the Liver, Insomnia, Dyspep- 
sia, Constipation, Kidney disease, and nervous troubles peculiar to the female sex. 

It is only by personal experience that you call tell what Vibration can and will 
do for you. " Since I was cured by Vibration I am as strong and well as ever — neveri 
felt better in my life," is the cry I am greeted with on all sides from grateful patients. 
It is for you to say the same if you try Vibration for your ailments. You will neveri 
regret it, but will only wish that you had tried it sooner. 

Testimonials of various cures can be obtained at office. Consultation Free. 

Office Hours: 9 A. M. to 12 M., 2 P. M. to 5 P. M., 6 P. M. to 8 P. M., or by 
special appointment. NO SUNLAY HOURS. 

DR. iAZRHGG, 

The Hartford Institute of Vibration and Psycho-Magnetic Therapeutics, 

UNIVERSflUIST BUILDING, 686 IVIflIN STREET, HflRTfORD, CONN- 

Please Mention The Connecticttt Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



THE OLIVER TYPEWRITER 

THE STANDARD VISIBLE WRITER 

WHY do competitors meet the Oliver with 
abuse? 

WHY do they spell the word ''complete'' 
k-n-o-c-k ? 

WHY is their villification general and 
concerted ? 

BECAUSE they cannot combat with logical 
argument the principle upon which the 
Oliver is built. 

JECAUSE we are taking away their business. 

JECAUSE they would keep you from investigating the typewriter that has 
them defeated from Maine to California. 

fake nothing THEY say for granted. 

fake nothing WE say for granted. 




Investigate! 



FHE OLIVER TYPEWRITER CO 

69-71 FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 



QUIIiTED IVIOSWH IWATTHESS PADS 

are made in all suitable sizes for Beds and Cribs. They 
are a Sanitary necessity. 



QUmTEO GRIB SGREEfl PflODl|^G 

18 inches wide, is the most useful article that a n^other 
can buy for the comfort of her baby. When put around 
Crib it saves from draughts and protects arms, legs and 
head from contact with metal frame of bed. 

ASK DRY GOODS DEALER AND SEND TO US FOR SAMPLE 

EXGEIiSIOR QUlIiTIflG GO, 15 Laight St, K.V. Gity 



Please Mention The Conxixtici-t Magazinf, when patronizing our Advorti^ors. 



William E. Kibbe, "'* "t!:^'S^l\ 



HARTFORD, CONN. 



TELEPHONE 216-5 



AgeM for the Q ROUT, FORD 11 TlTrtUnftTI.CC 
and ELMORE AUlUjVlUDlllbb 

Also All Standard Makes of Bicycles 
ONE AND TWO SEATED CARS TO RENT. 



DELIGHTFUL— FRAGRANT— ANTISEPTIC— CLEANSING. 
YOU WILL BE HAPPY WHEN YOU USE 



]&t o i I a 



THE TOILET REQUISITE OF QUEENS. 
THE QUEEN OF TOILET REQUISITES. 

On Sale at all First-Class Drug Stores throughout the 
United States and Canada, Mexico and Cuba, 

SAMPLE FREE AT ALL DRUGGISTS. 




If your druggist cannot furnish you with free sample, send 10 cents in 
stamps and sample will be sent you from home office. 

THE LATOILA CO., Inc. 

HARXKORD. 



REFUSE SUBSTITUTES AND AVOID DISAPPOINTMENT. 




6S8 

Main Street 




Hartford, Conn, 



Please Mention Thb Connbcticut Magazinb when patronizing our Advertisers. 



\ 



COLUMBIA ELECTRIC AND 
GASOLENE AUTOMOBILES 

present the most perfect combination of the arts of vehicles 

and motor building. The body and furnishings of each 

Columbia, no less than its locomotive parts, reflect the 

best ideas of the best designers and the highes: order of 

skilled workmanship. 

Our artistic Catalogue of Columbia High and Medium Powered Gasolene 
Cars and Electric Pressure Vehicles will be sent to any address on 
application; also separate catalogues of our Electric Town Carriages 
of the coach class and Electric Commercial Vehicles 

ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY, Hartford, Conn. 



NEW YORK 
134-138 West 39th Street 



CHICAGO 
1413 Michigan flvenae 



BOSTON 
74 Stanhope Street 



Member Association o/ Licensed Automobile 
Ma n Ji/act u rers 



^'^V^A^li, 



^COLUMBIA" 

30-35 H P. 
TOURING CAR 



J). 



li 



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! 



to 



From Chicago daily, Aug. 15 to Sept. 10, inclusive. 

Correspondingly low rates from other points. 

SPECIAL TRAINS 

Personally Conducted, leave Chicago August 18 and 25 

for San Francisco via the Chicago, Union Pacific and 

North- Western Line. Stop-overs at Denver, Colorado 

Springs and Salt Lake City, with side trips at a 

minimum of expense. 

No extra charge for travel on these special trains 

These low-rate tickets also good on fast daily trains, including The Overland 

Limited, a solid through train every day in the year, less than three 

days to the Coast, over the only double-track railway between 

Chicago and the Missouri River, via the most direct route 

across the American Continent. 

The Best of Everything. 



Send 2-cent stamp for itineraries and full particulars concerning 
oppor 



this unusual 



jrtunity to visit tlie Coast at a minimum of 



expense. All agents sell tickets via this line. 



UNION 
PACIFIC 



KNISKERN, 



Pass'r Traffic 



CHICAGO. 

NW334 



N.-W. Ry., 



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IlN£ 

Ocean Trips 






NOVA SCOTIA. CAPE BRETON 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 

OR NEWFOUNDLAND 

"One Ni^ht at Sea" or Six Days' Cruise 
UOO Miles for $18 



rjROM Union Wharf, Boston, every 
Tuesday and Saturday, 12 noon, for 
Halifax, Hawkesbury and Charlottetown. 
Good board. Cheapest rates. Best 
trout and salmon fishing, and shooting. 
Beautiful scenery. This doesn't half tell 
it. Send stamp for booklet, maps, etc. 

J. A. FLANDERS, General Agent, Union Wharf, Boston 

Please Mention The Connkottc!ttt Maoazinb when Datronizinflr our Advertisers. 



mi^^^m^^^mm^m^^ 





mMSHIP 









Tti© Land of N©>?-er 

Ending Ju.n©.. 

_ DAYS KROJvI 

^ BOSTON 

. PAYS krom: 

4 PHILADELPHIA 

Upon steel, Twin-Screw U. S. Mail steamsnips 

Admiral Dewey, Admiral Schley, 
Admiral Sampson, Admiral Farragut. 

Weekly sailings between Boston, Philadelphia 
and Jamaica. Fare including meals and state- 
room, round trip, |T5; one waj% $40. 

r^ For Information and Booklets. 






.GENT 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^P^^^fc^&RHlLA.PA ■ 



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SriniUER AND COJUMERCIAL HOTELS 




THE 

PREBLE 
HOUSE 



— PORTLAND 

MAINE 

This old-establishd hostelry, situated in the very heart of Maine's metropolis, is by far the most 
convenient Iccation for travelers, tourists and pleasure seekers in Portland, "the city by the sea." 
Tourists and pleasure seekers will find at the Preble House all the modern conveniences and'comforts — 
the advantage of the Preble is the central location. From the Hotel all resorts can be reached by all 
electrics; also all island steamers. Take coach on arrival of the Maine Steamship at Portland. ' All 
electric cars pass the door. Electric cars at head of wharf. 

oY". ^,— Located next to the Home of Henry W, Longfello<w 

GRAY, THOHAS COHPANY 



QEORGB P. THOriAS 



PROPRIETOR 



h 



round trip daily 
Chicago to 

Colorado' 

the ideal place for a 

ISummer Vacation! 

Correspondinjjly low rates from other f 
points. Two fast trains daily via the 

Chicago, Union Pacific 

and 

North=Western Line 

The "Best of Everything. 

Ask any ticket agent, or send 

4 cents for maps, book- 

lets, hotel lists, etc. 



W. B. KNISKERN, 

PtT.M.C.&N.-W.Ry., 

Chicago. 



Eastern Steamship Company 

The Favorite Tourist Routes to 
the Ideal Vacation Grounds of 

PictufesQue Maioe 



AND THE 



■ 



Mafitime Pfovinces 



The Great White Flyers ply between Boston 
and Bangor and all points' on Penobscot Bav and 
river; Bar Harbor and resorts en Mount Deseit 
Island; Bath, Avigusta, and landings on Kennebtc 
bay and river, Sheepscot bav; Portland. Calais 
and Eastport. Me., St. John,'X. B., with connec- 
tions for Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. 

For folders and full information address 

A H, HANSCOM, G. P. iSr T. A. 
CAhVIN AUSTIN, F. P. S: Gen'l M'g'r. 

FOSTER'S WHARF, BOSTON, MASS, 



Please Mention Thb Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



! 




THE BEARDSLEY HOUSE 

WINSTED, CONN. 

THE BEARDSLEY, the borough's leading hostelry, a handsome structure standing in the best residential 
district, of modern construction, splendidly furnished and appointed, offers superior accommodations for 
both transient and permanent guests. It is situate but a minute's waR from the railway station, and five 
minutes' walk from Hi^chland Lake; the ubiquitous trolley offering its services if one prefers to ride. Its fifty 
rooms are all light and airy, heated by stea-n in winter— for The Beardsley is a substantial, all the year round hotel 
and arranged with the soie idea of securing the utmost comfort for guests. There are broad verandas, spacious 
parlors, reading and assembly rooms— everything that goes to make a modern hostelry of the first class. The 
hotel's cuisine is famous throughout Connecticut. The drinking water comes from a private spring. 

Exceptionally low rates, ranging from $8 00 to $10.00 par week, according to the location of room, are offered to 
summer guests. Address: Charles B. Andreavs, Manager, THE BEARDSLEY, Winstbd, CoNNEcricuT. 




uibii^SR hote: 




FENAVICK HALL 

SAYBROOK POINT, CONN. 

FORTESCUE & GRANT, Props. 

NOW OPEN 

Golf, Tennis, Boating, Bathing and Fishing 

PERMANENT ORCHESTRA 

Weekly Rates, $17.50 and Up. Rooms and Bath, $25.00 

SPECIAL RATES FOR THE SEASON 



ACCESS FROM NEW YORK : — Har tfprd Line, 
boats every evening, 5 o'clock. Delightful sail of 
6 hours on Long Island Sound. N. Y., N. H. & 
H. R, R., 2 hours and 20 minutes to Fenwick, 
Conn. 



ACCESS FROM SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND 
—Via Hartford Line Steamers — Valley Division 
N.Y., N. H. & H. R. R.— Shore Line, N.Y., N. 
H. & H. R. R., from East or West, which con- 
nects with all branches. 



Bookings and Ml Information at 

THE BURLINGTON, 10 West 30th St., N. Y. City 

OR FENWICK HALL, SAYBROOK 

FORTESCUE & GRANT, Props. 



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sxtim[x^e:r hote: 



A VACATION SPOT 



IN THE 

LITCHFIELD 

COUNTY 

HILLS 




LAKEVILLE, 
CONN. 




THE NEW WONONSCO HOUSE, 

LAKBVILLE, CONN. 

Affords every comfort to its guests, has accommodations for eighty people. Handsome Parlors, 

Large, Well- Lighted Dining Room. The Wononsco Stables furnish handsome 

turnouts for many driving parties. 

Lake WoninscopoMOC is within a stem's tlirow of liotel. Boating, Fisliiig, Battling, Tennis, Golf. 

SUMMER COTTAGES TO RENT. 

E. L. PEABODY, Proprietor, - - Lal<eville, Conn. 



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COlVElVEEIFtCIJ^ 



zio-rsLs 




he Arcade Hotel 

art of the City. • ' BRIDGEPORT, CONN 

EUROPEAN 



A Corn ftf ifc Coafntfoc Fine Liuen, Comfortable Beds, 
l^eui 01 lib l^edCUreb Hardwood Floors and Rugs; in 
fact every thing that goes to rdake a hotel sanitary. 

A Long Distance Telephone in Every Room. 

'^As quiet as a country inn, as clean and 
comfortable as the best of homes." 

$ 1 .00 to $2.00 Elevator and Entrance, No. 1001 MAIN ST. 




OPPHWEflliTH )^OTEIt 

Bowdoin Street, opposite State House, Boston, Mass. 



Absolutely Fireproof 

Nothing Wood hut the Doors 

2i6 rooms, 88 with private bath. 
Rooms by the day, with hot and cold 
water, from $i up; rooms with private 
bath $2 per day and up. 

The dining-room and cafe are open 
from 6 a.m. to i a.m., and are on the 
European plan. 

Address all communications to 



STOP^^EI^ F*. C Tt A. F T S , 1\I g r 



c o IMC ivE s fi c ij\. L hote: 



f-W A 



■M. 





ym^,^^ 





HOTEL 
HLBERT 

EUROPEAN PLAN. 

llthSt. and University Place 

NEM YORK CITY. 
One Block West of Broadway 

MOST CENTRALLY LOCATED 
NEAR UNION SQUARE. 

First-Glass Service and Accoffimodatlens 
at Moderate Rates. 

Rooms at $1.00 per Day and Upwards. 
Restaurant on Premises. 

L & E. FRENKEL, 



PROPS.: 




HOTEL 

russwin' 

NEW BRITAIN, 
CONN. 



i^ 



A FIRST-CLASS COMMERCIAL HOTEL. 

GEO. Q. PATTEE, Proprietor. 



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HARTER OAK MILLS 



. S. FORBES, Pres. and Treas. 



HURON MILLS 



J 



EAST HARTFORD HPO CO. 



BURNSIDE, CONN. 







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Organized in 1865. Products— High grade paper such as Bonds, Parchment, Linen, Extra Super Wedding, Embossed, 
igh Gf ade Writing Folded Papers, and many Specialties. Artesian well furnishes pure water, which is an important 
,ctor in making high class paper. Employ about 40 to 50 people. Use both steam and water for power. 



JAS. J. BRIQHAM. Sec'y. 



SATISFACTION! 

The Greatest Thing on Earth 




THAT'S what you get when you buy a 
"Pollard" Bookcase. Think what a 
satisfaction to the housewife to know 
the book shelves will not have to be dusted off 
or the books wiped and cleaned. How much 
better to shut out the dust entirely than to 
let it in and then /rf to get it out! The 
"Pollard" Dustproof is the only case on the 
market that does this. It is made at 

30 High Street, Hartford, Conn., 

and finished to suit the taste. 

The O f fice and 
Library Specialty Co. 

All Kinds of Steel and Wood 
Fittings for Office and Library 



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SII1SH0I(£.ISKE^M01IKIHIKJ?^^ 



's/ratec/^^ 



^ (confa/nin^comp/efema/?s) 
AapeJ>een /ssued ^ 
une/er f/ieJo/Zomnj tiWes, 
and a?i//jbe mai'/ee/ 
uponr€cei/>fqf2^/J7 sh/nps 
n ydr eac??I)oo/ai 



J^hedLyilie 

oston 
/»t«>Maine 

II Railroad. 



folios; 



FOR ALL PUBLICATIONS APPLY TO 

PASSENOER DEPARTMENT. B.&M.R.R, 

BOSTON. MASS, 
D. J. FLANDERS, Cenl Pdssr sTickef A9T. 



, / NEWENOUVND 
^^ XAKJES, 

KIVZRS OF 

MOI7NXAINS OF 

TtEW EKGLAND I 

S£ASHOR£ OF 

lOEWEKaUOlD, 

PICTU]R£SQTJ£ 



THE CHARLES RIVEK^ 
TO THE HUDSON, 

Will be sent upon receipt of 6 cents 






iSuMMEK'RuKIST BOOK^ ^^ 

GIVING LIST OF TOURS AND RATES. HOTEL AND BOARDING HOUSE LIST 
AND OTHER VALUABLE INFORMATION. FREE. 



'J/ie .J^nttdnocJc^eyioji, 






COLORED BIRD'S EYE VIEWo/^ LAKE WINNIPESAUKEE 3 




III 



TO 
ll[W 
TORK 
DIILT 



Passenger and 
Freight Line. 

Stopping at all 
Landings on the 
Conn. Klver. 

LOW BATES. 

Quick Dispatch. 

COMFOKT. 
SECURITY. 
REFRESHING 
SLEEP. 

Passenger Ac- 
commodations 
Flrst-Class. 



Hartford and New York Transportation Co. 

Steamers " Middletown " and " Habtpobd "—Leave Hartford from foot State St. at 5 p.m.— Leave New York from Pier 19, 
Ekist River, at 5 p.m.— Daily except Sundays. 

Shipments received on pier in New York until 6 p.m. and forwarded to all points mentioned on Connecticut River, and polnti 
North, East and West from Hartford. We also have through traffic arrangements with lines out of New York for points South 
and West, and shipments can be forwarded on through rates, and Bills of Lading obtained from offices of the Company. 

For Excursion Rates see daily papers. 



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BREST 



o 



B 1 ck^ k B ^^ ^ 



Get your bite— the Bristol will do 
almost all the rest. It has the necessary 
spring, snap, and stiffish back required 
in a Black Bass Rod. The most 
resilient material used in rod making 
is Steel, which makes them tough and 
elastic, with a rebound found in 
no other rod but the " Bristol." 

Sold by all dealers; they will give i 
you benefit of reduced prices. [ 
Ti^^aa Our kandsot^fe catalog'^ V describ- i 
1 Tfif^ ing all the ''Bristol"" Steel Rods, i;^^ 

The Norton Mfo. On.. Bristol. ct .U.S.A. \% 











ILLUSTRATORS 

FOR THE 




H^^^H^^ ' ^B^^mmK^mm 


CONNECTICUT 




E 1 


MAGAZINE 

MAKERS OF PLATES 

AND DESIGNS FO?^ 




FAMILY AND TOWN 

HISTORIKS. 

Commercial Work for 

MANUFACTURERS' 

CATALOGUES and 

BOOKLETS, 

ZINC, COPPER and WOOD ENGRAVING 
EMBOSSING and ELECTROTYPING. 

[»[ 1. PINDm CORP., 

79n Main Sirflat Hflrifnrd Rnnn 






* 



• ▼ • 



• ▼* 




6£ 



METEOR" 



i(i(^ 



¥v^uok' 



Coffee l^ergoJator^ 

A PERFECT COFFEE MAKER. 
PLANISHED COPPER, SILVER LINED. 

Coffee or Tea made by this method is very superior, as the bev- 
erage is distilled and not boiled. By this automatic circulating 
process the entire strength is extracted, which proves it to be the 
most economical method of producing Coffee or Tea of the finest flavor. 



No. 993— "Meteor" French 
Circulating Coffee Percolator. 



Made in over fifty styles and sizes. 




Seamless Tea and. Coffee F*ots ^in '-^"^ 
"IVORY" Enameled Ware, Copper, ^^ 



Nickel F*lated, Etc., BakiingKDishies, 
Table Kettles, Motel Ware, Batti 
Roona Kittings, Etc. % % % 



I 




Chafing 



Dishes 



SI? 



WITH THE FAMOUS 
''IVORY'' Hnameled Food Pan. 

AN ENDLESS VARIETY WITH ALCOHOL 
LAMPS AND ELECTRIC HEATERS. 




Manning, Bowman & Co., 



MEEIDEN, CONN. 



NEW YORK 



CHIOAGO. 



SAN FRANOISOO. 






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The Mother^'s Mission 




1903. 



1840. H GREAT Emperor once asked 

one of his noble subjects what 
would secure his country the first 
place among the nations of the earth. 
The nobleman's grand reply was, 
"Good Mothers." Now, what con- 
stitutes a good mother ? The answer 
is conclusive : She who, regarding 
the future welfare of her child, seeks 
every available means that may offer to promote a sound physical develop- 
ment, to the end that her offspring may not be deficient in any single faculty 
with which nature has endowed it. In infancy there is no period which is 
more likely to affect the future disposition of the child than that of teething, 
producing as it does fretfulness, moroseness of mind, etc., which if not 
checked will manifest itself in after eiays. 

mn. mmW% Soothing Syrup 

is unquestionably one of the greatest remedial agents in existence, both for 
the prevention and cure of the alarming symptoms which so often manifest 
themselves during the teething period, such as griping in the bowels, wind 
colic, etc. It is also the best and surest remedy in the world in all cases of 
diarrhoea in children, whether it arises from teething or any other cause. 
Twenty-five cents a tottle, and for sale in all parts of the world, being the 
best remedy for children known of. 



Mothers 1 Mothers ! ! Mothers 1 1 ! 

-THE BEST OF ALL- 
Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup has been 
used for over SIXTY YEARS by MILLIONS 
of MOTHERS for their CHILDREN while 
TEETHING, with PERFECT SUCCESS. 
It SOOTHES the CHILD, SOFTENS the 
GUMS, ALLAYS all PAIN; CURES WIND 
COLIC, and is the best remedy for DIAR 
EIKEA. Sold by Druggists in every part of 
the world. Be sure and ask for "Mrs. Wins- 
low's Soothing Syrup," and take no other 
kind. Twenty five cents a bottle. 



1840. 




1903 



Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 






c 



Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



THE COLUMBIA 
GRAPHOPHONE 



TYPE AR 




THE PERFECTED 
PHONOGRAPH 
$5 TO $100 

GRAND OPERA AT HOME 

The Graphophone will reproduce for you the voice of your favorite artist, with all its 
beautiful modulations and all its wealth of tone color. Send for catalogue of records by the 
world's great singers — De Reszke, Sembrich, Schumann-Heink, Campanari, Suzanne Adams, 
Scotti, Gilibert, and many others. 

COLUMBIA DISC RECORDS 

Absolute perfection of sound reproduction. All the sweetness, volume and beauty of 
the original rendition. 

Seven inch, 50c. each; $5 per dozen. Ten inch, $1 each; $10 per dozen. 

Grand Opera Records, $2 each. 

^|- COLUMBIA GOLD MOULDED ^ Cr' 

^OC CYLINDER RECORDS ^ ^ ^OC 

Send for catalogue containing vocal quartettes, trios, duets, solos, and selections tor 
band, orchestra, cornet, banjo, flute, clarinet, etc., etc. 

Golambia ReeoPds pit Any Wake of Talking IWaehine 

For Sale by Dealers Everywhere and by the 

COLUMBIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY 

PIONEERS AND LEADERS IN THE TALKING MACHINE ART. GRAND PRIZE PARIS 1900 

NEW YORK, Wholesale, Retail and Export, 353 Broadway, Uptown Retail Only. 872 Broadway 
CHICAGO, 88 Wabash Avenue ST. LOUIS, 908 Olive Street vFrisco Building) 

LONDON, Wholesale and Retail, 89 Great Eastern St., E. C, Retail Branch Store, 200 Oxford St, W. 



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C H. DEXTER & SONS. 



A. D. COFFIN. 



H. R. COFFIN. 



«Paper manufacturers 



WINDSOR LOCKS, CONNECTICUT. 



makers Of « 



t 



TWO MILLS. 



** Princess** Cover Papers. 

** Unique** Cover Papers. 

**Abbotsford** Deckle Edge Papers. 

**Star** Bristol Boards. 

**Star** White and Colored Tissues. 

"Star** Manifold Linen and Onion Skin Papers 

Specialties in Colors and Thin Papers. 



Please Mention The Connecticut Magazine when patronizing our Advertisers. 



TAPESTRY PAINTINGS l^Z'V^JtZ 

38 ARTISTS EMPLOYED including Gold Medalists from the Paris Salon 
Special Designs Furnished for Special Rooms ^ ^ ^ ARTISTIC HOME DECORATION 

WE CAN SHOW YOU effects never before thought of and at moderate prices, too. Write for color Schemes, Desig^ns, 
Estimates. ^^ Artists Sent to All, Parts of the W^oitLD to execute every sort of decoration. We are educat- 
ing the country in Color Harmony. We supply everything that goes to make up the Interior of a Home— Stained 
Glass, Relief Carpets, Furniture, Parquetry, Tiles, Window Shades, Art Hangings, Draperies, Posters. 



RUSSIAN TAPESTRY 

For Wall Hangings in colors to 
match all kinds of woodwork, car- 
pets, draperies, furniture coverings, 
etc. Is the best, newest and most 
durable of its kind. It is made 52 
and 76 inches wide, so that a wall 
may be covered without a single 
seam showing— a great advantage 
over burlap— and the cost is very 
little more. 

ART CRETONS 

The sidewalls of boudoirs or bed 
chambers covered with Gobelin Art 
Cretons possess at once the artistic 
advantage of grace in design, with 
the softness and richness of the 
most expensive Imported Damasks 
at a trifling cost above that of wall 
paper. 

WALL PAPER 

Our stock of wall paper has been 
carefully selected from the full line 
of every wall paper manufacturer 
both in America, Canada and Eu- 
rope. Each paper has been selected 
for some special purpose and has 
qualities in it which our expert 
color salesman will be glad to ex- 
plain. There are among them many 
bea;utiful designs ranging in price 
from 10 cents (a roll of 8 full yds.) up. 

DRAPERIES 

Every one knows the importance 
which draperies impart to a house ; 
they make or mar. It is admitted 
that not everyone is competent to 
select the proper colorings to intone 
with the sidewall decorations and 
furniture coverings. Each of our 
salesmen is an expert in this ; and 
our patrons may be sure that they 
will not get the customary mechan- 
ical inattention of incompetent 
salesman ; but will be served by 
men who have had wide experience, 
and who enter with enthusiasm 
into their work:— men who have 
made color harmony their chief 
study. We make no extra charge 
for this valuable service. There's 
surely some satisfaction in know- 
ing that one can get "the proper 
thing " from us. We have estab- 
lished our own mills for the manu- 
facture of draperies specially made 
in design and colorings to match 
wall papers, and other side wall 
coverings. The propriety of our 
prices will astonish you. 

Illustrated Compendium 
of the Douthitt Tapestry 
Painting Studies. 

Therp are more than Five Hundred 

of these Illustrations, and the publica- 
tion of this Compendium represents an 
outlay of Ten Thousand Dollars and usu- 
ally sells for $1.00 a copy. To the readers 
of Thk Com jectiout MAGAZl^B an 
arrangement has been made to send a 
copy on receipt of only 50 cents. 






FRFF If yo" will send us the floor 
ixL^L. plans of your house we will 
send you free a color scheme, illus- 
trated by samples themselves. Tell 
us what you want on the walls of 
the principal rooms— tint, paint, pa- 
per or stuff. If possible send us the 
plans, rough pencil outline will do. 
Tell us if you want curtains, car- 
pets, furniture— in fact, itemize to 
us everything you desire. Send 25 
cents to pay postage. 

Douthitt's Manual of 
Art Decorations 

The art book of the century. 200 
royal quarto pages filled with full- 
page colored illustrations of mod- 
ern home interiors and studies. 
Price $2.00. If you want to keep up 
in decoration send $2.00 for this 
book, worth $50.00. 

SCHOOL 

In our Tapestry Painting School 
(which we have arranged to keep 
open the year around for the bene- 
fit of out-of-town students and oth- 
ers) we give six 3-hour lessons for 
only $.5.00. We sell complete Printed 
Instructions by mail for $1.00. New 
Compendium of 550 studies, 50 cents. 
This compendium is sent free with 
Printed Instructions. We rent tap- 
estry paintings. Full size drawings, 
paints, brushes, etc., supplied. No- 
where, Paris not excepted, are such 
advantages offered pupils. 

TAPESTRY MATERIALS 

We manufactiu-e Tapestry Material 
for painting upon, superior to for- 
eign goods and half the price. Book 
of samples, 10 cents. Send $1.50 for 
trial order for two yards of 50-inch 
wide No. G goods, worth $3.00. 

FURNITURE 

On this page we illustrate three 
specimens of our COMFORT VI- 
BRATINQ FURNITURE-A couch 
upholstered in Genuine Leather; a 
rocker upholstered in Plush and 
another couch for a bedchamber 
covered with Gobelin Art Creton. 
This Furniture is 

Indestructible— Artistic — 
Sanitary— Restful 

It is manufactured in ditTert^ut de- 
signs for the parlor, library, cham- 
ber, smoking-room, cosy-corner ; 
also hospitals, s-anitariums. clubs, 
hotels, verandas, lawns, summer 
resorts and numberless other pur- 
poses. 

Our line of Children's Beds and 
Cradles is now ready for the mar- 
ket. A booklet descriiHive of all our 
COMFORT VIBRATING FURNI- 
TURE with prices will promptly be 
sent upon request. 



SPECIAL attention is given to Correspondence, and our Color Experts will answer all questions pertaining 
to Furniiing and Decorating the Home. 

JOHN F. DOUTHITT 

♦*The Douthitt Building'* 

273 FIFTH AVE* (Near 30th St.) NEW YORK 



A full line of Posters by Riviere, 
Mucha, Livemont, Cassiers, Qo- 
lay and all the eminent French, 
German and English Poster 
Artists 



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THE 



Si I. 



v<.«^ 



ANGELUS 

After One Hearing , 

You will say that if you had known what The ANGELUS really is, you 
would have bought one long ago. Hundreds have said so. 

We cannot tell you how piano music sounds. We can tell you, though, 
how you can produce it — to your utmost satisfaction. 

If you say we still have not said a word about The ANGELUS itself, we 
must ask for more space to explain it and pictures to show its attractive appear- 
ance. We will gladly mail free an illustrated booklet telling all about it. 

If you haven't heard any real good piano music lately, perhaps you do not 
realize how much pleasure you are missing. When you hear some again and 
long to reproduce it in your own home, then send for information about The 
ANGELUS and its wonderful 

PHRASING LEVER 

You can easily verify the fact that The ANGELUS is the only instrument 
which is thoroughly satisfactory. Purchased by royalty and the world's great- 



J. 



est musicians. 



AGENTS EVERYWHERE. 



The Wilcox & White Co, 



ESTABLISHED 1876 

Meriden, Lonn., U. S. A. 



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MANUFACTURERS^ 
^..PUBLISHERS... 



WITH A COMPETENT FORCE 
OF EDITORS, ARTISTS AND 
PRINTERS, WE ARE IN A 
POSITION TO COMPILE, IL- 
LUSTRATE AND PUBLISH 
CATALOGUES FOR MANU- 
FACTURERS. 



The Finest Art and Press "Work m the 
cotintry is done by experts engaged by 
this G>rporation« While our presses are 
well crowded^ we are ready to undertake 
a few more contracts^ guaranteeing im- 
mediate service* 

Write for Quotations* 

Tlie Connecticvt Mapzine Coiany, 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



GENEALOGISTS 
...PUBLISHERS.. 



EDITORS OF THE CONNEC- 
TICUT MAGAZINE TAKE 
PLEASURE IN ANNOUNCING 
THAT THEY WILL BE ABLE 
TO EDIT, ILLUSTRATE AND 
PUBLISH A FEW GENEA- 
LOGICAL WORKS. 



Our presses can also carry several Town 
Histories and privately printed books* 
Our specialty is Editions de Luxe* Ser- 
vices of most distinguished Genealogist in 
the country are included in contracts* 
G>nsultation may be of value to you* 

Tie Connecticnt Mapzine Compaoy, 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



THE GUNNERY 

55th YEAR 

WASHINGTON, CONN* 



The main building has been thoroughly 
overhauled and modernized* 

A new dormitory for 23 boys and 2 
teachers is now ready for use* 



Yale, Harvard/ Princeton and Collegiate 

Board admission examinations are 

held at the school* 

JOHN C BRINSMADE, 

PRINCIPAL. 



Men With Pride 



WE CALL YOUR ATTENTION TO 
THE FACT THAT THE BEST 
HOMES IN CONNECTICUT CHERISH 
THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE. 
THE EXECUTIVES OF THE STATE 
GIVE IT HEARTIEST ENDORSE- 
MENT. OUR ADVERTISING CARD 
SHOULD BE IN ITS PAGES. WE 
DESIRE TO PLACE YOUR BUSINESS 
ON RECORD WITH ALL THAT IS 



BEST IN THE STATE 



J85I 



J904 



Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance 

Gonipany ^^ Hartford^jCgin, 




JONATHAN B. BUNCE, President. 
WILLIAM A. MOORE, Secretary. 



Assets, 

$17,000,000, 
Annuities 
to support 
the aged. 



JOHN M, HOLCOMBE, Vice-President. 

A. A. WELCH, Actuary and Ass*t Secretary. 



THE 



AtAt-^ 



5^ 



HARTPORD 

FIRE INSURANCE CO. 

HARTFORD, CONN. 



Net Premium Income, 1903, 
Total Assets, - =* = 
Surplus to Policy«=Hol,ders, 



$10,073,790.00 

$14,542,951.78 

$5,187,796.37 



The ''HARTFORD'' paid in full its heavy losses arising 
from the conflagrations named below: 



New York, 1835 

St. Louis, 1849 

Pliiladelphia, 1850 

Portland, 1866 



Chicago, 1871 

Boston, 1872 

St. Johns, N. F. 1877 
Ottawa, Ont., 1900 



Jaclcsonville, 1901 
Paterson, 1902 

Baltimore, 1904 



\ 



Losses Paid Since Organization, Qver $81 ,000,000.(^„^ 



I